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The aim of the present work is to provide a critical 
and grammatical commentary upon the Hebrew text of 
Kings, after the model of Dr. Driver's Notes on the 
Hebrew Text of the Books of 'Samuel ', In writing the Notes, 
the needs of beginners in the study of the Hebrew lan- 
guage have been prominent in my mind, and so I have 
endeavoured to deal with some fulness with questions of 
grammar, while at the same time making reference to 
the best authorities upon the subject. For the purposes 
of textual criticism it has seemed worth while to utilize 
as largely as might be the evidence of the Versions. 
Thus, as far as possible, all variants and additions of the 
Versions have been cited, where it may reasonably be 
supposed that these form original elements of the text 
from which the Version in question was made; upon 
the view that such readings are worthy of record, even 
where no definite verdict can be passed as to their value 
in relation to the Massoretic text. The structure of Kings, 
and the characteristics of the various sources of the work, 
have also been dealt with in brief. The Appendix contains 
the more important contemporary inscriptions which throw 
light upon the narrative of Kings. 

In making use of the work of my predecessors in the 
same field, I trust that I have in every case made 
acknowledgement of my obligations. I feel, however, that 
special acknowledgement is due to Prof. B. Stade for the 

vi Preface 

debt which these Notes owe to his valuable articles on 
the text of Kings which have appeared from time to time 
in the Zeitschrift of which he is the editor. Lest it should 
be thought that in places I have drawn too largely upon 
his arguments and results, it must be pleaded that in such 
cases my aim has been to place these results within the 
reach of English students, for whom too often, through 
ignorance of German, they are inaccessible. 

It is a special pleasure to me to express my gratitude 
to Dr. Driver. To his teaching and example is due most 
of what may be of value in this book ; and I have never 
been without his kindly encouragement and ready sugges- 
tion upon points of difficulty. 

In conclusion, my thanks are due to Mr. J. C.Pembrey,M. A., 
Oriental Reader at the University Press, for the great pains 
which he has taken in revising and passing the sheets for 
the press. 

C. F. B. 

S. John's College, Oxford, 
November, 1902. 


Introduction : — wuhs 

§ i . Structure of Kings ...... ix 

§ 2. Characteristics of the Chief Ancient Versions of 

Kings xx 

§ 3. The Synchronisms of the Compiler xli 

List of Abbreviations ....... xlv 

Notes on i Kings 1 

Notes on 2 Kings . . . . . . . .260 

Appendix : — 

1. Inscription of Meshd, king of Moab . . . 371 

2. The Siloam Inscription . . . . .374 

3. Inscription of the Monolith of Shalmaneser II, 

H. 7 8 "i02 375 

4. Fragment of the Annals of Shalmaneser II. . 376 
Descriptive Inscription from the Obelisk of Shal- 
maneser ........ 377 

5. Narrative of Sennacherib's Third Campaign (b. c. 

701), from the Taylor Cylinder, Col. II. 1. 34- 

Col. III. 1. 41 . . . . • . . .377 

Additions ......... 380 

Index . . . . . . . . .381 


1. Bronze Stand from Larnaka ...... to face p. 91 

2. Bronze Stand from Enkomi ...... to face p. 92 


§ 1. Structure of Kings. 

The fact that Kings, like the other historical books of the 
Old Testament, is based upon pre-existing written sources is 
universally recognized; and the evidence upon which this elementary 
proposition is based need not here be set forth l . That the main 
editor or compiler of these sources was a Deuteronomist, i. e. that 
his work was inspired by the religious revival which took place in 
the eighteenth year of Josiah (b.c. 621) under the influence of the 
newly discovered book of Deuteronomy, appears both from his 
religious standpoint and from his phraseology. This editor is 
therefore hereinafter cited under the symbol R D (Deuteronomic 

To R D is due the stereotyped form into which the introduc- 
tion and conclusion of a reign is thrown, and which con- 
stitutes, as it were, the framework upon which the narrative as 
a whole is built. The regularity of the method of R D in the 
construction of this framework is worthy of special notice. The 
form in which the account of a reign is introduced is as follows. 
For kings of Judah: — 1. A synchronism of the year of accession 
with the corresponding reigning year of the contemporary king 
of Israel, probably calculated by R D himself. This, commencing 
with Abijah, naturally ceases with Hezekiah, upon the fall of the 
kingdom of Israel. 2. Age of the king at accession. 3. Length 
of his reign. 4. Name of the queen-mother. This, together with 
2, 3, is drawn from the Annals (D^n Hll nao) which are so 
constantly cited by R D . 5. A brief verdict upon the king's 
character, framed in accordance with the Deuteronomic standard. 
For kings of Israel: — 1. A synchronism of the year of accession 

1 Cf. the writer's article in Hastings, BD. pp. 857/. 

x Introduction 

with the corresponding reigning year of the contemporary king 
of Judah. 2. Length of the king's reign, drawn from the Annals. 
3. A brief verdict as to his character, always unfavourable, and 
generally consisting of two parts : a. Statement of the general 
fact that he did evil in the sight of Yahwe; b. More special 
mention of his following the sins of Jeroboam \ The conclusion 
of the account of a reign takes the following form: — 1. An 
indication of the principal source employed by R D , containing 
further details as to the king in question. Usually we read 2 : — 

nrhv 'nm \ . ' L , , 

1 , (iron) on von npy n^s b:n a nm nm 

miiT» *y?iy? D^n nai [ l 

bN-i^ ^b? d^dm nn 

>- which he caused Israel to sin. 

1 The usual formula is as follows : — 
He did not depart from \ ^ 
He walked after (in) I the sins of J. 
He clave to ) 
He walked in the way of J. and in his 

sin (sins) J 

So I. 15. 26 (Nadab), v. 34 (Ba'asha), 16. 26 (Omri), II. 3. 3 (Jehoram), 
10. 31, cf. v. 29 (Jehu), 13. 2 (Jehoahaz), v. 11 (Jehoash), 14. 24 (Jeroboam II), 
15. 9 (Zechariah), v. 18 (Menahem), z\ 24 (Pekahiah), v. 28 (Pekah). In all 
these cases the antecedent of the relative N'tsnrr -nun is not dxtv, but 't matin ; 
cf. II. 17. 21. I. 16. 30 (Ahab), II. 17. 22 't» rnNTon without 'ai anonn -hdn; 
I. 22. 53 (Ahaziah), II. 23. 15 , ttOlZ? , n« N'tonrr "TOJN, referring not to nwtcn 
(omitted), but to USrxx* ', 'J. who made Israel to sin.' In I. 16. 13 the sins 
of Ba'asha and Elah, and in II. 21. 11 of Manasseh (rrnrp n« N»Erm iitn) are 
spoken of in the same terms. 

2 When further details, general or special, are mentioned as existing in the 
source, these usually stand immediately after mi:? "ken fri ; e.g. I. 11. 41 
"irrasm . An exception is I. 15. 23 (Asa), where lrnna "m precedes. 

Slight variations of the stereotyped form are : — 

1. 'x\ nn ta "im I. 15. 23 (Asa). 

2. Total omission of mDJ? Ttt?« bDT ; without further details five times, viz. 
I. 14. 19 (Jeroboam), 16. 20 (Zimri), II. 14. 18 (Amaziah), 15. 11 (Zechariah), 
15. 15 (Shallum) ; with further details, II. 20. 20 (Hezekiah). 

Reading ntDS? "TON five times, viz. I. 16. 27 (Omri), II. 1. 18 (Ahaziah of 
Israel), 14. 15 (Jehoash of Israel), 16. 19 (Ahaz), 21. 25 (Amon) ; rrc# "rtDHl 
1. 16. 5 (Ba'asha) ; HiDS lir« lrrvmi twice, I. 16. 2 7 (Omri), 22.46 (Jehoshaphat). 

3. DDH in place of on abn five times, viz. I. 14. 19 (Jeroboam), II. 15. II, 15, 
26, 31 (Zechariah Shallum, Pekahiah, Pekah). 

Structure of Kings 


2. Mention of the king's (a) death and (b) burial 1 : — 

( "ttj3*l ) 

7 [ im rap^i j 

3. Notice of the due succession of the king's son: — 

vnnn m 'a n!w 

The following table exhibits the regularity with which this system 
is carried out. When any fact above mentioned as belonging 
to the introduction is omitted in that position, but added subse- 
quently in the narrative of the reign or in the summary, this 
is indicated by the sign -f- : — 

1. 3. 3, 11. 4-6, 42 


12 ad I. 2. 10 

14.21,22,31 234(5)4-4 

15.1-3 1345 

15.9-11 1345 

22.41-44 12345 

11.8.16,17 1235 

8.25-27,9.29 1 2345 + 1 
11-3 +3 

Kings of Judah. 

Rehoboam 120^3 14.29,31 

Abijah 12a £3 15. 7 a , 8 

Asa 1 2 adz 15. 23*, 24 

Jehoshaphat 12 ad 2, 22.45,50 

12. 1-4 

14. 1-4 
15. 1-4 

15. 3 2 -35 
16. 1-4 
18. 1-3 

21. 1,2 
21. 19-22 

22. r, 2 

23. 36, 37 


I2 345 


1 2345 


























1 2 ad 3 II. 8. 23, 24 


1 2^3 
1 2 d (a) 
1 2ab$ 
1 2ad$ 

1 2«#3 

1 20^3 
1 2^3 

1 2 d (3) 

1 203 

9. 28 b 
12. 20, 22 

14.18, 20 b (22 b ) 

16. 19, 20 

20. 20, 21 

21. 25, 26 
23. 29, 30 

24. 5, 6 

1 Once with singular active verb used impersonally : in'« "Bpjl e And (one) 
buried him,' II. 21. 26 (Amon). 




Kings of Israel. 




33/, 14. ao' 


I5 a »i9 

29-3 i a 

1, a 
10, 11 







2 sab 
2 sab 
2 + 

2 + 
2 sab 
2 sab 
2 sab 
2 2,ab 

2 $ab 
2 sab 
2 2,a b 
2 sab 

2 sab 
2 sab 
2 sab 




3 b b 2 Jehu 


1 203 

\ 2ab s 



1 2 ab 3 



1 2 abs 

12 ab s 

I. 14. 19,20 

16. 14 
16. 20 
22. 39, 40 

II. 1.17,18 


12a (s)2bi2abs 13. 12/., 14. 15/. 

Jeroboam II 1 2 a 3 

Zechariah 1 

Shallum 1 

Menahem 1 2^3 

Pekahiah 1 

Pekah 1 

Hoshea . . . 




15. 21, 22 



In the body of the narrative there are certain formulae which 
are employed for the introduction of a historical notice to indicate 
that it is more or less contemporaneous with the events of the 
narrative immediately preceding. The frequency with which these 
formulae occur, especially in the brief citation of facts from the 
Annals, renders the inference fair that they are due to the hand 
of R D , and represent his method of piecing together the extracts 
derived from his sources. Of such formulae the most frequent 
is TN; but we also find the expressions D^n, WQ, fcOHH njn. 
Cf. note, p. 35. 

Besides the construction of the framework of the book and the 
welding of the material, R D is also responsible for a number of 
passages of varied length which point and enforce the religious 
purpose of his composition. These passages generally take the 
form of a commentary upon the causes which were operative in 
bringing about the developments of history, framed in accordance 
with the Deuteronomic model. Very frequently, also, R D allows 
himself considerable latitude in the expansion and adaptation of 

Structure of Kings xiii 

the speeches contained in the narrative, in illustration of the same 
standpoint. In passages of this character the hand of R D may 
readily be distinguished. They exhibit a constant recurrence of 
strongly marked phrases, to be found elsewhere for the most part 
only in Deuteronomy or in the books which exhibit the influence 
of Deuteronomy, and therefore presumably derived from that 
source. Other expressions stand alongside of these Deuteronomic 
expressions, and are of a piece with the thoughts to which they give 
voice; and these possess an individuality of their own, and are 
peculiar (or nearly so) to Kings. 

The phrases characteristic of R D receive comment in the Notes 
as they occur. For convenience of reference, however, a list 
is here given. 

Deuteronomic phrases : — 
i. '* THXWQ "HDP, p. 14. 

2. '1 *yvn -]i?n, p. 14. 

3. 'n vnpn no?, p. 14- 

4. iron "ibw b riK i>wn )v®b, p. 14- 

5. 'ai D*p* \vvb, p. 14; cf. I. 12. 15. 

6. (dpm, ws&) wzu bm (nnni?, i:nS>) J? bn, pp. 14, 125. 

7. 'b nonm nnnn -w, pp. 30, 116. 

8. nrn m'o, p. 30. 

9. nnnn n^ *py, p. 31. 

10. mdd ^ y6k '* n^n, p. 53. 

11. ini of Yahwe's choosing Jerusalem, p. 115. 

12. nnno . . . iidd p« bww ^bx \ p. 116. 

13. nnin^ ( s nnj, \n:) r\m n^«, p. 119. 

14. myp mac, p. 121. 

15. nvixn , , , DWi $>:j, p. 122. 

16. main nvnn npmn it, p. 122. 

17. pKH ">Bj; !>3, p. 122. 

18. *3b5> |m, p. 124. 

19. ni> ^ awi, p. 124. 

20. d^s: ^m ♦ . ♦ t^ i^i, p. 125. 

xiv Introduction 

21. nnroio . ♦ . "jr^mi "py »a, p. 125. 

22. hmr\ niD, p. 125. 

23. i»yi> nnuo jrw, p. 126. 

24. nns -in bm xb, p. 126. 

25. (m— -, l— ) wnta \ p. 126. 

26. 'm nyn \yrJp, p. 127. 

27. my p« dn-iSwi wn '* ^, p. 127. 

28. n& w wb, p. 130. 

29. Wn ?3 used absolutely; 'for ever/ p. 130. 

30. nrb ♦ ♦ ♦ on^rn, p. 131. 

31. m^K^i iro5>, p. 132. 

32. 3 pm, p. 152. 

33- nn« i^n, p. 152. 

34. '* w vnn new, p. 152. 

35. '* wjn n^n npy, p. 170. 

36. '* nn« »te, p. 153. 

37. spsnn, p. 153- 

38. yc^ri bk nvn, p. 171. 

39. nonsn "oa te iwn, p. 185. 

40. o^n, p. 186. 

41. nam roion nonsn i?y», p. 187. 

42. 'ji nnaa nyaa bz bv, p. 192. 

43. S>*nB» ♦ . ♦ mymn k», p. 192. 

44. tynin, p. 192. 

45- tfWa, p. i9 6 - 

46. n»&w i?3, p. 200. 

47. D^nn, p. 200. 

48. rrwn(i>) nna xb, p. 295. 

49. 'jn nw nx nin»S>, p. 320. 

50. Dsny ns 1^1 , p. 332. 

51. nwh idp, p. 353- 

The following phrases, though not derived directly from 
Deuteronomy, belong to R D in common with Jeremiah, whose 
writings exhibit strong Deuteronomic affinities: — 

Structure of Kings xv 

52. r\\r\ ran by anp: "pp •o, p. 123. 

53. ija byo r6pK, p. 132. 

54. 'ai vbv nny fa, p. 133- 

55- ny-in imiD ♦ . ♦ 2& vb, p. 184. 

56. (by) b$ nyn toao uan, p. 186. 

57. owaan (vniy) nay, p. 330 l . 

Phrases and modes of expression wholly or nearly peculiar to R D 
are as follow : — 

58. 1*n "]fa *tt?tO, and similar references, p. 31. 

59. Ow) t» in jy*^, p. 153. 

60. 'jn Y3 nw jy»5>, p. 17°- 

61. 'ai ^ rna 1 ' *6, p. 15- 

62. '■» d^ rra nil, p. 28. 

63. '31 -pea *ib>k, p. 31. 

64. n^ w nvr6, p. 115. 

65. '"> ny d^ 3:6, p. 128. 

66. v:zb (w?) n^K fa& (rwj&) jnn, p. 186. 

67. Tpn |WD, p. 186. 

68. airyi nw, p. 186. 

69. nn« Tinyni, p. 187. 

70. 'jn n»n, p. 187. 

71. 'ai vin rws& -D»nn, p. 249. 

72. jd hd k!>, p. 268. 

73. 'ai no «i? niDnn pn, p. 27. 

As Kings now stands, the earliest possible terminus a quo for 
the composition of the book is the date of the latest event related, 
viz. Jehoiachin's release from prison in the thirty-seventh year 
of his captivity, i.e. B.C. 561, some twenty-five years after the fall of 
Jerusalem. As, however, the writer states that the privileges granted 
by Evil-Merodach to Jehoiachin were continued ' all the days of his 
life* (II. 25. 30), the strong presumption is created that the words 
were not penned so early as b. c. 561, but some time later, viz. 

1 Cf. also the phrases noticed by Dri. LOT. 5 203, in the later chh. of 2 Kings. 

xvi Introduction 

subsequently to Jehoiachin's death, whenever that may have 
occurred. Agreeable to such an exilic date as is implied by the 
last two chapters of 2 Kings are certain passages in the body of 
the work which seem to presuppose the captivity of Judah. These 
are I. 11. 39; II. 17. 19, 20; 23. 26, 27, and perhaps, though not 
so clearly, I. 9. 7-9; II. 20. 17, 18; 21. 10-15; 22. 15-20; cf. 
notes ad loc. To these we may add the reference in I. 5. 4 to 
Solomon's dominion as extending over all the kings ' beyond the 
River/ a statement which, as referring to the country west of 
the Euphrates, implies that the writer is living in Babylon on the 
east side of the river (cf. note on irun 12V, p. 49). 

On the other hand, there are certain indications which show that 
the main editing of Kings by R D must have taken place prior to 
the decay and fall of the Judaean monarchy. Chief among these 
is the use of the phrase ' unto this day ' (ntn DVH iy) in the 
statement that the condition of affairs which the writer is describing 
continues to exist up to the time of writing. If this phrase always 
or most frequently occurred in the course of lengthy narratives 
excerpted by R D from his sources, there might be room for the 
theory that a statement which was true as it stood in the old 
pre-exilic narratives had, through oversight on the part of an 
exilic editor, been allowed to stand after, through changed conditions, 
it had lost its force, or rather had become untrue and misleading. 
But, as a matter of fact, the expression is employed in connexion 
with terse statements of facts derived from the Annals, and in such 
cases can be due to no other hand than that of R D himself, who, 
in using the phrase, either formulates his own statement, or 
intelligently admits a statement which he is able to verify. The 
cases of the use of ' unto this day ' which should be noticed as 
implying the continued existence of the kingdom of Judah are the 
following : — I. 8. 8 (the ends of the staves of the ark still to be 
seen projecting from the Adytum into the Holy Place); 9. 21 (the 
Canaanites still subjected by Israel to forced labour, as they had 
been under Solomon); 12. 19 (the division between the ten tribes 
and the house of David still in existence); II. 8. 22 (Edom still 

Structure of Kings xvii 

successful in shaking off the yoke of Judah); 16. 6 (the Edomites 
still hold Elath, from which the Judaeans were expelled by Rezin, 
king of Aram). For other occurrences of ' unto this day/ not 
necessarily presupposing a pre-exilic date, but illustrating the 
frequency of the formula as employed by R D , cf. note on p. 107. 

Again, it seems to be clear that, at the time when R D is writing, 
the Davidic dynasty still possesses a monarch reigning at Jerusalem. 
David has, and is still to have, a lamp before Yahwe at Jerusalem 
continually; cf. No. 60 of the phrases of R D above noticed. 
The expression 'before Yahwe at Jerusalem' (I. 11. 36) implies 
further that the Temple is still standing intact, a point which is also 
assumed in the dedication prayer of»I. 8. 15-53, which owes its 
present form to R D (cf. pp. ii2jf.). Throughout this prayer the 
leading petition is that supplication made in or towards Yahwe s 
Temple built by Solomon may meet with a favourable answer; 
cf. vv. 29, 30, 31/, 33, 35, 38, 42, 44, 48. We may notice also 
I. 9. 3, which likewise occurs in a section in which the hand of R D 
is prominent : — ' I have hallowed this house which thou hast built 
to put my name there for ever ; and mine eyes and my heart shall 
be there perpetually.' Upon these grounds it may be concluded 
that the main editing of Kings (viz. that by R D ) must have taken 
place prior to the destruction of the Judaean kingdom, and that 
such sections of the book as imply an exilic standpoint are therefore 
of the nature of later redactional additions and interpolations. 

For the work of R D , influenced, as we have seen him to be, by 
the spirit and language of Deuteronomy, the terminus a quo is the 
discovery of Deuteronomy in the year b.c. 621, the terminus ad 
quern the destruction of Jerusalem b.c. 586. And since the writer's 
standpoint seems to indicate that he wrote before the glamour of 
Josiah's reformation had wholly or nearly faded during the latter 
days of the Judaean monarchy, the assumption is fair that he 
undertook and completed his book not later than b. c. 600 \ 

1 So Kue. Ond. § 26; Wellh. C. pp. 298^!, &c. Konig, on the contrary, 
holds that the editor of Kings compiled his work not earlier than B. C 588, 
i.e. during the Exile (Einleitung, §53. 3). 


xviii Introduction 

From the preceding examination and conclusion as to the date 
of the main redaction of Kings, it is clear that the pre-exilic book 
must have received certain additions at the hand of a later editor 
or editors before it attained the form in which we now possess it. 
The chief of these additions is the appendix, which carries the 
history down to the year b. c. 561. To this appendix belongs 
certainly II. 24. 10 — 25. 30, and, presumably, 23. 31 — 24. 9. The 
conclusion of the pre-exilic book has, however, probably been 
worked over by the second editor, and so adapted to receive his 
addition that it is now impossible exactly to discover its position. 
Any of the vv. 25, 28, 30 of ch. 23 might have formed a conclusion 
scarcely more abrupt than the present conclusion, ch. 25. 30. 
Ch. 23. 29 a , if not intentionally imitated in style in ch. 24. i a , must 
be by the same hand, i.e. presumably the hand of the second 
editor. But again, it is unlikely that R D should have appended the 
usual summary of a reign in v. 28 without mentioning the manner 
of the king's death. The statement of v. 25^ seems at first sight 
to presuppose the writer's acquaintance with the characters of all 
the succeeding kings of Judah, but may be a later insertion, as vv. 26, 
27 certainly are. On the whole, the most suitable ending to the 
pre-exilic book would be vv. 29, 30, 28 of ch. 23, in that order. 

It is noticeable that, apart from the difference of standpoint 
involved in the destruction of the Judaean kingdom and the Exile, 
the mould of mind of the author of the appendix and of the pas- 
sages above noticed (p. xvi) which presuppose the captivity of 
Judah is essentially the same as that of R D . Thus it is reasonable 
to employ the symbol R D 2 in referring to a later redactor of the 
same school of thought. It must not, however, be supposed that 
R D 2 is in every case necessarily one and the same writer, since it is 
obvious that more than one Deuteronomist may have had a hand 
in the revision of Kings. In point of fact it can be argued with high 
probability that such was the case. For the Deuteronomic passage 
II. 17. 34^-40 almost certainly refers to the Samaritans of post- 
exilic times (cf. note ad toe.) ; yet it may fairly be assumed that if 
the author of the appendix had written in post-exilic times he 
would have given some account of the restoration from exile. 

Structure of Kings xix 

Kings, as it stands in the Hebrew Bible, has, again, undergone 
still later revision than that of R D2 . This is clear from certain 
variations in form and order between the MT. and the recension 
of the text which is represented by the LXX. While in some cases 
the condition of the LXX text is greatly inferior to that of MT., 
yet, on the other hand, it is clear that in a number of sections LXX 
preserves a superior arrangement in order, or a simpler form, 
of narrative, which points to the fact that MT. has suffered 
dislocation and interpolation at the hands of a reviser or revisers 
of a date later than the separation of the two recensions. As 
instances of this we may notice I. 4. 20 — 5. 14; 5. 15 — 7 in the 
main, 8. 1-13, 11. 1-13 (cf. notes ad loc), and the position of MT. 
I. 21 after 19, so that 22 succeeds 20 without a break in the 
narrative. It is noticeable in certain cases that the additions which 
are found in MT. are just those passages which are coloured by 
the influence of the Priestly Code (P) in the Hexateuch. Cf. notes 
on I. 6. n-14; 8. 1— 11. Supposing, therefore, for the sake 
of simplicity that the author of the interpolations and changes in 
order as seen in MT. was one and the same redactor, he may 
conveniently be represented by the symbol R p (Priestly Redactor). 

Thus the pedigree of our Books of Kings may be represented 
as follows: — 

Original Sources : — Book of the Acts of Solomon, 
Chronicles of the Kings of Judah, Chronicles of the 
Kings of Israel, &c. &c. 

Pre-exilic Redactor 
influenced by Deut. [R D ] 


Exilic and post-exilic Editors 
influenced by Deut. [R D2 ] 

Post-exilic Editor Hebrew original 

influenced by Priestly Code [R p ] of 

I LXX Text. 

Massoretic Text. 

b 2 

xx Introduction 

§ 2. Characteristics of the Chief Ancient Versions of Kings. 

For the general characteristics of the Ancient Versions of the 
Old Testament, and a just estimate of their value for the purposes 
of textual criticism, the reader is referred to Dr. Driver's Excursus 
in the Introduction to his Notes on the Hebrew Text of the Books of 
Samuel, § 3, pp. xxxvi-lv. All that is here attempted is a brief 
account of the Versions of Kings, framed upon the lines laid 
down by Dr. Driver in dealing with Samuel in § 4 of the same 

1. The Septuagint. 

A. Before a Version can be used to good purpose for the 
criticism of the MT., it is important to recognize the fact that all 
variations from this latter are not due either to paraphrase or to 
a different reading in the Hebrew original from which the translation 
was made. The texts of the Versions, like the MT., were liable 
to corruption, and we find as a matter of fact that corrupt readings 
do exist in LXX, to a greater or less extent in different books. 

But this corruption of single words or sentences is not the only 
feature in the Greek text which appears to belong to the vicissitudes 
of transmission. We also not infrequently meet with conflate or 
double renderings which are apparently due to the addition of 
a second translation of a passage, made by some scribe in the 
margin of the MS., probably because he considered that the first 
rendering did not adequately represent the sense of the original. 
This second translation came later on to be incorporated by 
another scribe in the text itself. 

(a) Instances of corruptions in the Greek text. These are far 
more numerous in Cod. B than in Luc: — 

I. 1. 9. ptf 'Ai&7 for \L60v. Luc. 'A., 2., e. read \L60v, 

ib. HWK ddpovs for avSpas (read by Luc). 

1. 49. iDp^ mrM kcu i^avearr^a-av. This represents the latter 
word. The translation of the former, kcu e^o-rrjcrav (al. exempt.), 
has fallen out owing to the resemblance between the two Greek 

Characteristics of Chief Ancient Versions of Kings xxi 

2. 6. *nin ih o-v Karats for ov KaTd£cis. The opposite change, 
ov for o-v, perhaps occurs in v. 9 (supposing, with Luc ? Vulg., the 
original to have been iiDNI, not nnyi). 

4. 10. The whole v. corrupt in Luc. (cf. note ad toe.). 

4. II. dva Adv for 'AfiivdSafi. dvd (padel for Nu<fid6. 

4. 20 (MT. 5. 7). rbxn ovtcos for ouroi (read by Luc). 

5. 4 (MT. 5. 18). JJJB dfidprrjfia probably for dnavTrifxa (read by 
Luc, Cod. A). 

5. 5 (MT. 5. 19). r\))J? olKobofirjo-a for olKodoprjo-ai (read by Luc). 

5. 6 (MT. 5. 20). 5TT l&ias for «Sa* (Luc). 

7. 3 (MT. 7. 15). to alXdfi for rw cuXa/A (Luc), apparently 
representing an original a?)tib (cf. note on 7. 15). 

ib. Luc. Kai ovro? for Ka\ ovtcos (LXX), representing an original 
ft] (cf. note). 

7. 9 (MT. 7. 20). "nj& to) ttj7x« for rw 7rax« (Luc), i. e. to?p. 

7. 10 (MT. 7. 23). IDS^ ret'xovff for xe/Aovs (Luc). 

7. 45 (MT. 7. 8). DE> 1^ 1BW fl» 01/cw /ca^aerat emc for ey a> k. f. 


8. 16. nvn? /u«wu for elvai (Luc). Initial p. by dittography from 
preceding 'Upovo-aXrjfx. 

8. 39. nnJI Luc Kai dtKaidxreis for koi Scoo-ei? (LXX). 

8. 59* IftVl & ^fp? eviavTOv for eV ^ja. avroii (Luc). 

9. 28. iTVSW «S Zcccprjpd for eis 'Qcprjpd. So 16. 28/ 

11. 36. Tj Luc tf^ois- for &W (LXX). 

15. 27. )n^) exdpa$€P avTov perhaps for iiraTat-ev ovtov (Cod. A). 

Luc exapdKoio-eu avrov appears to be an attempt to improve the first 

16. 15. pniM Ta$ad>v for Ta^adav, V. 1 7. 
16. l6 b , 17/*. n^V ZapPpei for 'ApjSpet. 
16. 17. JinXO eV Tafia6d>v for « T. (Luc). 

18. 5. nronn a-KrjvSyv for /cr^wi/ (Cod. A. Cf. Luc). 

18. IO. JTQBTll Ka\ ev€7Tpr](T€v according to Klo., for Kai ive7T\r)o~ev, 

i.e. T^f% 

18. 32. TVVT\ Oakavo-av probably an alteration of the transliteration 

6aa\d (Luc). So V. 38. 

xxii Introduction 

18. 45. 23'V) Ka\ €k\o.€v for kcu egeXaev or eXaev. Luc. has further 
altered LXX into koI <?K\aie. 

19. 3. yr\v for rr}? (t^ Cod. A). 

21. i4jf. (MT. 20. 14/*.). nWlBTl twi/ x°^ for ™ v X^P^ 

21. 33 (MT. 20. 33). nn^'l KOI i<T7T€l<TaVTO for KCU €(T7r€V<TaV (LUC.). 

22. 13. *U"IK JlS iv GTopari iir'i for eV or. evi (Luc). 
22. 16. tflDyB HES "ty 7rei>rafas for 7TO<tcikis (Luc). 
22. 26. |»K t>« Trpor Se/z^p for Trpoy 'E/zqp. 

II. 3. 21. r6y£1 ical ewrop *fl for km iirdvai (Luc), an alteration 
due to the preceding na\ dvefioTjaav, i.e. W^. for ^PV^I. 

5. 17. 8W0 yopop for yopos (Luc). 

6. 5. 71N&P KCKpvfiuevov for <expr\pivov (Luc, 'A., 2., 0.). 

10. 6. 'jl ^la HX Luc ovs of a&poi for ovTot dSpoi of LXX, where 
nN is taken as sign of accusative. 

10. 26. DIIVJO (TTohijV for orrjkrjv (Luc). 

11. 12. 5p Wl kcu iKpaTrjaav rfj x* l P l fo r Kat eKporrjcrav t. x> (Luc). 

12. I (MT. 12. 2). yiW nNnD Ik y?js Brjpadfce for i< rijs B. 
12. 8 (MT. 12. 9). pm fideXvypa for jSe'S™ (Luc). 

12. 15 (MT. 12. 16). Qn aurwi/ for avTOi (Luc). 

14. 7. nfe ^3 iv 'Pepe'Xe for «V IV/ieXe (Luc TcupiXeX) Cod. A. 

14. II. rFfttTb 1BW y/} tov 'lovba for 177 tov 'I. 

15. 20. DIP Luc en for cicct (LXX). 

15. 25. pEnxi iuavrlov probably for iv civrpw. Cf. I. 16. 18 
where pcntf h$ is translated els avrpov. 

17. 6. HIS ^yi Luc eV 6piW m^Sgw, an alteration of *ai f Opf] M. 
(LXX). Cf. also 18. n. 

18. 20. m»N Luc o-v Kai nas for 2v tlnas (cf. #0& #</ foe). 

19. 12. inn^ "»BW ov hii(p6eipav for ov? 6\ (Luc). 

22. 20. ^DH FIX 01 pao-ikels for t<£ /3ao-iXei (Luc). 

23. 5. rPlETll «ai KareKavarev for rai Kariiravcrev,, So £'. II. 

23. 6. nsy^ Luc a)y x ™ for ek *. (LXX). 

23. 36. HlOn JE e« Kpovpd for e* 'Poupa. 

25. 17. D^D"U JIMP craKaxapOai for <ra/3ax Kat poai (Cod. A). 

Characteristics of Chief Ancient Versions of Kings xxiii 

(&) Instances of double renderings are more frequent in Luc. 
than in Cod. B : — 

1. 1. 36. ^Dfl "OIK Tlta '* "lW p = Luc. 7rioTa>o-ai 6 <9e6s tovs 
Xoyovs tov KVpiov pov tov fiacriXeas' ovtcos elite Kvpios 6 Beds crov, Kvpie 
pov ftacriXev. 

l. 40. ni>na nnw b^nD^i n^ra n^nn = Luc. e\d P evou iv 

Xopois Kal evcf)paivdpevot evcppocrvvrj peydXr] tjvXovv iv avXois Kal e'xaipov 
X a P$ peydXrj. 

I.47. "H^y 1N!2 D31 = Luc. Kcii ye qXdov ol bovXoi . . . Kal elaeXrjXvBacrt 
povoi (p^i? for H3y in second rendering). 

2. 5» imjini = Luc. iv rfj fay pov ku\ iir\ rfj gdjvy . . . pov. 

4. 6. fl'On ?y "I^TISO = xal 'A^el 771/ olKoudpos, Kal 'EXlcik 6 oiKovopos, 

Ka\ 'EXiafi vlos 2a0 eVl t^s 7rarpias, apparently a triple rendering 
(cf. note ad toe). 

6. 1 5- niTp ly = eW rail/ doKa>v Kal ecos tcov toi)(o)v. doKcov = H^p. 

6. 34 (MT. 7. 12k). kvkXoOcp . . . KaTaneracrpa probably represents 
an original MDO (2DE) read a second time as ^p£ (cf. note 
ad toe.)., 

7. 3 (MT. 7. 15). Din = Luc. ireplptTpov . . . cmapTiov. 

7. 6 (MT. 7. 18). Kai epyov Kpepacrrov, t)vo aTi\ot . . . epyov 

Kpepao-rov, arixos eVt ar/^oi/, representing D"H1D W? H^yDI (cf. note 
ad toe.). 

7. 9 (MT. 7. 20). imdepa to peXddpov representing mi"D repeated 
from beginning in place of 1K>N }D3n. Luc. also repeats eV 

dp(f)OTepa>v tcov cttvXcov. 

7. 22 (MT. 7. 36). ni^l = Kara 7rp6<TcoTrov eVo, read as HE'Osi? and 
doubly rendered. 

7. 32 (MT. 7. 47). 1X12 1ND 2*110 [n^y I^K] = Luc. oS inolrjcrev 
cipbr]v ... a inoirfarc ravra en tov 7rXf)8ovs crcpodpa (cf. 7Z0/? ad toe.). 

8. 28. ^"ODP — ivd>iridv crov npbs ere. 

8. 60. D^NH KIP! = 6 Beds, avTos Beds. 

8. 66. Ip'Oil J1X 1!D"12 ,, 1 = Luc. Kal evXdyijcrev avTov. Kal evXdyrjcrav 
kol avrol tov fiacriXea (cf. note ad toe.). 

11. 43. els Trjv yrjv Sapetpd for els rrjv 2. (Luc), representing an 
original fiYivn btt (cf. note ad toe.). 

xxiv Introduction 

15. 15. '* TP1 ♦ ♦ ♦ W1 =: Luc. kcu elcrrjpeyKep 'Acra els top oIkov 
Kvplov . . . kcu elcrrjpeyKep els top olk. k. 

16. 33. rod e£o\o6pevdr)pcu . . . eKaKonoiTjcrep apparently represents 
a doublet rpntf n rvn&> n|>. 

18. 38. H^yni *1£>N D^IOn n^l = LUC. kol to vdcop tq en avrav, 
kcu to v8cop to ev t% Bacikd, 

18. 43 b . n^VD y3£> 3B\ Cf. note ad toe. 
18. 44. ND = Luc. vScop a7ro 6a\dcro~r}$. 

20. 4 (MT. 21. 4). *]yn id irva 7N nana wi = Luc. kcu i)\6ep 

'A. npbs oIkov civtov avyKe^ypepos kcu €K\e\vpepos . . . kcu ' eyepeTO to 
npevpa 'A. TeTapaypepov. 

20. 25 (MT. 21. 25). \>1 = 7r\i)v paratcos, the word being repeated 
as pn (bfl). 

21.1 (MT. 20. i). jn»P !?y *Wl 7JP1 = «m dvefSrj ko\ nepieKaBujep 
em "2apapeiav . . . kol dveftrjcrav kcu 71 epieKaOiaav em 2. (Luc. en avTrjp). 

21. 16 (MT. 20. 16). in&* ITj; *17E = Luc. (v. 15) *al 6 pacriXevs 
'E£ep per avTov . . . (v. 1 6) fiacrihels oi o~vp(Sor)do\ peT avTov. 

22. 17. rbtib COTN K7 = ou Kvpios rouTots ^eo?; n?N? read 
a second time as i!P.§£. 

22. 20. n33 ")OK PIT1 HD3 HT "iDSOl = Luc. icat «7r«> ovtos ovtccs kol 
ovtos ovtoos. kcu elnep Ov dvvrjaei. kol elnep 'Ei> cto'l (j\3 for !"D2). 

22. 35. 33^11 pTl 7X i"DEn DT p^TI = kol dnexvvveTo alpa ck tt)s 
nXrjyrjs els top koKttov tov appaTOs . . . kcu et-enopevero to cupa ttjs Tponrjs 
ecos tov KoXnov tov dpparos. 

II. 1. 2 ff. p^lpy Tl/K = Luc. TTpocToxOicrpa 6ebv 'AKKapwv. 

1. 4, 6. p7 = Luc. o&x ovtcos. 8ta TOVTO. 

3. 2 1. rbyV\ niWn "Oil 73B IpJWI = LUC. *ai Trap^yyaXav ttcvtI 
nepifappvpepco napa(a>vr]P kcu napciTeivopTi, kol ej36rjcrap eK napTos napa- 
(covpvpevov 7rapa£odPi]P kol in apco. 

3. 23. 3inH == Luc. popepains' epicrciPTes yap. 

4. 34. 1 vj? ""IH^I = Luc. kcil crvpeKapyjfep eV civtop kcu lyaab en clvtop. 

4. 35- '31 "in^l apparently triply rendered in Luc. Cf. »^ ^ toe. 

6. 8. "0D?K ^?3 = Tophe tipo. eXipcopi (unless Topde tlpu = ^73 simply). 

7. 2. B>vB>n = Luc. 6 r/DtoTar?^ 6 dnecrTaKpepos (? D^^L 1 ). 

Characteristics of Chief Ancient Versions of Kings xxv 

7. 5* ^^3 =■ Luc. iv t<£ a-Korei rjSr) hiavyd^ovTos. So V. *], iv r. <tk. 
rjbt] 8ia<fid>o~KovTOs. 

7. IO. n s SM -tyB> • S* 1«1p ,,, l = Luc. ual iftorjaav ds rrjv nvXrjv rqs 
noXeats Km iKaXtaav rovs (rrpaTT]yovs tt)s noXecos. 

8. I. DW JDB> pNfl ^N Nl DJI = Luc. Kal irapearat eVl tj)i/ y^ 
eWa enf koi -ye j?X#ei/ k.t.X. (K2 rendered (i) as participle, (2) as 

9. I7« H^S^ = Luc. TOV KOVLOpTOV tov o^Xov. 

10. 29. DnnriND NliT ")D tih = Luc. o^k ancarT] an avrcov 'loir 


11. 2. iTtriK = Luc. 'OxoClov tov ddeXqbov avrfs (???)• 
11. 9. |!13n = Luc. 6 a-vveros Upevs (firstly CD3Pin). 

11. 14. Cl^Hl = Luc. Kai oi ooSoi . . . Ka\ ol (TTparijyoL. 
II.15. notify D k lD i>N nnX WWI = Luc. 'E^ayayere avTrjp 
cacodev toov o~adr}pa>6, Kai elcraydyere avTrjV onicrondev o'ikov t&v o~Tparr]ywv 

(onpn for mnt^n). 

14. IO. 12271 = Luc. 17 (3apela' ivbogdo-6r)Ti. 

14. 14. nmynn = Luc. r&p avppigeav r£>v ftbeXvypaTov (nnjjnn). 

14. 26. *\W2 7)112 = Luc. TTiKpdv cr<podpa, 81 otl iXenTvvOrj, 

16. 18. nnt^n = Luc. ttJs KaOedpas T<bv aafiftdTcov. 

17. 5. pXH ?32 = Luc. €7rt ndaav ttjv yrjv . . . Kai et? ndaav ttjv 
yrjv avrrjs. 

17. 32. Cf. note ad loc. 

18. 17. rvyrO = LUC. iv Trj dva^daei iv to? vdpayooya. 

19. 3. nrDim = LUC. Kai oveidiapov Kai e'Xey/zov. 

19. 28. 'pJKK'l = Luc. Kai to aTprjvos aov Kai to. iv6vpr)paTa o~ov. 

20. 13. 717)2} = Luc. Trjs vndp^ecos avTOv Kai tov ve^codd. 

21. 6. I'D "in = Luc. eirXTjOvve, Kai inXr)6vve. 

21. 23. Ivy ♦ ♦ ♦ ll^p^l = Luc. Kai avveo-Tpd(f)r}0~av . . . in uvtov Kai 
inefiovXevcrav avrto. 

23. 6. mBWn = LUC. to aXo-os Tr)s 'Ao-r)pa0. 

23. 12. }2W12 yy) = Luc. Kai KadelXev avTa iKcidev Kai i£fjveyKev avTa 
Kai o-weTpiyj/e, apparently a triple rendering. 

23. 16. fE^l = Luc. Kai aTrecTpey^ev . . . Kai i^ivcvcre. 

xxvi Introduction 

B. There are also characteristics of the Version which appear 
to be due to the translator. The more important of these may 
now be noticed, with a few illustrations. 

(i) Paraphrase. 

(a) This usually takes place for the sake of making, clear the 
sense of some Hebrew word or phrase which would be liable to be 
misunderstood in the Greek if literally translated : — 

I. 2. 32. 1D1 FIN to alfxa ttjs dbiKias uvtov. 

4. 20 (MT. 5. 7). Hlpn PD -ndvra ^layyeXfxara. 

4. 2 2 (MT. 5. 2). Dfl? ra deovra. 

8. 56. HI P£3 &? ov dieCpowrjaev Xoyos. 

9. 27. DM '•jn^ eXavveiv tldoras BdXacrcrav. 
15. 4. "TO KardXeip.p.a. 

19. 18. v pfcJO Trpoo-fKvvrjaev airco. 

21. 12 (MT. 20. 12). 1DW 11W OlKobofif)(raT€ x dpciKa' koi Z&cvto 

22. 34. 1En5> 6U0-TO X G)?. 

(£) At other times paraphrase appears to be used for no apparent 
reason, merely at the whim of the translator : — 

I. 3. 17. HOy *^N1 koi ereKOfxev. 

5. I 2 (MT. 5. 26). DrTOE* dva [xe'aov eavrobv. 
9. 5. btflW NDS ^JHD f/yovpevos iv 'lapafjX. 
17. 13. WD i?K <9apo-et. 

(<:) Somewhat different are the cases in which phrases are 
arbitrarily altered by the translator, because it seemed to him that 
some better expression could be substituted : — 

1. 2. 29. rQTftn ?¥K Karc'^et tS)V Kepdrcov tov 6v<riao~Tr]piov. 

2. 38. D s :n nW rpia err) (from v. 39). 

9. 6. TlJlJ edo)K€v MoovarjS. 

10. 5. ITU Tiy fO iTTl fc6 e£ eWi;? eyeWo. 

(<^) Or again, paraphrase may take place when the expression 
used in the original was somewhat offensive in the eyes of the 
translator. Under this head comes, e. g., the removal of anthropo- 
morphic expressions applied to God : — 

Characteristics of Chief Ancient Versions of Kings xxvii 

I. 3. 10. 'OIN ^jn ivioinov Kvpiov. 

II. 2. ii. D^JD^n cos ds tov ovpavov (of the translation of Elijah). 

24. 3. '* *£ PV eVi roy dvpov Kvpiov. 

(e) The last form of paraphrase to be noticed is the translation 
of a word or phrase by guess, the context being taken as a guide 
to the sense : — 

I. 10. II. D^D^N 7Tc\€Kr)Td. 

17. 21. 1 ta I^n ,, 1 Kal eve(pvaT](T€V. 

18. 21. D^aVDH TW ?y eV dpcporepais rais lyvvais, guided by the 
preceding D^nDD. 

21. 11 (MT. 20. 11). nriQD 6 6 P 66s, guided by "tth rendered 
6 Kvpro's from Talmudic "\3.n . 

(2) In striking contrast to the paraphrastic tendency, we find 
renderings in which extreme literality appears to have been the aim 
of the translator. 

(a) Thus at times attempts are made to represent in Greek the 
Hebrew constructions, or to preserve the fancied force of Hebrew 
words, and the result is a rendering which is often grotesque. 

Examples of Hebraisms from I. 1. 2 are the following : — 

1. 7- ^PIK "HttPI Kal e(3or)6ovv onio-to (contrast Luc. Kal avrikap- 
ftavovro avrovj. 

1. 12. nVy fcO "JW^ o-vp{3ov\evar<o o~oi 8rj arvpfiovkiav. 

1. 13. rnftNl ♦ ♦ ♦ w etVeX^e . . . Kal epels. 

1. 14. KDK 'OKI ♦ , ♦ milD Ttiy en XaXovorj? crov ... Kal iyo> 

1. 17. T»nS>K ft >2 njDBO nnS <ri> copovas iv tS 6e£ crov (but Luc. 
Kara tov k. tov #.). 

1. 5 1 * *lft^<' ♦ ♦ ♦ *W1 dvt]yyi\r] . . . "KeyovTes (but LuC Kal dnrjy- 
yei\av . . . XeyovTe s). 

2. 2. "J^n ^X eyto dpi nopevopai. Cf. II. 4. 13 ; 10. 9; 22. 20. 
2. 37. m2yi *]nfcOf DVl n\T) K«t eorai eV t?) fjpepa Trjs e^oSou <70U Kal 

diaftfjar] (but Luc. eV 777 J7/Z. rJJs e£. (rou 17 5ia/3^o-^). 

2. 42. niftn HID *3 jnn ST! 1 ' ywcoaKoov yvcoat] on BavaTco dnodavfj. 

xxviii Introduction 

(b) Sometimes difficult words, instead of being guessed at, are 
interpreted very literally according to the sense of the root : — 

I. 6. 20. *T)3D avvKCKkeiarfxeuco. 

7. 28. rrnuDD o-vvk\gio-t6v. 

16. 20. *l^p "Ifc^K Y\Wp ras (Tvvdyjreis avrov as o-vvr)\j/ev. 

II. 10. I9. rOpjD €V TTTCpVlO-flO). 

12. 3. imin ecpajTiaev avrov, apparently connecting the Hebrew 
word with tin. 

12. 2 1. IWp 1")^p ,,, l ml edrjcrciv ndvra beafjiov. 

14. 14. JI'Q'iyrin rcov avpLpi^ecov. 

14. 19. "I^p )vV ll^p* 1 ! ml o^vvearpdcprja-av in avrov avarpcppa. 

Cf. 15. 8, 30. 

(c) Another device in the case of a hard word was simply to 
transliterate it into Greek letters. Such transliterations are very 
characteristic of Kings, particularly of the second book : — 

I. 4. 19. ^itt vao~e(p, LUC. Nao-e//3. 

5. 11 (MT. 5. 25). njbp iiaxelp (at. exempt, p-axdX). 
lb. "13 Kopovs. 

id. "13 (correctly H3) p a id. 

6. 7 ; at. (MT. 6. 3). D^K atkdfi. 
6. 10; at. (MT. 6. 5). "W bafcip. 

6. 22 ; at. (MT. 6. 23). QW3 X e P ovfclv. 

7. 14 ; a/. (MT. 7. 27). rifabO p.* X covd>0. , 

II. 14. 19^ 0"<«"ai/. 

14. 2 8. NPI 066, LUC. 0€KOV€. 

18. 32, 38. H^ri Luc. 0aaAa. 

19. 4. Orf) 'VaOpe'v, LUC. paOafxclv. 
II. 2. 14. WntjK a^></>oJ>. 

3. 4. *!$ i/a)Ki7<9. 

4. 34. ^D?*! Luc. «eai fyaaS. 

4. 39. rniK dptwd. 

4. 42. lAjWa Cod. A PokcXKM (but cf. »o/«? <*</ toe). 

5. 19. Hinp SePpaOd, LUC. x a Pp M - 

6. 8. ^bpK '•pS eAi/xam, Luc. qje'Kp.ovvi. 

Characteristics of Chief Ancient Versions of Kings xxix 

6. 25. 3£ Kafiov. 

8. 8, 9. >"ICP*? paavd, Luc. pavad. 

8. 15. "339 xa/3£d. 

9. 13. D^.3 yapep. 

10. IO. NiD« a^)0a). 

10. 2 2. nnrip^n T ov o'Uov fxeadadX. 

11. 4. E^iHT] "HI 1 ? tov Xoppel Kai tov 'Pao'eiv. 
11. 6. nDD LUC. MeoW. 

11. 8. nVTTfc? d/?Sa>0, LUC. o-adrjpud. 

11. 12. "»gn t v^p. 

12. 6; 0/. pn|/3e'S<:K. 

12. IO. natSn lapufclv. Cod. A dppatr^, 
14. 7. njDrPIja eV 'PejueAf, LUC. iv TcupeXe'x. 

15. 5. n^snn t^owM. 
17. 6. n?'op^. So 18. n. 

20. 12. nnDD pavadv. 

20. 13. nhba ^o^d. 

22. 14. HifD pao-€vd. 

23. 4. ntontf o-a\rjpd>e. 

23. 5. 0*105) xayiapa'/x. 
ib. IlvJO pa(ovp<x>6. 

23. 7. B^j? Kadrjo-eip, Luc KaBrjaeiv. 

lb. Cria xcttl€lv (cf. 7Z0& <Z^ /tff .). 

23. IO." riDh rd<£e<9, Luc. Qacpcped. 

23. II. B^g (f)apovpdp. 

23. 13. ITWOH roO Mocrodtf, Luc. 'Apeao-ad. 

23. 24. tttfVl Bcpafaiv. 

25. 5. rrirjy apa/3^0. 

25. 12. D^ ra/3«V. 
25. 14. D^fojjcfr. 

25. 17. rinns X a,(9ap. 

#. rV02fe> ya]3axa. Cod. A aafiaxd. 

(3) Another characteristic is the insertion of additional words 
and sentences by the translator. 



(a) Such additions are frequently made to fill out the sense, and 
to make the meaning more clear. Very frequently the subject 
of a verb is added when the reference seems to be ambiguous : — 

1. 2. 2 2. 6 dp^KTTpaTrjyos craipos 1 . 

2. 32. to nlfia avrcov, added as obj. of yT tib. 

2. 35* *i$ Upea TrpaiTov. 

3. 9. iv diKaioo-vvrj, explaining the force of DSBv. 

3. 1 5» koto. .Trpoaanov tov 6vaiaaTt]piov tov 1 . 

3. 27. rfj (lnovo-r) A6re avrfj avr6, added to remove the seeming 
ambiguity of the king's command \ 

4. 21 (MT. 5. 8). 6 /Sao-iXeik, subj. of D£> srif n^K. 

8. 53 (MT. 8. 12). inrep tov o'Uov as crvveTeXecrev tov olKobop,rjo~cu 
uvtov . 

15. 19. 8id9ov, before 1TH2 1 . 

18. 24. 6 eAaXqcrar, after "»2in. 

19. 19. iv povo-iv, after tnn K1H1. 

(5) Additions are also very frequently made for the sake of 
bringing one passage into strict conformity with another : — 

1. 2. 26. tt)s diaWjKrjs, T) s *)2i~\ jnN being the usual (Deuteronomic) 

2. 29. kcu 6ay\rov avTov, to agree with z>. 31. 

2. 3^. kcu a>pKio-€u aWov 6 fiaaikcvs iv ttj fjpepa €K€Lurj, in agreement 
with v. 42. 

9. 20. kcu tov Xavavaiov . . . ml tov Tepyaaaiov, added to make up 

the number of the seven heathen nations of Palestine. 
12. 20. ml Bevtapciv, to agree with vv. 21, 23. 
21. 23. ml ob 6e6s Koikddos, to agree with v. 28. 

The relationship of the recension of Lucian to that of Cod. B 2 
cannot here be discussed ; but it is clear that the author had access 
to sources which preserved unimpaired original readings of which 

1 Discussed in the notes on the text. 

2 The origin of the text of Codd. A and B in 3 Kings has been discussed at 
length by S. Silberstein in ZATW., 1893-4. 

Characteristics of Chief Ancient Versions of Kings xxxi 

we should otherwise have remained in ignorance \ Instances of 
such readings in the text of Kings v/ill be found in the notes. 
Cf. I. 1. 28; 2.5; 11. 8 b ; 13. 11 ; 18. 5. II. 3. 25; 5. 1 ; 7. 7 ; 
10. 11 ; 12. 5; 15. 10; 17. 2, 7, 27; 18. 34; 24. 13; 25. 4. 

2. The Targum. 

The chief characteristics of this version may be noticed very 

(a) A very marked tendency to do away with anthropomorphic 
or otherwise seemingly unworthy expressions used with reference 
to God : — 

I. 1. 17. yrbx nifTa, Targ. ^ribx nim KlD^a. So constantly. 

3. 10. vna vj^jn, Targ. mm Dip. 

8. 15. yea, Targ. mensa-. 

8. 24. -pan -mm, Targ. -pE^n Nmrm. 

8. 29. nnna T^y mv6, Targ. *pnp k^i wi. So ». 52. 

8 - 33. T^ 1^1, Targ. -prtaai? paimi. 

9. 6. nnxo, Targ. -ortia nnaD. 

9. 9. mm nx nry, Targ. mm wr£ia m ipn^. 

#. DnnK D\"6k, Targ. fc^DDy niyD, to avoid applying the name 
DTi^K to false gods. 

(£) A general tendency to paraphrase : — 
I. 1. 33. pm, Targ. Nni^&y. So 00. 38, 45. 

1. 38. Tibam Tjnam, Targ. ^i&pi nwpi. So z>. 44. 

1. 42. ^n B*K, Targ. p«Bn ^m 103. So several times. 

2. 7. ^N llip, Targ. *anw IpBID. 

2. 24. mi ^ npy n^x, Targ. ni?D ^ D^pi. 

3. 16. n*0T, Targ. |Np1JlB, TravdoKcvrpiai, a softening down of the 

3. 18. nT pK, Targ. p&Ot. 

6. 4. dwk maps? ^ii?n, Targ. ainta n^noi vata jmna pin. 

1 Cf. Dri. Sam. p. lii. The value of Luc. for the emendation of the MT. of 
Kings has been noticed by I. Hooykaas, lets over de grieksche vertaling van 
het Oude Testament (Rotterdam, 1888). 

xxxii Introduction 

6. 10. TIW, Targ. Wm. 

7. 2. pjni?n njr rvn, Targ. k>^d mp» rvn. 

8. 1 6. W niv6, Targ. "W3P HN"i^. 

8. 19. -j^no syn, Targ. n^irn. 

8. 27. DJBKn, Targ. KBB>lp3 W |»1 13D |0 *S«. 

8. 39. -jru^ pa», Targ. ■jm'w rvn nn«. 

(f) A tendency to make explanatory insertions, without any 
equivalent in the original : — 

I. 1. 24. fcWTDta in the phrase WTDta WD = KB?. So 

5. 13. \^r\ whyi d$ot5> pTnjn in rvi ota ^>y ■aimw 

NrVK'BH ND^JDI ; perhaps a haggadic explanation of ?y "OH?} 
■vpa , ♦ . dwi. 

6. 6. tfipr i>y prw amp >&>n w&. 

8. 2. hnd^p anT n^ pp x^p^njn Krvrn. MT. simply rrva 

8. 9. ndv ^an»a mtyj; pn^na pn^yi. Cf. also v. 21. 

8. 65. wri . • . Km nauri. So MT. in 2 Chr. 7. 9. 

As a whole this version represents a recension much nearer to 
MT. than that of any other ancient version. 

3. The Peshitto. 

This translation appears to have been made from a Hebrew text 
similar in many respects to that presupposed by LXX, though more 
nearly related to MT. than the LXX original 1 . Instances of the 
agreement in readings between Pesh., LXX, and Luc. will be found 
in the notes. Cf. I. 2. 26, 29; 6. 9; 7. 10, 15b; 8. 37 ; 10. 8. 
II. 6. 2. As has been noticed by Dri. in the case of Samuel, the 
original of Pesh. seems to have been related to that of Luc. : 
cf. I. 1. 40 ; 4. 34 ; 18. 29, II. 2. 14 ; 10. 14 ; 14. 29 ; 19. 15. 
Affinities with the Vulg. may also be noticed: cf. I. 7. 7, 42; 

1 A conspectus of the variations between Pesh. and MT. in 1 Kings has been 
given by J. Berlinger, Die Peschitta znm 1. (3.) Buck der Konige und ihr 
Verhaltniss zu MT., LXX. und Trg. (Berlin, 1897). 

Characteristics of Chief Ancient Versions of Kings xxxiii 

9. 1 8. Cases in which Pesh. agrees with LXX, Luc., Vulg. 
against MT. are frequent. 

The general characteristics of the Version are those of a close 
and accurate, though not too servile, representation of the original. 
Paraphrase is occasionally employed — most frequently in the case 
of words or phrases which appeared to the translator to need 
elucidation, and here and there slight additions have been made 
to the text for the same reason. The following instances may 
be noticed. 

(a) Paraphrase : — 

I. 1. 36. now p ♦r^j Uo©» ' So may (Yahwe) do! 

1. 50. raton ronpa prm JL*»S3? Ifco*^ k»<^ *~ i© 'and 

took refuge at the horns of the altar/ 

2. 42. puki ruK nr^m in*re dvi p^*W ^» &0&U U>a<o 

.o*«j35 JLj i^^lo 'In the day that thou goest forth from ferusa- 
lem and crossed the brook Kidron! 

3. 16. vodS? rmoyrn itan bx v axu^ lis.\.y> p*-o v »-*i^ 

' /# //^d? //fozr <r<W£ <5^?r^ &'#£• Solomon.' 

3. 18. ^pn DV3 W ^o* JkSi >fco> ^c© 'and after 
three days! 

8. 26. mn "l^K 1^-va.^f 'which thou didst swear! 

12. 32/ unnb DV "JEW HEWl Hma^ 'on the full moon! 

14. 10. fen *iyn* n^N3 «-*i^> U© ^*o vJ&ci^^sfcoo? ^/ 

la.^ ; as the grapes of a vineyard are swept away when the vintage 
is finished! 

20. 33. ir6$M oixt-V o^iojo 'and he caused him to sit with 

21. 11. ITXD DWn Iclxi ^X Iks-i-fls ^1^-? 'who dwelt in 
/fo city with Naboth! 

II. 2. 10. S>1nb6 JWpn I^U k~^7 'thou hast made a /ar^ 

3. 7. ^»a WM ^tco/ JLj? >o\re ' I will go up like thee/ 

4. 42. ne^p S>ya» J^xt^ fcj-.*so ^j» 'from the city of the mighty 

xxxiv Introduction 

5. ii. JHMDn PpM )bi^ ^o laoillo 'and I should be healed of 

7. 2, 17, 19. B^pn J^^'the man! 

9. 11. in^ oiieu^ 'his folly.' 

23. 11. Men \jj50 'and he slew! 

23. 29. WN I^d by ^^-» ^-^ 'against Mabbogh! 

(b) Additions: — 

I. 1. 10. ^*»cu +* 'son of Jehoiada,' after 1iT33; wOM 'of 
David/ after D^uan. 

1. 11. Usxj 'the prophet/ after jna. 

1. 21. t.Nn\ma 'in peace/ after 1TQX Dy. 

I. 39. )Loj yfcoo 'and Nathan the prophet/ after }PDn pH¥. 

8. 22. y^.o 'and prayed/ after DWn VB3 BHSM. 

II. 18. wLcl^. ol ' Dwell with me/ after li> "1EN (cf. note ad loc). 
19. 1. jc^ow»?o JL^2> ouii 'the prophets of Ba'al and of the 

sanctuaries/ for simple DWaan. 

II. 4. 13. ;>^o 'prosperously/ before 'ai *pni. 

6. 12. ^-.? ^» |oo) D 'It is none of us/ for simple J07. 

10. 15. o^ ;-a©to 'And he said to him/ before *]T nx nan. 

11. 14. }^v^< Iadcuaj ^»/ 'according to the custom of kings/ 
for simple t32^E3. 

14. 27. Ju*!oom i^ 'son of Jehoahaz/ after BW p. 

15. 29. )La.vaa koo V\o Uci^jso ^^JJo 'and Abel-Meholah 
and all Beth-Ma'achah/ for nsyn W2 bltt HfrO. 

18. 27. Insertion of negative: .oK*j Do , , ♦ yc^olj JN for 

19. 35. ^*Ju.o 'and beheld/ after np23 ICCS^T. 

In certain cases the renderings of Pesh. seem to exhibit con- 
nection with Targ.; cf. I. 1. 33, 38, 45 pna, Pesh. k»o\»»,, 
Targ. xn^p; 1. 38 '•nbsni wan, Pesh. tv\ft^> ^«^?o )fc*iao, 
Targ. &ybp) KVHPpI; 2. 5 vbana , , ♦ D^l, Pesh. ycu! c^uo 

}j)sCCOCi.:> J*.?© wO»o!m.2>9 [PlofflO «oo^^o9 «-mo )^>^a.^? ^»/ 

^oic^ji?, Targ. awi aanp n^an did \-nby pntn wnnn ^m 
Knntaa bhi iTsnran *p^bd*k3 pnon tew k»S>p na^aa pnb 

Characteristics of Chief Ancient Versions of Kings xxxv 
vnfenan; 5. 32 d^aanr, Pesh. JLo^Jo, Targ. ^nmsi ; 18. 21 

D^yon W bv DTID3 DDK, Pesh. y&^Ss ^1>1^. yO^j/ ^^9, 

Targ. paba fnr6 pri?s pnx; 22. 34 idji^ n^pn *^d, Pesh. J**, 

ch^soaX Jfcon^ |ooi, Targ. EP^p!? tfmpn m A few cases of 
agreement in rendering with Vulg. may also be noticed : I. 6. i 
p^, Pesh. UaaaX ~;jw, Vulg. aedificari coepit ; 18. 45 .13 IV W1 
P13 *iyi, Pesh. la^.0 )a^ JjS&oo oot Ao, Vulg. cumque se ver- 
teret hue atque illuc ; 22. 48 ^l ^IDI, Pesh. «o?k* J^x la^ooo 
vl-of , Vulg. nee erat tunc rex constitutes in Edom ; II. 4. 35 TVlPI, 
Pesh. jdosUo, Vulg. et oscitavit. 

Cases of corruption in the text of Pesh. are not numerous, and 
are nearly confined to confusion or transposition of letters in proper 
names: I. 4. 10 nzw, Pesh. iaa.*o ; 4. 12 DyDp" 1 , Pesh. p boo oj ; 
5. 4 PlDDn, Pesh. un*a**L; 22. 10 pjfl, Pesh. )*^ for j*>U ; 
II. 2. 25 3B>, Pesh. 00L for ol ; 4. 23 Dli?E>, Pesh. I^^oa^*, 
fory^*,; 4. 28 rrW), Pesh. "M*l; 9.2 W:, Pesh. ^m^* ; 
9. 27 Dy^, Pesh. p^^^j ; 14. 7 b$r\\>\ Pesh.^ik-iu ; 15. 16/". 
nmo, Pesh. p*j.*j*> ; 17. 31 frDJ, Pesh. *.J^» ; 18. 2 ''IN, Pesh. 
uo/; 21. 1 m »VBn, Pesh. ©^ 2l~ ; 21. 18, 26 wy, Pesh. JjL^. 
Cases of double renderings may be found in I. 20. 33 D*Bttfitrti 

22. 34 wrb K>\m**>l c»\=>qs^; II. 19. 4 r6sn n«^i )c^io 
U.lo; 19. 28 •»!>« imnn jy o^x^ j^ioUjo l^*»i^)!?^bw. 

4. The Latin Versions. 

(a) The Old Latin Version 1 is known to us only in a fragmentary 
form. For Kings we possess the fragments collected by Sabatier 
(chiefly from the Fathers), and published in 1743 in his Bibliorum 
Sacrorum Antiquae Versiones Latinae, vol. i ; extracts from the 
margin of a Gothic MS. (tenth century) at Leon in Spain 2 , 

1 The question whether the Old Latin represents one version or several 
distinct translations is discussed by H. A. A. Kennedy in Hastings, BD. 
iii. p. 48. 

2 It should be noticed, however, that F. C. Burkitt {The Old Latin and the 
Itala, p. 9, in the Cambridge Texts and Studies , vol. iv) regards it as ' by no 

C 2 

xxxvi Introduction 

published by Vercellone in 1864 in Variae Lectiones Vulgatae 
Latinae editionis, vol. ii ; P alimpsestus Vindobonensis, published by 
J. Belsheim in 1885, containing I. 11. 41 — 12. 11; 13. 19-29; 
H.6-15; 15. 34—16. 28; 18. 23-29; II. 6. 6-15; 10. 5-13; 
10. 24-30; 13. 14-22; 15. 32-38; 17. 1-6, 15-20;- Ein neues 
Fragment des Quedlinburger Itala-Codex, published by A. Diining 
in 1888, containing I. 5. 9 (MT. 5. 23) — 6. 11. To these may be 
added the quotations in Augustine's Speculum (i. e. the Liber de 
diuinis scripturis siue Speculum, which in the N. T. is quoted 
amongst O. L. MSS. as m) \ not included by Sabatier in his work ; 
and the edition of Lucifer by Hartel (Corp. Script. Fccles., Vienna, 
1886) may be used to advantage to check the quotations of Sabatier 
from this writer. The Version, as based upon the Greek text, 
possesses a secondary value for the purposes of textual criticism. 
The fragments of Kings which have survived, especially those from 
the margin of the Gothic MS., testify to a close connexion of the 
original Greek with the MSS. which were in later times employed 
by Lucian in the formation of his recension of the LXX. As might 
have been expected, the text of the Old Latin is not identical with 
Luc*, many of the doublets and other glosses which are found in 
Luc. having presumably crept into the Greek text subsequently to 
the formation of the Latin translation ; but, on the whole, the 
testimony of the Old Latin points to a high antiquity for the type 
of Greek text preserved by Luc. The following points of connexion 
between Old Latin and Luc. may be noticed : — 

I. 1. 40. Goth, et popidus cantabat Luc. koX nas 6 \abs £x°P euov * v X°P ' S 

canticis et melodiis, et gaudebant ndx (vcppaivo/xevoi evcppoovvri /j.€yd\ri 

gaudio magno ; organizantes in ijvAovv iv auXols Kal exaipov x a P9- 

organis, et iucundabanhir in iucun- jjieyaAxb Kal r\\r\ariv ij 777 kv rfj <f>owrj 

ditate magna; et resonabat omnis avrwv. 
terra in voce eorum. 

means certain that this interesting document does not represent readings 
extracted and translated from some Greek codex, so that it may have no 
connexion with the Old Latin properly so called.' 

1 Cf. edit, by F. Weihrich, Vienna, 1887 {Corp. Script. Eccles.). 

Characteristics of Chief Ancient Versions of Kings xxxvii 

2. 5. Goth, et uindicavit sanguinem 
belli in pace ; et dedit sanguinem 
innocentium in uita mea, et zona 
mea, quae erat circa lumbos meos,&"c. 

3. 18. Sab. peperit etiam haec mulier 

3. 24. Goth. Accipitemihi machaeram. 

8. 53. Goth. Solem statuit in caelo 
Dominus, et dixit, &c. 

9. 8. Goth, et domus haec altissima. 

10. 11. Goth, trabes multas valde non 

10. 26. Goth. Et erant Salomoni XL 
millia equarum in quadrigis foetan- 

10. 28. Goth, et ex Thecua et ex 
Damasco erant negotiatores regis. 

13. 11. Goth, et pseudo-propheta alius 

Sab. et propheta alius. 

14. 27. Goth, ianuam domus Domini. 

15. 19. Goth. Testamentum esto inter 
me et inter te. 

16. i\ff. Vind. Ambri. 
16. 29. Vind. gasiba. 

18. 21. Goth. Usquequo claudicamini 
utrisque femoribus vestris ? 

18. 44. Goth. Adducens aquam de mari. 

18. 45. Sab. Et plorabdt, etibat Achab 
in Iezrael. 

11. 1. 2. Goth. Et ascendit Qchozias ,&c. 

1. 7. Goth. Qualis est hominis iustitia 
qui ascendit obviam vobis? 

2. 14. Goth, et transiit per siccum in 

2. 23. Goth, et lapidabant eum. 

3. 10. Goth, vocavit Dominus hos tres 
reges tradere in manu Moab. 

3. 20. Goth, ecce aquae veniebant de 
via eremi Sur ex Edom. 

4. 16. Goth. Noli, domine, homo Dei, 
deridere ancillam tuam. 

4. 19. Goth. Caput doleo. 

Luc. Kal e^eSiKtjcrcv alfxa iroXepiov ev 

€ipTjVT| Kal JeSwKCV dl|Xa CL0U)OV (SO 

Cod. A) cv TTJ £o)T] jaov Kal km tt) 

^QJVrj T7]S 0(T<pVOS jXOV K.T.X. 
LUC. €TCK€ Kal Tj JVVT] CLVTT] vloV. 

Luc. Adhere p.01 fxa.xo.tpav. So Cod. A. 

LUC. "HXlOV €<TTT]0-€V Iv OvpOVO) KvpiOS 

Kal e^e k.t.X. 
Luc. real 6 oTkos ovtos 6 vxprjXos. 
Luc. £v\a iroXXd acpobpa aTreXcK-rjTa. 

Luc. Kal ^aav ra> 'S.oXop.ojvTL Teoxrapd- 
KovTa (so Cod. A 1 ) x i ^ L ^ (S ittttcov 
OrjXeiojv et? appuxra tov tiktciv. 

Luc. Kal \k QcKodi Kal 4k Aauao-Kov. 
Kal 01 efxiTopOL tov fiaffiXeajs, k.t.X. 

Luc. Kal it po<pT]Tr]s aAXos TrpeafivTTjs. 

LUC. TOV TTVkuiva 01K0V KVptOV. 

Luc. Ata$7jKJ] c<ttc0 dvd fiiaov ejxov Kal 

dvd fxiaov aov. 
Luc. 'Afifipl. Cod. B. Zafx(3p€t. 
Luc. Ta£ov0a. Cod. B. YaQov^d 

(HOT MT. 22. 42). 

Luc. "Ecus 7roT€ iifieis x oj ^- ave ^ T€ * 7r ' 
afupoTtpais rats lyvvais ii|iwv ; 

Luc. dvdyovaa vdoop dtro OaAdcrcrqs. 

Luc. Kal tK\ai€ (so Cod. A) Kal ktro- 
pevcro 'Axad/3 us 'Ic^parjX. 

Luc. Kal dvc/Jif] 'Oxo^'as k.t.\. 

Luc. Tt to 8iKaiu)ua tov dvSpbs tov 
avafiavTos ds avvavTrjaiv vfiiv; 

Luc. Kal 5iijX9e 8td £i]pds. 

Luc. Kal «AI0a£ov avTov. 

LUC. KeKXr]K€ Kvptos tovs t pus fiaaiXeis 

tovtods TrapaSowat fjpLas els x«/?a? 

Luc. loob vdara ijpx (T0 *| odov ttjs 

epTjuov 5ov>8 II; 'Edajfi. 
Luc. M77, Kvpie dv0pcair€ tov Qeov (so 

Cod. A), /AT} €KY€\daT) ttjv oovX-qv aov. 
Luc. T771/ KtcpaXrjv [iov a.\y£>. 



4. 28. Goth. Si poposcifilhim a domino, 
non sic poposci sicut tufecisti. 

4. 35. Goth, et inspiravit in eum. 

5. 19. Goth, chabratha terra. 

5. 23. Goth. Et dixit Naaman instan- 
tins : Accipe tfc. 

6. 8. Goth. In locum phalmunum ob- 
sessionem faciamus. 

9. 17. Goth, pulverem populi Hieu. 

10. 6. Vind. accipiat unusquisque nu- 
tritorum caput eius quae nutrivit 
ex filis regis. 

10. 11. Goth, omnes cognatos eius. 
Vind. proximos eius. 

10. 29. Vind. set a peccatis Hieroboam 
fili Nabat qui peccare fecit Israel 
non discessit leu rex set abit post 
uaccas peccati quae erant in Bethel 
et in Dan. 

Goth, non recessit Hieu, sequens 
observantiam uaccarum peccati. 

10. 36. Goth. + Et erat annus (seam- 
dus) Gotholiae cum regnare coepisset 
Hieu filius JVamesst, &c. 

11. 12. Goth, dedit super eum sanctifi- 

11. 14. Goth, et scidit Gotholia vcsti- 

mentum suum. 
13. 15. Goth. Accipe sagittam et bolidas. 
13.17. Vind. et sagitta salutis in Israel. 

16. 18. Goth, mesech sabbathorum. 

17. 2. Goth. Et fecit malignum in 
conspectu Domini prae omnibus qui 

fuerunt ante eum. 
17. 4. Goth. Et invcnit rex Assy 'riorum 
in Osee cogitationem adversus eum, 
et misit nuntios Adramelec Aegy- 
ptium inhabitantem in Aegypto, et 
erat fer ens munera regi Assy riorum 
ab anno in annum. 
Vind. et misit nuntios at Adramelec 
Ethiopem habitantem in Aegypto, et 
offerebat Osee munera regi Assyrio- 
rum ab anno in annum. 

Luc. M77 rjTrjaafirjv vlov irapa tov Kvpiov 

p.ov ; ot»xt o-u ireiroiTjKas ; 
Luc. Kal cvtirvcvo-ev ctt' avr6v. 
Luc. x a Ppa-0d tt|v yfjv. 
Luc. Kal (Tire Nee/xdi/ c'meiKais Aa/3e 


<rco|X€v JfveSpov. 


Luc. \aj3tTa) €Kao*TOS ttjv KccpaXrjv tov 
vlov rov Kvpiov aiiTov. 

Luc. iravTas tovs d'YX lcr T€t>ovTas avTov. 

Luc. ttXt)v dvb apapTiwv 'lepoffoap vlov 
NafiaT, bs Q-qpapT* tov 'laparjX, ovk 
aneaTT] air' avTWv 'lov' 6irio~a> civtwv 

€7TOp€V€TO, TO)V SapldXtOOV TT|S &p.<Xp- 

Tias twv xpvowv twv kv BaiOfjX Kal 
kv Adv. 

Luc. 4 4v €T€t 8f vTepco ttjs ToOoXias 
PaaiAevei Kvpios tov 'lov vldv 
Nap.€o-i, k.t.X. (cf. note ad foe). 

Luc. th'wKfv kit' avTov to 6/yiao-p.a. 

Luc. Kal diepprjge to lp,ario-p.dv avTTjS 

Luc. Aa/3£ to£ov Kal |3oXiSas. 

Luc. Kal fieXos crajTijpias kv 'Io-pa.T|X. 

Luc. tov 6ep.kXiov ttjs Ka$idpas twv 

Luc. Kal knoirjere to irovrjpbv kvoomov 
Kvpiov irapd iravTas tovs vevop-evovs 
'ipttpoaBev avTov. 

Luc. Kal evpev 6 fiaaiXevs 'Aaavpiojv 
kv 'Claije €m|3ovXT|v, 0l ' oti diri- 
o~TCiX(v dyyeXovs itpbs 'ASpap-eXtx 
tov AtOioira tov Ka/roiKovvTa ev 
Ai-yvirrco, Kal tjv 'XIcttjc <{>€pcov Sa>pa 
tw Pao-iXei 'Aoxrvplwv eviavrdv kot 5 

Characteristics of Chief Ancient Versions of Kings xxxix 

17. 4. Vind. et iniuriam fecit ei rex Luc. real ti|3pio-€ rbv 'Ciarj^ 6 QaatKtls 
Assy riorum. 'Acr<rvpicov. 

18. 34. Goth. + Ubi sunt dii terrae Luc. + ical iro€ clcrlv ol Oeol rfjs \"P a s 
Samariae ? Sap-apeias ; 

19. 7. Goth, auditionem malignant. Luc. ayyekiav irovijpav. 

23. 11. Lucifer + in domo domus, quam Luc. + 4v tw oikg> w a><rav |3a- 
aedificauerunt reges Israel excelso oxXets J Io-pa,T|X tuJniXdv t&> BdaX Kal 

UK Babal et omni militiae caeli. irdo-r] rfj o-Tpari^L tov ovpavoO. 

(d) The general characteristics of the Vulgate of the Old 
Testament have been dealt with by Nowack, Die Bedeutung des 
Hieronymus fur die alltestamentliche Textkritik (Gottingen, 1875). 
Cf. also H. J. White in Hastings, BD. iv. pp. 883/^ Jerome 
describes his method of translation in the introduction to his 
commentary on Ecclesiastes. He claims for his version a certain 
independence, as a direct translation from the original Hebrew; 
but states at the same time that he has kept fairly closely to the 
LXX where there is no great discrepancy between this version and 
the Hebrew, and confesses to having had before him and made use 
of the versions of Aquila, Symmachus, and Theodotion \ Instances 
from Kings of Jerome's employment of these later Greek versions 
may be noticed ; and it will be seen that here, as in other books, 
the version of Symmachus seems to have been most frequently used 
as a model : — 

I. 4. 13. 23")^ PlX\ w 2. Kal avros ei^e to Trfpi/xerpov tov 'Apya/3, 
Vulg. ipse praeerat in omni regione Argob. 

6. 8. Dvvl 'a. {koi iv) KoxXlais, Vulg. per cochleam. 

9. 18. pW *m£3 'A., 2. ttjv iv rfj yfj rrjs ipwov, Vulg. in terra 

10. 28. mpDI "AXW kou in Kcoa, Vulg. et de Coa. 

1 ' . . ., hoc breuiter admonens, quod nullius auctoritatem secutus sum; sed 
de Hebraeo transferers, magis me Septuaginta interp return consuetudini coaptaui : 
in his dumtaxat quae non multum ab Hebraicis discrepabant. Interdum Aquilae 
quoque et Symmachi et Theodotionis recordatus sum, ut nee nouitate nimia 
lectoris studium deterrerem, nee rursum contra conscientiam meam, fonte 
ueritatis omisso, opinionum riuulos consectarer.' 

xl Introduction 

11. 36. *V3 nVH fJttSP 2. vntp tov diapeveiv \vx pov > Vulg. ut 
remaneat lucerna. 

12. 7. DJTOjri 'A., 2. koi €i'£ei? ai-roTr, Vulg. ^/ petitioni eorum 

16. 3. tf^SD nn« TjnD 2. Tpvyrjvv ret OTTto-G) (Baao-a), Vulg. 
demetam posterior a Baasa. 

20. 12. JTDDD 'A. lv o-vaKiao-fxois, Vulg. /'« umbracuiis. Similarly 
in v. 16. 

20. 38. "IBN2 'A. iv (rnodS, 2. o-7to8g>, Vulg. aspersione pulveris. 

20. 40. DV"in njlX "JttD^D p "AXAoy' tovto to Kplfia b o-v, 
Vulg. Zfor £$•/ iudicium tuum, quod ipse decreuisti. 

II. 3. 4. *lpJ »TH 2. ^y rptcpav $o(TKT}p.a.Ta, Vulg. nutriebat pecora 
mult a. 

4. 7. "O^BO HN "T3/C) 2. Kai anodos ra daveiaTrj <rov, Vulg. et redde 
creditori tuo. 

9. II. 1JTS? riNI 'A., 2. Ka\ ttjv opikiav clvtov, Vulg. et quid 
Jocutus est. 

11. IO. D^D^H 2. tt)v navoTikiav, Vulg. arma. 

12.6. p-a d^ row np« W ran pna riN ipm* Dm 2. *ai 

nvroi €7Ti(TK€vacrdTU)aau ra deovra tov o'ikov, onov au evpeBrj Beopepov 
emo-Kevrjs, Vulg. et instaurent sarta iecta do?nus, si quid necessarium 
viderint instauratione. 

23. 12. DC^O Y~^1 ^' Ka * edpofxcoo-ev dnb eKcWev, Vulg. et cucurrit inde. 

23. 24. Dv?jn 'A. to. popcpvpara, Vulg.Jiguras idolorum. 

The Hebrew text employed by Jerome seems to have been very 
similar to, though not identical with, MT. * His version possesses 
the characteristics of a good translation, and aims at giving the 
sense of the original rather than at extreme literality of rendering. 
Phrases and sentences are sometimes rilled out in order to make 
their meaning clearer; cf. I. 2. 40 rOD 1H35J TIN Kl*l *W2W ^1 
ivitque ad Achis in Geth ad reqicire?idum servos suos, et adduxit eos 
de Gath; 3. 5 *p jJlX no ?X^ Postula quod vis ut dem tibi; 3. 13 

1 Cf. Nowack, op. cit. p. 55. 

The Synchronisms of the Compiler xli 

yw P3 cunctis retro diebus; 6. 27 DrVSWI alae autem alter ae ; 
8. 24. niM DV3 ut haec dies probat. Occasionally, though not often, 
the translator goes astray in his desire for lucidity; cf. I. 1. 4i b 
flBin !THp Pip yViD "UDNI W et load, audita voce lubae, ait; ' Quid 
sibi §c! '; 16. 7 IDS nDH "i£W pyi ^ ^<z?z<r causam occidit eum, hoc est, 
lehu filium Hanani, propheiam. 

§ 3. The Synchronisms of the Compiler. 

The table on the following page exhibits a scheme of the 
synchronisms of R D , as they appear in MT., LXX, and Luc. 
The upward pointing arrow f indicates a discrepancy with a pre- 
ceding calculation, the downward pointing arrow i a discrepancy 
with a calculation following; while the double-headed arrow \ points 
to disagreement both with the preceding and following. 

Examination of the three columns makes the fact plain that Luc. 
exhibits a different scheme of synchronism to MT. from Omri of 
Israel (I. 16. 23) down to Jehoram of Israel (I. 1. 17). This 
scheme conflicts with the synchronisms which go before and follow 
after, and which belong to the system of MT. ; but, so far as it 
goes, is self-consistent, and is the cause of the placing of the 
narrative of Jehoshaphat's reign (MT. I. 22. 41 ff.) before that of 
Ahab at the close of I. 16 in both Luc. and LXX, and of the 
substitution of y Ox°& as f° r ES^n'' in the narrative of II. 3 in Luc. 
On the other hand, LXX, which agrees partly with Luc. and partly 
with MT., is clearly a patchwork of the two schemes. Two traces 
of the scheme of Luc. have crept into MT.; viz. in I. 16. 23, 
where the synchronism according to MT. scheme should be the 
27th or 28th year of Asa; and in II. 1. 17, where the Lucianic 
synchronism co-exists with that of MT. in II. 3. 1. The other 
inconsistencies of MT. are probably for the most part due to 
textual corruption. Thus in II. 13. 10 the reading of 39th for 37th 
brings about agreement both with the preceding and following 
synchronisms; in II. 15. 1 the substitution of 14th for 27th removes 

xlii Introduction 

00 j_i 

5 • rG 

II ° 1M ^ ~ a a 

* i i ^r-?< < 

o ° ^ ^ o o <- <~ o o 


-^-c3Boc«i-«ci-i "^c 

_«c^fOw« r O r ' 1 -' 








<? s 


















1— I 



1 — > 

1— 1 

1— 1 










1 £? 



»— > 








i — > 






»— > 



1— » 



t— > 

i — . 


I — i 


1 'o 



















































— => 


^0 M ^ l ^_rs,^-r 1 l^M^ ,r i^«< , 'NO'-' OO 


§5 O O 

S Oft _,^^(rfrP 

1 i S a a || | |S 

K i i 1 — >> — ><r*^2"^ < <<J<r H 


I— » 
























i — > 

t— > 


1 — . 

•— > 

i — i 


























8 -oo-^ouo-^ 




§ -g- ^ S ^ -2 3 J a |. -g |- -S -S 3' -S 


^o M 



(M CM i— I CO CO 0O O l-H 

r-lrH^Hi-lTHi-lTHTHi— 1CM 

!_< h-I »-< M hH M h-i M l-H HH i M tH 

The Synchronisms of the Compiler xliii 

g g 3 s ^ t -c t t c a "s n S 

4^ co ^ d U5 JN OO ON ON O cm fl -l"^ « ^ 
1>» d co d m o> CO CO co "-O vo c» ""H <-• CO 

O t^. sO C\ h c* "In J« O O O VO VO ON On «0 w h-4- m H-+ 

•^- M l-H CI •<$• »0 H M HH M l-( M N U5 ro M 

.d ,d rt rt rt^^^^ 

cu C3 w li -O r^ *r H • ,_l "r 1 




























K 1 | 





Vh 1 ' 


























N U3 n 

- a i -d i - 

VJ rOi^C U5 N CO ON C\ O 
r-» o co ci m « M rf) ro ifi 

O i>. VO OS M N -In I O^OVO^C>0\ONiOm H-+ m Hh- i- 

Tj- _, HH CI "<*• »0 | M 

»— » 


1— , 






















t— > 









I— i 


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1— > 



•— > 











ffi 1 1 































































■— ♦ 










ON «0 M 












ci io co 

^ cl ^' cl -S o .g 5 s**^.g N « ^ SS ^ -rt .S .2 S 

<3 t— »t— , i— > < »— j < N c/2 <5 Ph Ph >— >< W hU' ^ h, i-, h-, i-, N 

































I— 1 
























i— 1 

1— 1 



i— i 





T— 1 











xliv Introduction 

the double inconsistency, if we make R D assign 51 years to the 
reign of Jeroboam II in place of the 41 years of II. 14. 23. 
The 1 2th year of Ahaz in II. 17. 1, which disagrees with preceding 
synchronisms, is in agreement with the ten years assigned to 
Pekahiah in Luc. II. 15. 23 in place of the two years -of MT. ; 
and thus may belong to a different scheme. 

The inconsistencies of R D 's system of chronology, as compared 
with the chronology of the period as known to us from the 
Assyrian inscriptions, are conveniently stated in G. W. Wade's 
Old Testament History -, pp. 319 ff. 



'A. = Aquila's Greek Version, as cited in Field, Or/gem's Hexaplorum 
quae super sunt, and in F. C. Burkitt, Fragments of the Books 
of Kings according to the translation ofAquila (3 Kgs. 21 
(20 MT.) 7-17; 4 Kgs. 23. 12-27), 1897. 
AV. = Authorized Version. 

Baed. = K. Baedeker, Palestine and Syria, 3rd edit., 1898. 
Benz. = I. Benzinger, Die Biicher der Konige, 1899. 
Ber. = E. Bertheau, Die Biicher der Chronik, 2 e Aufl., 1873. 
Bo. = F. Bottcher, Neue exegetisch-kritische Aehrenlese zum A. T. 

2 e A btheilung, 1864. 
Buhl, Geogr. = F. Buhl, Geographie des alien Palastina, 1896. 
CIG. = Corpus Inscriptionum Graecarum. 
CIS. = Corpus Inscriptionum Semiticarum. 
Cod. A. = Codex Alexandrinus of the Septuagint. 
COT. = E. Schrader, The Cuneiform Inscriptions and the 0. T. 

(trans, from the 2nd German edit.), 1885. 
D 2 = The Deuteronomic editor (in citations from Joshua and 

DB. 2 or BD? = Dictionary of the Bible, ed. by W. Smith, 2nd edit. 

of vol. i, 1893. 
Dri. = S. R. Driver. 

Authority = Authority and Archaeology Sacred and Profane, 

Deut. = A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on Deutero- 
nomy (Internat. Crit. Series), 1895. 
LOT 6 = An Introduction to the literature of the 0. T, 

6th edit., 1897. 
Sam. = Notes on the Hebrew Text of the Books of Samuel, 1890. 
Tenses = A Treatise on the Use of the Tenses in Hebrew, 
3rd edit., 1892. 
E = The Elohistic document in the Hexateuch. 

xlvi Abbreviations 

Encyc. Bibl. = Encyclopaedia Biblica, ed. by T. K. Cheyne and 

J. Sutherland Black, 1899^". 
E\v. = H. Ewald, History of Israel, vols, iii and iv, 187 1. 
Ew. § = H. Ewald, Syntax of the Hebrew Language of the 0. T. 

(trans, from the 8th German edit.), 1881. 
Field =F. Field, Origenis Hexaplorimi quae super sunt ; sive velerum 

interpretum Graecorum in totum V. T.fragmenta, 1875. 
Ges. or Ges. Thes.= W. Gesenius, Thesaurus linguae Hebraeae, 1829. 
Ges.-Buhl = W. Gesenius 1 Heb. und Aram. Handivorterbuch liber das 

A. T., bearbeitet von F. Buhl, 13© Aufl., 1899. 
G-K. = Gesenius' Hebrew Gratnmar, as edited and enlarged by 

E. Kautzsch (trans, from the 26th German edit, by 

A. E. Cowley, 1898). 
Gra. = H. Gratz, Geschichte der Israelilen, 1875. 
H = The code known as ' the Law of Holiness ' in Leviticus. 
Hastings, BD. = Dictionary of the Bible, ed. by J. Hastings, 1898- 


Heb. Lex. Oxf = A Heb. and Eng. Lexicon of the O. T., based on 

the Lexicon of Gesenius as translated by 
E. Robinson, ed. by F. Brown, S. R. Driver, 
and C. A. Briggs, Oxford, 1892^. 
Hoo. = I. Hooykaas, lets over de grieksche vertaling van het Oude 

Testament, 1888. 
J = The Jahvistic document in the Hexateuch. 
JE = The work of the compiler of the documents J and E in the 

Jos. = Elavil losephi Opera, recognovit B. Niese, 1888. 
Kamp. = A. Kamphausen, Die Bilcher der Kb'nige, in E. Kautzsch's 

Die Heilige Schrift des A. T., 1894. 
EAT. 3 = Die Keilinschriflen und das A. T., von E. Schrader, 

3 e Aufl. neu bearbeitet von H. Zimmern und 

H. Winckler, i e Halfte, 1902. 
Kau. = E. Kautzsch, Abriss der Geschichte des alttest. Schrifttums, 

in Die Heilige Schrift des A. T, 1894. 
KB. = Keilinschriftliche Bibliothek, B de 1, 2, 1 889-1 890. 

Abbreviations xlvii 

Ke. = C. F. Keil, Die Bticher der Konige, 2 e Aufl., 1876. 

Kit. = R. Kittel, Die Bticher der Konige, 1900. 

Kit. Hist. = R. Kittel, A History of the Hebrews, vol. ii, trans., 1896. 

Klo. = A. Klostermann, Die Bticher Samuelis und der Konige, 1887. 

Ko. = F. E. Konig. 

Lehrg. = Hist.-krit. Lehrgebdude der Heb. Sprache : 1 e 

Halfte, 1881 ; 2* Halfte, ie r Theil, 1895. 
Syntax = Hist.-compar. Syntax der Heb. Sprache, 1897. 
Kue. = A. Kuenen. 

Ond. = Hist.-krit. Onderzoek, 2nd edit., 1887 (German 

trans., 1890). 
Hex. = The Origin and Composition of the Hexateuch (trans, 
of part 1 of the preceding), 1886. 
Luc. = Lucian's recension of the Septuagint as edited by P. Lagarde 

[Librorum V. T. canonicorum pars prior, 1883). 
LXX = Cod. B of the Septuagint according to the text of 
H. B. Swete [The 0. T. in Greek according to the 
Septuagint, vol. i, 1887). 
Maspero = G. Maspero, Histoire ancienne des peuples de V Orient 

classique, 3 vols., 189 5- 1899. 
MT. = Massoretic Text (D. Ginsburg, 1894; Baer and Delitzsch, 

Oort = Textus Hebraici emendationes quibus in V. T. neerlandice 

vertendo usi sunt A . Kuenen, I. Hooykaas, W. H. Kosters, 

H. Oort, edidit H. Oort, 1900. 
P = The Priestly Code in the Hexateuch. 
PEF. = Palestine Exploration Fund. 

Mem. = Memoirs. 

Qy. St. = Quarterly Statement. 
Pesh. = Peshitto (ed. Lee). 

R D = The Deuteronomic Redactor of Kings (cf. pp. ix^*.). 
R D 2 = Later Deuteronomic Editors of Kings (cf. p. xviii). 
R p = The Priestly Redactor (or Redactors) of Kings (cf. p. xix). 
Rob. BR. = E. Robinson, Biblical Researches in Palestine and the 
adjacent Regions ; 3rd edit., 3 vols., 1867. 

xlviii Abbreviations 

Rost = P. Rost, Die Keilschrifttexte Tight- Pilesers III, 1893. 
R. Sm. = W. Robertson Smith. 

OTJC 1 = The Old Testament in the Jewish Church, 
2nd edit., 1892. 

Ret. Sem? = The Religion of the Semites, 2nd edit., 1894. 
RV. = Revised Version. 
2. = Symmachus' Greek Version, as cited in Field, Origenis 

Hexaplorum quae supersunt. 
Sieg. u. Sta. = C. Siegfried und B. Stade, Hebrdisches Worterbuch 

zum A. T., 1893. 
Smith, Hist. Geogr. = G. A. Smith, The Historical Geography of 

the Holy Land, 1894. 
Sta. = B. Stade, various articles on the text of Kings in ZATW. 
Sta. § = B. Stade, Lehrbuch der Hebraischen Grammatik, i er TheiL 

Stanley, SP. = A. P. Stanley, Sinai and Palestine in Connection 

with their History, new edit., 1883. 
e. = Theodotion's Greek version, as cited in Field, Origenis 

Hexaplorum quae supersunt. 
Targ. = The Targum of Jonathan (ed. Lagarde). 
Th. = O. Thenius, Die Biicher der K'dnige, 2 e AufL, 1873. 
Vet. Lat. = The Old Latin Version. 
Vulg. = The Vulgate. 
Wellh. C. = J. Wellhausen, Die Composition des Hexateuchs und 

der his tor isc hen Biicher des A. T., 1889. 
ZA. = Zeitschrift filr Assyriologie. 
ZA TW. = Zeitschrift fiir die alllest. Wissenschaft. 

al. = et aliter, i and elsewhere.' 

'm = -ipto] = < &c.' 

'Q = ^P5 = ' such a one (unnamed)/ 

t indicates that all occurrences in O. T. of a particular word or 
phrase have been cited. 




1. 1. 1-2. 46. Close of the history of David. Establishment 

of Solomon as his successor 1 . 

1. 1. D^a N3] A regular idiom. Lit. 'entered into days' just as 
we should say, advanced in years. So Gen. 18. n; 24. 1; Josh. 
13. 1; 23. i, 2f. 

DH333] ' With the clothes/ which are immediately suggested to 
the reader by the previous VlWI. This use of the article with 
well-known objects is very common in Heb., and imparts a peculiar 
vividness to the narrative. Cf. v. 39 i£$n fJ^HK, isi$3; c h. 17. 10 
v33 'in the vessel/ almost, 'in your vessel/ z>. 12 "I?? 'in the jar/ 
used in every household for the purpose specified ; II. 8. 15 ; 1 Sam. 
10. 25; 18. 10; at. Da. § 2i<*. 

X? DrY" N/l] The imperfect expresses the habitual character of the 
king's condition: 'he was not I or, 'used not to be warm/ This 
usage is somewhat rare in prose : cf. ch. 8. 8 TOnn 1ST ii?) • Gen. 

2. 25 fctekn! &6l; 1 Sam. 1. 7^ ^«h &6j; 2. 25^ WDB>! K^.. Dri. 
Tenses, §§ 30, 42 (3, 85 6>fo. 

2. *]7Dn Titf] A ceremonious form of address which is almost 
constant. TM ^cn 2 Sam. 14. 15 1 (cf. ynx 'on 1 Sam. 
26. 15I"). \?fiil alone is comparatively rare. 

1 This section forms the continuation of 2 Sam. chh. 9-20, and is probably 
by the same author. See Dri. LOT. 179, and especially Wellh. C. 260. 


The First Book of Kings 

rPIJ-Q myj] A common form of apposition, the second substan- 
tive defining more closely the meaning of the first. Cf. ch. 3. 16 

nfaf D^j; ^. 7.14 nji^K n#K; Deut. 22. 28; Gen.21.20 nefe nni; 
Isa. 23. 12 'ai nhna ng$ppn ; a/. G-K. § 131, 2 a ; Ew. § 2876 (t>) ; 

Da. § 29b. 

mDJJl] 'And let her stand.' Imperf. with 1 consec. the continua- 
tion of the cohortative 1t?p2'\ Dri. Tenses, § 113, 2; Da. § 55* 
The phrase "ob? Toy is used idiomatically of those who were in 
constant attendance upon a superior: cf. ch. 10. 8; 12. 8 (|| 2 Chr. 
10. 6) ; Jer. 52. 12 ; Deut. 1. 38. Of the service of mn\ ch. 17. 1 ; 
Ezek. 44. 15; Judg. 20. 28; al. 

nJ3D] 'Attendant/ 'care-taker'; in the masc. J5*D Isa. 22. 15 as 
a title of Shebna the superintendent of the palace, and also, it 
seems, in a Phoenician inscription from Lebanon belonging pro- 
bably to the eighth century b.c, of a guardian or governor of 
a city, Dm i?K Din 12V flBHnmP pD 'Soken of the New City, 
servant of Hiram, king of the Sidonians,' CIS. I. i. 5. 

The word — unless Cheyne is right in connecting it (Isaiah. 
ii. 153) with the Assyrian saknu, 'a high officer,' from lakin, 'to 
set up, place' — will be derived from pD which in the Hiph'il means 
to deal familiarly with; Num. 22. 30 T\\fyfe *J§Dft f3DHn 'Did I 
ever deal familiarly to do?' i.e. 'was I ever wont to do?' Ps. 139. 3 
iTO2Dn ^"T^S 'With all my ways thou art familiar'; Job 22. 21 
ley fcO-fSDn < Become familiar with him.' 

Pesh. ljLA>Qji.->o ' serving ' ; LXX, Vulg. more freely OaXnovaa, 
foveat; Targ. N2"np ' near to him.' 

1PTQ] So Pesh., e., 'o 'EQpaios (Syro-Hex. ^o3o .1 .^), 
Targ. ("jriv) ; Ip^ro LXX, Luc, Vulg. There is no reason for 
doubting the originality of MT. Such a change from 3rd to 2nd 
pers. is quite in accordance with Hebrew usage in cases in which 
a superior is addressed. Cf. 1 Sam. 25. 28 tflK njrP ntonjnr*? 

sp»»t? fp KjfBrn6 nv")i DnbJ; 22. 15; at. 

3. rV£m~i] Vulg. Sunamitidem, Targ. DW fCTl, LXX, Luc. 
2a>naviTiv, Pesh. ]k*oBQ^**,. The title fVE:i£M is also applied 
(II. 4. 12, &c.) to Elisha's hostess at Shunem. frOT#n, Song 7. 1, 

/. 3-6 3 

is usually thought to be a variation; cf. rendering of Pesh., and 
modern name of the village. 

DjrtB? was one of the cities assigned to the tribe of Issachar, 
Josh. 19. 18; i Sam. 28. 4 it is mentioned as the place where 
the Philistines encamped, near to the Israelite encampment at 3w3, 
and also to "fa p}J v. 7 ; II. 4. 8 1, a city visited by Elisha, not very 
far from Mt. Carmel, v. 25. The site appears to have been that 
of the modern Solam, a village on the south-west slope of the Jebel 
Nebi Dahi (called ' little Hermon '), about five miles north of Jebel 
Fuk'ua (Mt. Gilboa), and three miles north of Zerin (Jezreel). 
Cf. Rob. BR. ii. 324; Stanley, SP. 344; Baed. 243. 

4. w] So LXX, Vulg., Targ.; n*OD T)& Luc, Pesh. Though 
nsnp ftB*, "IKFl nB^ are common expressions, yet HEP used absolutely 
is still more frequent. MT. may therefore be retained. 

5. NBttJlB] The participle expresses the continuous development 
of Adonijah's plans, Dri. Tenses, § 135, 1. A single event of brief 
duration, such as the open declaration of his claims, would have 
been represented by the perf., or by the imperf. with 1 consec. 

Wi] 'He made/ i.e. 'instituted! For this use of njyy, cf. 
2 Sam. 1 5. 1 '31 ros-iE D&&a« \b 'Wi . 

tt:v t ; - 

Visb D^Vl] The usual bodyguard of a king. Cf 1 Sam. 22. 17 ; 
ch. 14. 28; II. 11. 4; al. 

6. 'OVy KPl] ' Had not grieved him.' ivy means /# hurt, either 
bodily, Eccl. 10. 9 DH3 asg M3K pop, or mentally, Isa. 54. 6 na»g 
nil; 2 Sam. 19. 3, such mental pain sometimes culminating in 
anger, as seems to be the case here and in 1 Sam. 20. 3. 34 ; 
Gen. 34. 7. LXX ml ovk aTreKaXvcrev avrov seems to presuppose 
Yl3?g \h\ 'had not held him back'; cf. 18. 44. So Klo. Against 
this reading is the following JWJ? which, as used of a past event, is 
opposed to the notion of holding back be/ore an action. The 
other Verss. give the sense ' reprove,' and seem to be guessing 
from the context ; Luc. kcu ovk eTrerifxtja-ev airS, Vulg. nee corripuit 
eum, Pesh. c*=> jjb Do, Targ. ne^K t6). 

PD*D] ' Out of his days'; i.e. at any time during the whole 
course of his life. An idiomatic expression; cf. 1 Sam. 25. 28 

b 2 

The First Book of Kings 

.span? *p Krarr&6 nyni- job 38. 12 1 ">p> CH¥ T?^ 1 . 'i'wr,' as 

used in English, will be found to fit each of these cases. 

D^KOK "nns m^ inKl] The object, as being the interesting 
member of the sentence, is brought to the beginning and receives 
a slight emphasis. This is not uncommon. Cf. 1 Sam. 15. 1 TiK 
HIPP rbw, 25. 43; ch. 14. n; al. Dri. Tenses, § 208, 1. 

m?' 1 ] ' One bore/ A semi-impersonal use of the verb ; sc. rilp s n . 
RV., by accommodation to Eng. idiom, substitutes a pass. ; ''He was 
bom! Cf. ch. 14. 10 b?an "iJEtf "^K3 'as #«£ sweeps away dung,' 
or, 'as dung is swept away'; ch. 22. 38 *]'tt#*l; al. The assumed 
cognate participle as subj. is sometimes actually expressed ; Deut. 
22. 8; Isa. 28. 4. Ew. § 294b, Da. § 108, Rem. 1. Klo.'s emenda- 
tion BWIX rnnx n^: W&tt is quite unnecessary. 

7. 3NV Dy V~\21 1\"M] 'And his words (i.e. negotiations) were with 
Joab.' The idiom is similar to 2 Sam. 3. 17 *OpT DJJ HTI "02N "1211 
^W; cf. Judg. 18. 7, 28 dik Dy nni> j\x nm. 

JTOIK v "inK yiTyi] A pregnant construction; RV. 'and they 
following Adonijah helped him.' Cf. Deut. 12. 30 ppsn |2 1^ "Wn 
DrmriN; 1 Sam. 7. 2 '* "'"ins ^H|*l 'went mourning after'; Ruth 
2. 3 nn« up^ni; fA. 14. 10 "nns Tnsni; 16. 3 nnx "Vjod; Jer. 
50. 21 nnN D"inn; Lev. 26. 33 inn MnriN Tlpnni; Ezek. 5. 2, 12 ; 
12. 14; Deut. 1. 36, al. ^ns ate. 

8. "»jni tyDt^] These persons are not mentioned elsewhere as 
holding positions of importance about the court of David or 
Solomon. Neither '■jjiot?, one of the twelve officers who provided 
victuals for Solomon's household {ch. 4. 18), nor "»j;Dty the Benjamite 
of Gera seems to have been of sufficient importance to satisfy the 
mention in this passage ; and the name '•jn occurs nowhere else. 
Hence, the text is probably corrupt. Among suggested emenda- 
tions, the most worthy of notice is that of Klo. who follows Luc. 
Ka\ ^a/xaias Kai ol traipoi airov, i.e. VyT) rPJ/Dt^ so far as regards the 

1 Job 27. 6 >n*n mb FpETN 1 ? is similar if with RV. we supply an object 
'me" 1 to fpTV; 'my heart shall never reproach me.' But more obviously the 
object is found in v^o; 'my heart shall not reproach any one of my days.' 

L 7-9 5 

second word, and emends the first T]U?W) . This suggestion nbPB'l 
^JH.] is to some extent supported by the enumeration in v. 10, and 
would imply that the other princes did side with Adonijah, as 
seems to have been the case from v. 19 "jtan "03 ^ Nlp^i. Th.'s 
emendation W njn ^fr], derived partly from Jos.'s explanation 
of ">jm as 6 AainSov <£i'Aos-, is plausible. LXX, Vulg., Pesh., Targ. 
agree with MT. 

D^njn] David's army of picked warriors; 2 Sam. 10. 7; 16. 6 ; 
20. 7; 1 Chr. 19. 8; 28. 1; 29. 24; Song 4. 4. The names of 
the principal men among them are given in 2 Sam. 23. 8-39 ; 
|| 1 Chr. 11. 11-47. 

1YT? "IBW] This construction takes the place of the stat. constr. 
because EHUan (with the article) was the regular title for the army 
mentioned, and is regarded almost as a proper name, Da. § 28, 
Rem. 5 3 . Such a method of avoiding the siat. constr. is especially 
frequent with proper names; Judg. 18. 28; 19. 14 "lg%j HJDan 
|Sfa£; fA. 15. 27; 17. 9; a/. 

9. r&ntn pN Dy] An idiomatic use of Dy ; ' by' or V/w^ /#.' Cf. 
Gen. 35. 4 03^ Dy n^K n^KH; Josh. 7. 2; Judg. 18. 3; 19. 11; 
2 Sam. 20. 8 ; al. 

n?nrn] 'The serpent'; so called from crawling; Deut. 32. 24 
"isy "6nf; Mic. 7. i7t. This root corresponds to Ar. J=^ /<? 
withdraw, lag behind, and is quite distinct from Writ Job 32. 6 
= Ar. J=o = Aram. ^s*»? to fear. Wellh. (Resie Arab. Heidenhmis, 
2 e Ausg. 146) compares TvriTn with the Ar. name of Saturn, Zuhal, 
i.e. (Lane, Lex., \2zo)he who withdraws, the planet being so named 
because it is remote, and said to be in the Seventh Heaven. 

|?n fy] Pesh. J*-.o ^.V, Targ. NIVp ?V, i.e. spring of the fuller, 
7J"l being used of treading linen with the feet. Mentioned as one 
of the landmarks upon the boundary line between Judah, Josh. 
15. 7, and Benjamin, Josh. 18. 16; during Absalom's rebellion 
the hiding-place of Jonathan and Ahimaaz whilst awaiting news 
from Jerusalem, 2 Sam. 17. i7t. The spring has with great 
probability been identified with the modern 'Fountain of the 
Virgin/ called 'Ain Umm ed-Deraj, i.e. 'spring of the mother of 

The First Book of Kings 

steps/ the source which supplies the pool of Siloam. Opposite the 
fountain there is a rough flight of stone steps leading up the rock 
to the village of Siloam, and called by the fellahin Ez-Zehiveileh, 
i.e. nS>m. See PEF. Qy. St., 1869-70, p. 253; DB\ i. 943/ 

1 1 . ")DN^ . . ♦ jrO ">EX v l] Luc. teal rjXBe Nadav npos Bripo-d&te ^repa 
IoXojjlwvtos Ka\ elneu, i.e.~*PN 5 l » «-♦ p| sJJJl. This is rather preferable 
to MT., as being less abrupt. So Klo. 

12. '•D^EI . , , "p>yx] ' Let me counsel thee . . . and save thou/ 
equivalent to 'Let me counsel thee . . . that thou mayest save. 1 The 
Imperative with 1, ^u7ty\, stands in place of the usual cohortative 
with weak 1, expressing with greater force the purpose of the action 
described by the previous verb. Cf. Gen. 12. 2 , , , ?na S XP "]£>yx 
nro njnv; 20. 7; 2 Sam. 21. 3; II. 5. 10; at. See Dri. Tenses, 
§ 65; Ew. § 3 47 a ; G-K. § no, 2*>; Da. § 65^ 

13. *o] Like ort recitativum, introducing the direct narration. Cf. 

ch. 11. 22 *»y -ion nn« n» »a nyis 6 -totfn ; 20. 5; 21. 6; II. 8. 13 ; 
Gen. 29. 32, 33 ; 1 Sam. 2. 16; 10. 19; at. Inverted commas are 
the equivalent in English. RV. rendering ' assuredly/ is not to be 
followed. Cases like Gen. 18. 20 nil "O rncjn DTD npy? 'the cry 
on account of Sodom and Gomorrah is verity great'; Ps. 118. 10, 
n, 12 D7»DK *3 mil* ti&2 'in the name of Yahweh I will surety cut 
them of!/ where *a is joined closely to the verb, are quite different. 

14. KUK ^K1 ♦ . . mmD "ply] The two clauses are placed in 
parallelism, and thus their co-ordination in time is marked with as 
great vividness as is possible. Cf. vv. 22, 42 ; II. 6. 33 131D imy 
xhto T\* l^cn rum tiW ; Gen. 29. 9 ; a/. Without my in the first 
clause, ch. 14. 17; II. 2. 23; 4. 5; at. Dri. Tenses, §§ 166-169; 
G-K. § 116, 5, Rem. 4 ; Da. § 141. 

*pm riX TIN^OI] Lit. ' I will /// «^ thy words/ i. e. give them 
the confirmation of my testimony; so, 'I will confirm thy words/ 
Elsewhere, ~\21 K?ft means to fulfil a prediction by subsequent 
actions; ch. 2. 27; 2 Chr. 26. 21. 

15. rntPO] A contraction or corruption of T\n~\WD. 

18. 'ji "jtan "onx nnyi] Read nriK] for nnyi with LXX, Luc, 
Vulg., Pesh., Targ., and some 200 Codd. So Th., Klo., Kamp. 

/. ii-2-j 7 

The pronoun is necessary to mark and emphasize the change of 
subject in clause 5, in contrast to the subject of clause a, n^lfr*. 

20. ftan "OIK nnw] So LXX, Pesh. ; but read nriyi for nriKl 
with Targ. and many Codd. So Th. nnyi is employed to summa- 
rize the conclusion of all that has gone before. Bathsheba draws 
together the threads of her speech, and explains why she has 
brought the state of affairs under the king's notice. This use of 
nnyi is very common. Cf. e.g. i Sam. 25. 26, 27; Gen. 3. 22; 
ch. 2. 9 ; 8. 25. Klo.'s violent emendation is quite unnecessary. 

yhy . . . Wy~\ Expressing concentration of attention. Cf. 2 Chr. 

20. 12 «y<j yby •a; Jer. 22. 17 ^jrea by dk •a -ph -yo^ pa *a. 
22. 'ai rumy] Cf. #.14 00/*. 

24. '31 mDK nn^] The interrogation is indicated by the tone in 
which the words are spoken. Cf. ch. 21. 7 S>y naita n&yyn nriy nn« 
bfcTW*; II. 5. 26; 9. 19; 1 Sam. 11. 12; 21. 16 ; 22. 7; Gen. 
27. 24 ; al. G-K. § 150, 1 ; Da. § 121. 

25. frOVn *wh] So LXX, Vulg., Pesh., Targ.; but Luc. k<u tow 

dpxKTTpdrrjyov 'lcoa/3, i.e. N2S?n "^ SK'iV 5 ! (as in 0. 19; cf. V. 7; ^0. 2.22), 

is to be followed. So Hoo. Against MT. it is improbable (i) that 
Nathan should have omitted express mention of Joab, and (ii) that 
he should have made an assertion, NDVH *"»B91, which would at the 
moment seem to implicate Benaiah, who next to Joab was one of 
David's principal generals. 

26. *0N •>?] For the re-enforcement of the suffix pronoun by the 
personal pronoun, cf. i Sam. 19. 23 Nin DJ Ivy; 25. 24 OIK \3K *1 

\)yn; Hag. 1.4^ r&wb ana nib nyn. G-K.§ 135, 2°; Ew.§3ii a ; 

Da. § 1. 

n*T3y] Luc. top vlov o-ov, i.e. ^33. So Klo., Hoo., correctly. MT. 
seems to have been altered after v. 19. As Klo. notices, the title 
of submission, appropriate in the mouth of Bathsheba when speak- 
ing of her son, is out of place as coming from Nathan. 

27. Dtf] Infrequent in single direct questions. When so em- 
ployed it is usually equivalent to num ? Judg. 5. 8 npij nNTVfDN |j|D; 
Am. 3. 6; Isa. 29. 16; Jer. 48. 27; Job 6. 12; 39. 13. In Gen. 
38. 17 *\r)bf ny fttjj? fnrrDN it represents An? Da. § 112 end. 

8 The First Book of Kings 

nX£] From proximity with, used to express origin from ; a more 
idiomatic expression than the simple \o, fiXd is very usual when 
m.T is the source named. See instances cited on 2. 15. 

nTtt] 'Has been brought about.' Cf. 12. 24; || 2 Chr. 11. 4 

nrn inn rpro *nx» *a . 

28. h INip] ^ ZWjzwj commodi. Cf. II. 4. 24 33"£ ^JgPrW?; 
2 Sam. 18. 5 ^"»l$; Judg. 16. 9. 

~}bt2n s Jsi? nnyni ^on ^ Nnni] So Targ. LXX, Vulg. pre- 
suppose yoai> "roym itan "oai? Nnm; Pesh. "oai> novni voab xnni 

"fta""!; Luc. -jtan ya^ IDyni N2rn. The unnaturalness of Pesh., 
Via? preceding '"pttn 'OQ? instead of z>^ wrjtf, and its disagreement 
with LXX, Vulg., point to the probability of all three being attempts 
to mend the tautology of MT. This repetition is no doubt due to 
a mistake of the scribe's eye, "TEym being first omitted, and then 
added at the end with a repetition of the words which properly 
followed it. Thus we may, with Klo., Hoo., atlopt the reading of 
Luc. Th. favours that of LXX, Vulg. 

29. '31 ma !ffl(] So exactly 2 Sam. 4. 9. 

30. p *a ♦ ♦ « "^frO *o] The first *a introduces the subject of the 
oath; cf. 2. 24; 18. 15; at.; the second VD resumes the first "O after the 
long intervening clause. Cf. 1 Sam. 14. 39 1i{^> DN *3 . , • niiT T! 
m»* mo *3 s n jroVl; 25. 34; 2 Sam. 3. 9; Jer. 22. 24; Gen. 
22. 16, 17. 

33. v "lEW rman] 'Mine own mule'; more emphatic than W"]3. 
Cf. 1 Sam. 25. 7 j? "IPX D^n '///y shepherds,' emphasized in view 
of the claim which follows; 2 Sam. 14. 31 ^ X>K np?nfl DN 'fljy 
field,' in contrast to the suffix of f "Qy. Da. § 28, Rem. 5 5 . Notice 
the difference between this class of examples of the construction 
b "1£W, and that noticed upon v. 8. While here the emphasis 
is upon the possessive pronoun, there it falls upon the strict 
definition of the substantive. 

Jim btii] Some MSS. by utd, 5>K np. See 0. 38. 

pro] Pesh. Ua^A, Targ. NlTi^ (here and in vv. 38, 45) identify 
with the pool of Shiloali or Siloam ; and this is favoured by 2 Chr. 
33. 14, where it is stated that Manasseh built an outer wall to 

/. 28-38 9 

the city of David on the west side of Gihon in the ravine, the ?n3 
referred to being probably that of the fVVlj?. The topography of 
\vbyn ))m ^E K^D is a much disputed subject. See Z)£ 2 . i. 1 186. 

35. TJ3] Lit. one placed in the fore front, so ' leader! The word 
in early Hebrew is characteristic of the more elevated style, and is 
frequent in Sam., Ki., especially in prophetical utterances. 1 Sam. 
9. 16; 10. 1; 13. 14; 25. 30; 2 Sam. 5. 2 ; 6. 21; 7.8; ch. 14. 7; 
16. 2; II. 20. 5. 

36. 'm '* new p JDK] So Vulg., 'A., 2., and substantially Targ. 
w nip p K1JH W p pX. Pesh. ^c»W |u*j» ..^^j Uo©» ^50/ ; 
2 Codd. Kennicott and 1 de Rossi nb>£ p. Cf. Jer. 28. 6. LXX 

TevoiTO ovtcos' 7Tto"rd)crai 6 Qeos tov Kvpiov pov tov /3ao"tXecoy. Luc. 
Tevoiro ovtcos' TnCTcoaai 6 Qeos tovs \6yovs tov Kvpiov jxov tov ^aaiKecos' 
ovtcos eirre Kvpios 6 Qeos aov, Kvpie pov (3aai\ev. A double rendering. 

Pesh. »^,\j is almost certainly a paraphrase of the somewhat harsh 
expression of MT. LXX, Luc. must have read P&1 for 1DK\ and 
then probably added the necessary object nni nx . Klo. follows 
this, emending SJ^Bn •tflK ^TIS *pr&K fljn; fDN^ p J£K; and so 
Hoo. But to say pts 'true,' i.e. 'w<2y it come true! and then to 
continue 'y\ p$* p, is mere tautology. There is no reason for 
the rejection of MT. 

37- W] Read \T Kt. with LXX, Vulg. 

38. Tvfim TfOn] David's bodyguard, doubtless composed of 
foreigners, mentioned only during his reign; v. 44; 2 Sam. 8. 18 
(II 1 Chr. 18. 17); 15. 18; 20. 7, 23 (Q're). The names are 
genlilic in formation; G-K. § 86, 2, Rem. 5. In 1 Sam. 30 ""m^n are 
connected with the Philistines ; cf. v. 14 with v. 16 ; and this is also 
the case with CHIZi which occurs Ezek. 25. 16 ; Zeph. 2. 5t. This 
latter is rendered KprjTes by LXX, and hence it is thought that 
"VifiSS, from which the Philistines are said (Am. 9. 7; Deut. 2. 23 ; 
cf. Jer. 47. 4) to have emigrated, denotes Crete 1 . TIPS has been 

1 Sayce, following Ebers, formerly identified *nnDD with the Egyptian 
Kaft-ur or 'greater Phoenicia,' i.e. the coast-land of the Delta {The Higher 
Criticism, 136), but has now abandoned this view [Academy, April 14, 1894, 

P- 3H)- 

io The First Book of Kings 

supposed, though without ground from analogy, to be a contraction 
of »ns??S. Th.'s objection to the view that the ^nbai TfO were 
foreigners, on the score that David, who was so patriotic and 
devoted to the worship of the only God, would not have surrounded 
himself with a foreign bodyguard, will not hold good, in view of the 
important positions occupied by Uriah the Hittite 2 Sam. 11. 15, 
and by Ittai the Gittite 2 Sam. 18. 2. 

fina by] In v. 33 the better reading is firm 7K. There are many- 
scattered instances of by used in place of btf after a verb of motion 
ch. 20. 43 '21. 4 btf); 22. 6 ( [| 2 Chr. 18. 5 btf); 1 Sam. 2. 11 
2 Sam. 15. 20; Mic. 4. 1 (|| Isa. 2. 2 b&C); Isa. 22. 15 (by » . . btf) 
66. 20 (56. 7 btf); Ezek. 1. 20 {v. 12 btf); 44. 13 (btf . , . bv • . . b«) 
Jer. 1. 7; 31. 11 (by . . . btf); 36. 12; al. 

40. Oybna B^no] So Vulg., and second rendering of Luc; 
(Vet. Lat. second rendering organizantes in organis ; Pesh. ^J^^j 
U^p 'were striking sistra'). LXX, and first rendering of Luc. 
c'xopcvov cv xopcU. So perhaps Targ. N^ra prntPID 1 . .Vet. Lat. first 
rendering caittabat canticis tt melodiis. Ew., following LXX, reads 
Dv*ri3 c vbhp on the ground that it is unlikely that ' all the people ' 
would be able to play flutes. But, as Th. remarks, the form DvTl 
never occurs (always DOTD), and round dances, which would be 
denoted by bbn, would be unsuitable in a hasty procession. To 
this we may add the consideration that the stress seems to be 
laid upon the noise which was made; B7lp3 fHKil ypani. Klo.'s 
emendation &V?n? E'v?' 1 (cf. Isa. 30. 29) is unnecessary. A denom. 
tyn = < to play the flute ' may well be formed from byn. 

'31 ypnni] The sound of the shouting is compared to the deep 
rumbling produced by the splitting of the ground during an 
earthquake. In Num. 16. 31 the phrase •TO'iKn V\>^Fi\ is used of 
an earthquake phenomenon. Th.'s objection to MT. is insufficient. 

1 But w;n may have the meaning 'musical instrument'; re sac him in b 
n*UQ *o:n ibn 'they hung a harp in the hollow of the tree '; Targ. Jerus. on Ex. 
32. 19 'ton prm»3 p:m 'and harp in the hands of the sinners' ; Targ. Ps. 5. 1 
pan ■» snnirb = Heb. m^nan ^s nsaoS. See Levy or Jastrow, s. v. Studia 
Biblica, ii. p. 34. 

/. 4°~47 ll 

41. 'il 173 Dm] ' They >to ing finished eating'; a circumstantial 
clause with the personal pronoun standing as subject. So very 
frequently; II. 5. 18 +T* by ]W) Wni 'he leaning on my hand'; 
Gen. 15. 2 ; 18. 8; al. Dri. Tenses, § 160. 

nom rmpn hp yno] ' Wherefore is there the sound of the city 
in tumult?' So Vulg., excellently, Quid sibi vult clamor civitalis 
iumtiltuantis ? ilDin is properly an accus. of state, and forms a kind 
of secondary predicate. Cf. ch. 14. 6 nnsi n£n n^jn 7*p (nan of 
course referring to the suffix of iTvJn) ; Song 5, 2 pan HH 7lp ; 
Gen. 3. 8. See Dri. Tenses, § 161, 6><£.?. 2. 

For the use of the word non, cf. Isa. 22. 2 ; Jer. 6. 23 ; Ps. 46. 7. 

42. '31 imy] Cf. p. 14 note. 

y*X\ 5J*k] Not 'a man of valour,' but 'a man of worth' ; as also 
in the expression 7TJ p z>. 52. That 7TI can have this meaning is 
shown by its application to a woman ; Ruth 3. 11 ; Prov. 31. 10 ; 
cf. v. 29. Targ., here and in v. 52 ; ch. 2. 2 (see note)) 2 Sam. 23. 20, 
seeks to reproduce this special sense by pKtan 7*IT7 133 'a man 
who fears sin.' 

43. 72tf] With a slight adversative force, ' Nay but! in repudiation 
of Adonijah's suggestion that he is the bearer of good tidings. In 
late Heb. this adversative signification is strongly marked, 'howbeit'; 
Dan. 10. 7, 21; Ezra 10. 13; 2 Chr. 1.4; 19. 3; 33.17. In classical 
Heb., though weaker, it is never really absent: Gen. 17. 19 73N 
p -|7 mi* "JWK TTW 'Nay but Sara thy wife shall bear thee a son,' 
in response to Abraham's wish that Ishmael might be his repre- 
sentative; 42. 21 13TIN by tfrDK D^DBW 738! however much ive may 
try to repudiate it, our guilt has found us out; 2 Sam. 14. 5 72N 
*3K il3D7K HBW the woman anticipates any refusal of the king to 
take up her cause by pleading that she is a widow; II. 4. 14 1 73K 
■"17 pN p Gehazi points out that the woman would like, not the 
offers of v. 13, but the bestowal of a son. Thus 'verily' or 'of 
a truth/ the translation of RV. in all these five passages except 
Gen. 17, is insufficient. 

45. rmpn onni] 1 Sam. 4. 5 y-\xn onni ; Ruth 1. 19 -vyn 72 dnm. 

47. Luc. inserts Kai eureArjAutfao-i fjouoL after tov Kvpiov r^xiiiv tov 

12 The First Book of Kings 

(Sao-iXea AaviB. This seems to point to a Hebrew original in which 
"HHy 1X2 Ml, at the beginning of the verse, had been by mistake 
written a second time after nn *pftn U'OIN, and then, making no 
sense in that position, had been altered into B^?? 1K2 031. Klo. 
sees in fxovoi CH^p a variant of *]"Q?. 

yrbtt] Kt., Pesh. ; D>r6x Q're, LXX, Vulg., Luc, Targ. The 
latter should have the preference. 

48. 'y\ n^ DVn }nJ n^N] Insert Til*? after Dm upon the authority 
of LXX, Luc. €K tov anepnaTos fiov. So Th., Klo. The happiness 
of the event consisted not in the fact that David was to have 
a successor, which was only natural, but that this successor was to 
be one of his own family — his son. Pesh., Targ. insert ]*», "Q. 
They probably translated from a text in which, like MT., '■jntlD had 
fallen out, and thus felt the necessity for some such insertion. 

H1N1 ^yi] ' Mine eyes beholding it ' ; a circumstantial clause. 
The idiom occurs again Deut. 28. 32 ; 2 Sam. 24. 3 ; Jer. 20. 4. 

50. rDTDn m^np] The four corners of the brazen altar, made of 
one piece with it (Ex. 27. 2 pnn UBD WlJB SD1N by Wnp rwjn 
VnJlp), and apparently projecting, for they could be grasped (here, 
and v. 51 ; 2. 28), and also broken off (cf. Amos 3. 14 mnp IJHJJI 

51. "ien!? 'b6 nn] See ?/<?/*, a^jfw. ond 16. 16 ^1 ywi. 
DV3] Properly ' to-day ' (p having a temporal force, as e. g. in 

1 Sam. 5. 10 'y\ pnN KISS \Tl), so 'now,' and then acquiring the 
special sense '/™/ of alV : Gen. 25. 31 ^ iniDn HN DVD .TOD ; 

1 Sam. 2. 16 n^nn nva fn*ttp* inp. 

n 1 ^ Dtf] ' That he will not slay/ The oath which is implied 
would take some such form as ?]W nil D\"6k )b nw H3 (cf. II. 
6. 31; 1 Sam. 3. 17; 25. 22), and thus by the suppression of the 
apodosis DK ' if of the protasis, gains the sense of an emphatic 
negative. This is very common; cf. ch. 2. 8; II. 2. 2; 3. 14; 1 Sam. 
3. 14; al. Da. § 120; Ew. § 356 a . 

52. 'J1 in*Wft ^ tfi?] ' There shall not fall even a single hair of 
him to the ground.' The fern, m$W is a nomcn unitatis ; cf. Judg. 

20. 16 Kan: &6] rrjj&rrifcj jnaa ybp nr^S; G-K. § 122, 4* imsro 

/. 48-IL 2 13 

properly means i starting from one of his hairs'; cf. Deut. 15. 7 
?pnfcjl inNTD p^lN 'a poor man, even {starting from) one of thy 
brethren/ This use of |D, called SJolfJi ^ (^ otiose), is very 
frequent in Ar. when a negation, prohibition, or interrogation with 
J.a precedes; Qor. 6. 38 #^2, ^ i_>iixJl ^ Ui^J U 'We have 
neglected nothing whatsoever (lit. starting from anything) in the 

9 — .» O o JO -0 ° .» «» 

Book'; 67. 3 i^jjUJ ^ ^.^Jl <jJii. ^J jjjpf U 'Thou canst 
see ;z<? ^r/ 0/* diversity in God's creation'; ibid.j^aj ^ (jjj J.£ 
' Seest thou tfTzy gap ? ' The other occurrences of the proverbial 
phrase are 1 Sam. 14. 45 nriK IPfiO n"W& ^ ON ; 2 Sam. 14. n t 

53. rotDn i?JJD] 'From »/0» the altar': cf. ^. 2. 34 5>jn, The 
verb r6y also occurs in the sense of going up upon an altar, ch. 
12. 32, 33 ; II. 16. 12 ; 23. 9 ; 1 Sam. 2. 28 ; and conversely *rv> is 
used of descent from the altar here and in Lev. 9. 22. In Ex. 20. 26 
j/f^j to the altar are expressly forbidden, and hence it has been 
thought that the ascent was by an inclined plane, leading up to 
a ledge (perhaps the 32"13 of Ex. 27. 5) which ran round the altar. 
Solomon's altar, according to 2 Chr. 4. 1, was ten cubits high, and 
therefore must have been approached by an incline, or by steps ; 
and the altar described by Ezekiel is pictured as having steps 
leading up to it (43. 17 B^g nfoa VtfAgtt). Jos. (Wars, v. 5, § 6) 
states that in Herod's Temple the ascent to the altar was by an 
inclined plane. 

2. 1. ':1 impi] So Gen. 47. 29. 

Wl] ni¥ is used of a man's last commands ; cf. especially 2 Sam. 
17. 23 lrTQ bx XS?\; II. 20. 1; || Isa. 38. 1 ^mb 1¥; cf. also Gen. 
50. 12, 16 ; Deut. 31. 23, 25. In New Heb. nKJS = a will; Baba 
bathra i47 a . 

2. 'HI -j^n ^3N] Cf. Josh. 23. 14. 

nptni] RV. 'Be thou strong therefore.' The perf. with 1 consec. 
is used as a mild imperative; cf. v. 6 IWjfl ; ^. 3. 9 nnJl ; 8. 28 ; 
at. See Dri. Tenses, § 119 5; G-K. § 112, 4 b . 

B»&6 n«m] Cf. 1 Sam. 4. 9 &W}i6 Vn. So LXX, Vulg., Pesh., 
and substantially 2. (kou eVo a^8petoy). Luc. /cat eW els avhpa 8vpdfX€(os, 

14 The First Book of Kings 

Targ. psttn b*rn -Q:6 «nm (cf. rA. 1. 42, »<?&), and several Codd. 
Vulg. eslo vir fortis seem to presuppose 7>n Pw n*ffi. The regular 
phrase, however, is p^n p? HVT, cf. 0$. 1. 52 ; 1 Sam. 18. 17; 2 Sam. 
2.7; #/./ and Luc. accordingly in all these passages keeps vlov. This 
makes it probable that Swdfieas here is only a paraphrastic addition. 
3, 4. This passage, in its present form, is due to the pre-exilic 
Deuteronomic compiler (R D ) l . Notice especially the phrases m»BH 

'•» m&PB dn Deut. 11. 1; ynbx ^ cf. ^. 8. 58 «^/<?y wn rak 

Deut. 8. 6; 10. 12 ; 11. 22; 0/.; 'jl vnpn "IDB^ Deut. constantly; fj>£^ 
'jl b^BTl Deut. 29. 8 ; 'ai D^ fyfti> Deut. 9. 5 ; "]^W km -pni> kn 
Deut. 4. 29 ; 6. 5 ; tf/. 

3. P^BTl] ' Understand ' (so as to manage successfully). For 
i>wn with accus., cf. Ps. 64. 10 ; 106. 7 ; Deut. 32. 29 ; and with the 
special nuance of our passage, Deut. 29. 8 "i£W k DN 't'OBn |5JDi> 
pt^yn. In the application of the word to clause 5, man "^K k HX 
DB>, there is a slight zeugma. 

ruan] The use of the word is illustrated by Prov. 17.8k ^X 
S>W n:2) s "1PN; 1 Sam. 14. 47 (emend VW})) yen 1 * m^ "W kn. 

4. inn DX] The promise referred to is the substance of 2 Sam. 

7. 12-16 (Nathan's prophecy). 

*)sb rok] The phrase '"• vzb J?n is peculiar to Kings ; ch. 3. 6 
(as here, followed by nDXn); 8. 23, 25 (|| 2 Chr. 6. 14, 16); 9. 4 
(|| 2 Chr. 7. 17) + . Elsewhere the phrase is '* ^sb "jknn ; II. 20. 3 
|| Isa. 38. 3 (followed by nEXn) ; 1 Sam. 2. 30 ; Gen. 17. 1 ; 24. 40 ; 
48. 15; Ps. 56. 14; 116. 9+. 

-\12xh . . . riDB* DK "IDN^] The second icai? introduces the 
express words of the promise after a brief summary of the condi- 
tions; ' Said he! Such cases of resumption after an intervening 
sentence are not uncommon in Heb. ; cf. ch. 1. 30 p '3 • • # "\tPK3 "3 ; 

8. 30 nnki njnoc'i . . . nycm; 8. 41, 42 &ai ♦ . , Km; 13. u 

D^SD^ . . ♦ [iJnsD^ ; 1 Sam. 29. 10 DDMPni . , . MPH ; Lev. 17. 5 
DWam . . , l^m IP* \Vftb ; al. The second -\mb is omitted by 
Cod. Kennicott 170, Th., Kamp., and not expressed by Luc, Vulg. 

See Introduction. 

H- 3-5 J 5 

'31 m^ n!>] Cf. ch. 8. 25 (|| 2 Chr. 6. 16) ; 9. 5 (|| 2 Chr. 7. 18) ; 
Jer. 33. 17. *p is dat. of reference, ' pertaining unto thee.' 

7VD] Lit. 'from (sitting) upon/ so 'off.' A regular idiom; cf. 
the phrases "fonn byo 1 Sam. 25. 23; !»jn bjO Gen. 24. 64: 

paten i'vo <•/,. 1. e H - *Bten i?yD Gen. 40. 17; nonsn bvv Deut. 28. 

2i; tf /. 

5. ftHiTt] ' How that he slew them.' The 1 is epexegetical of 
the somewhat vague preceding expression 'at n^V ~ic>K fiK. Other 
instances of the Imperf. with 1 consec, l how that' or i in that,' used 
to explain a preceding ripy, are fA. 18. 13 NIinKI , , , TlW "»B>N DN; 
1 Sam. 8. 8; Gen. 31. 26. See Dri. Tenses, § 76 a ; Da. §47 end. 

thwi nDrTO '•OH DB*t] A very unnatural expression, (i) As it 
stands it can only mean, (a) ' He placed the blood of war upon 
peace/ or (/3) taking D^l absolutely, ' He set (i.e. paraph, shed) the 
blood of war during time of peace.' But such an absolute use of 
WW, followed neither by 2 or ?y of that upon which the object is 
placed, nor by a second accus. or by 7 expressing the result of the 
action denoted by the verb, is extremely improbable, (ii) Why is 
the blood of Abner and Amasa called nDrTO W ? This is in- 
explicable. Doubtless we ought, with Klo., Hoo., to emend 
DB^I after Luc. ko.\ e^bUrjaev, Vet. Lat. et vindicavit, i.e. *&\ &p*t 
D7KO nDFvD, the only change being the substitution of p for £>. 
Joab's crime consisted in having avenged in time of peace, blood 
shed in war — the blood of Asahel justifiably shed by Abner in 
self-defence. Thus ncrpD W is fully explained, and forms an 
admirable antithesis to D?^3. For the use of DW DpJ cf. Deut. 
32. 43 Dip 1 * VOy Dl. LXX koi Zra&v seems to have had MT. 
reading ; while Vulg. et ejfudit, Targ. DID TVlh? [TOl iwm Wl 
N2ip "n*an, Pesh. ^^Ai? ^./ »qj/ ajuo are probably para- 
phrastic explanations of the same. 

im:ra nDnta W jm] Here we have the same difficulty as to 
the application of fflDrTO Von. The reading of Cod. A, Luc. alfxa 
aBioov is favoured by the fact that Luc. preserves the correct text 
just before. Accordingly, Bo. suggests D3ni) DW ; Th. s pJ ^ ; Klo. 
Darip DW or Djn W. The last expression is the best; cf. z>. 31 

1 6 The First Book of Kings 

n^V "]ZW 1BW DJn W n^Dm. Doubtless, as Th. suggests, the 
corruption arose through the previous nBrPD W standing directly 
above DJn W in the MS. from which the copy was made. Targ. 
flrPD*T, Pesh. lOc*-'*©* presuppose QrWJ, which may well have 
arisen from D3n *D*T. 

6. "Pin N7l] The employment of the jussive form with tfb is rare. 
Other instances are, Gen. 24. 8 ; i Sam. 14. 36; 2 Sam. 17. 12 ; 
Ezek. 48.14; Gen. 4.12; Deut. 13. 1 ; Joel 2. 2. See G-K. § 109, i b ; 
Dri. Tenses, § 174 Ofo. For the expression (n)^1fcW 'S n^G? T"Vin 
cf. z\ 9 ; Gen. 42. 38 ; 44. 29, 31. 

7. "6dK3 Y»m] 'Let them be among, &c.' Cf. Am. 1. 1 "flPK Dlfty 
DHpn PIT!; Prov. 23. 20 J« ^IDl Yin h$. 

^K U"ip p "O] 'For J0 did they draw near to me/ i.e. 'with such 
kindness as thou art to show to them ' ; Th. So LXX ovt<d$. If 
we adopt this explanation, it is unnecessary to suppose, with Hitzig, 
that p *3 stands for p ?V *3 , as is suggested by Pesh. ? ^^-^ ; 
cf. Targ. *HK, Vulg. enim. Luc. ovtos is a corruption of ovtojs. 

vK inp] Klo., following Luc. ovtos napearij ivoomov fxov, emends 
>m ^p ; cf.Deut. 23. 5 tinbl D^ns* \cnp i6. This is an unneces- 
sary change. LXX f/yyiaav, Vulg. occurrerunt agree with MT. ; 
Targ. "yVM Ip^SID, Pesh. ^«..>o.^^.2» ujqa.'a*, paraphrase. 

8. W>Ti p] ' The Benjamite/ So Judg. 3. 15; 2 Sam. 16. 11; 
19. 17 1. Cf. *DTlfc n*3 1 Sam. 16. 18; *Btotfrrn*a 1 Sam. 6. 14 ; 
•6sn iva ^. 16. 34; ntyn *a« J u dg. 6. 11. In 1 Chr. 27. 12 Kt. 
^'•ID'oa? (i.e. WM3£, the origin being forgotten, and the word 
treated as a single one. Cf. 'HJF'Nri Num. 26. 30) ; Q're anoma- 
lously WDJ \h. Cf. K6. Syntax, § 302* 

nv^»3] Niph'al again in Mic. 2. 10; Job 6. 25; Hiph'il, Job 
16. 3t- The word may be connected with Ar. \Jz>jZ> to be sick, — 
'a curse made sick' and so '« sore or severe curse? Cf. with similar 
use of a passive participle, npro H3D Jer. 14. 17. 

9. nnjn] So Targ., Pesh. LXX omits. Luc, Vulg. nfiK] ; so 
Th., Klo., Kamp. MT. should be retained; see note on ch. 1. 20. 

10. n. This short mention of David's death and burial, and the 
statement of the length of his reign, is in its present form the work 

II. 6-i) 17 

of R D , whose method of introducing and summarizing the account 
of a reign is noticed at length in Introd. 

10. TH "py] The ancient city of Jerusalem taken by David from the 
Jebusites 1 , called p* rTOD 2 Sam. 5. 7; || 1 Chr. 11, 5; p* ch. 8. 1. 
Zion is expressly named in 1 Mace. 4. $*j f.j 7. 33 as the hill 
upon which the Temple stood, and this is further borne out by 
such expressions as 'tf nm pwn niN3¥ '1 Isa. 8. 18 ; iwiB* BTTp '* 
Isa. 60. 14 ; nnp nn |VS Ps. 2. 6 ; in nJ3B> ro JVW in Ps. 74. 2 ; a/. 
In 2 Chr. 33. 14 it is said of Manasseh that 'he built an outer wall 
to the city of David, on the west side of Gihon in the ravine {note 
on ch. 1. 33), even to the entering in at the fish gate; and he 
compassed about the Ophel, &c/ 

Thus it seems clear that the site of 111 TJ7 was upon the some- 
what low south-east hill of Jerusalem (?$Vn), the Temple being on 
the north, and Solomon's palace upon the south, closely adjoining 
the Temple 2 . The tradition which places Zion upon the south- 
west hill appears to be no earlier than the fourth century a.d. ; 
and the modern maps which so locate it are certainly incorrect. 
See Sta. Ges. i. 315/^/ Encyc. Brit. ed. 9, hit. Jerusalem (Pt. II) ; 
Baed. 2\f. 

13. TVchW Otf ♦ . ♦ tfm] LXX, Luc. add kcu irpoaeKvvrja-ev aurrj, 

i.e. PJJ ^nri^l; possibly genuine, and accepted by Klo. Th. is 
doubtful, remarking that it is quite as likely to have been inserted 
by a copyist from v. 19, on the consideration that Adonijah would 
not have acted with less deference than king Solomon. 

1 The name Dtl* applied to the city, Judg. 19. 10, 11 ; 1 Chr. 11. 4, 5f 
(cf. Josh. 15. 8; 18. 16, 28 P), is probably no real archaism, but a literary 
derivative from the name of the ancient inhabitants. Cf. Moore {Judges^ 
p. 413), who quotes Judg. 1. 7, 21 ; Josh. 15. 63 (JE), as showing that the city 
was called Jerusalem before the time of David, and concludes that ' the 
question has been set at rest by the Amarna tablets (about 1400 B.C., before 
the Israelite invasion) in which the name Urusalim repeatedly occurs, while 
there is no trace of a name corresponding to Jebus.' 

2 This agrees with the statement of Ezek. 43. 7 b , 8 a ; 'And the house of 
Israel shall no more defile my holy name, neither they nor their kings, ... in 
their setting of their threshold by my threshold, and their doorpost beside my 
doorpost, and there was but the wall between me and them.' 


1 8 The First Book of Kings 

*\X2 Dl^n] So i Sam. 16. 4. Lit. 'Is thy coming peace?' the 
abstract substantive being used instead of an adjective. So very 
frequently with this word; Gen. 43. 27 M^- ^^H > J U( 3g. 6. 2 4 
$bp iW )h X^l 'he called it, Yah we is peace' ; 1 Sam. 25. 6; 
2 Sam. 17. 3; Isa. 60. 17; Mic. 5. 4 ; Ps. 120. 7; 147. 14 ; Prov. 
3. 17; Job 5. 24; 21. 9t; cf. also Num. 25. 12 nbw Tina 'my 
covenant — peace,' i.e. 'my peaceful covenant/ With other words; 
Ex. 17. 12 rwilDN VT W 'and his hands were firmness' ; Ps. 110. 3 
flXU *py ' thy people is freewillingness '; &c. See Dri. Tenses, 
§ 189, 2. 

14. T^N ^ ^n] II, 9. 5; Judg. 3. 19, 20. 

">EKm] LXX, Luc, Pesh., Vulg., some Codd. add )b. 

15. 'on nn^n v] 'Mine was the kingdom.' *9 is greatly empha- 
sized by position: cf. Job 15. 19 pan FUH3 tnni> Dnb; Hag. 2. 8 

nmn ^ span "6. 

DrVJS ♦ ♦ ♦ 1E£> *by] Expressing attention concentrated in expect- 
ancy; cf. the phrase by py ch, 1. 20. In its other occurrences, 
Ezek. 29. 2 ; 35. 2t (a variation of b$ D'OS DH5>), the expression is 
used with a hostile nuance. D^D D^ followed by an infin. with 7 
describes a purpose at the point of time at which it is about to be 
put into execution. II. 12. 18 D^B>W by n)byb VJB i>NTn DS^l ; 
Jer. 42. 15, 17; 44. 12; Dan. 11. 17. 

:];TO] Klo. compares II. 12. 18; but this is not quite parallel, 
the subject of the infin. TX)?y? being, as in the other passages above 
cited, the same as that of 0^1, while the subject of ?pB? is different 
from that of IDC Two Codd. De Rossi and all Verss. presuppose 
the easier reading ^J^y. 

HIiT'lo] The ordering of events in a manner opposed to human 
calculations is, as Klo. notices, specially spoken of as a divine 
interposition. Judg. 14. 4 NVl iWD 'a tyT i6 1DW V3W ; cf. Prov. 
16. 1. There is a similar use of flliT HND ; ^. 12. 24; II. 6. 33 ; 
Josh. 11. 20; Ps. 118. 23; al. 

16. bw "03N] The participle used of the immediate future as it 
merges into the present ; the futnrum instans. ' I am about to 
ask,' almost equivalent to the simple present 'I ask.' Cf. v. 20. 

//. 14-19 T 9 

•02 DK *2B>n btf] So Vulg., Pesh., Targ. ; but LXX, Luc. to 
npoo-anov aov, i.e. T>Jfi DK ; and in »z;. 17, 20 LXX reads ovk 
a.7ro(TTpe\l/€i to irpooaynov avTOv dno crov for *]>3B Htf H* 1 ^ N/, and /x^ 
diroo-Tptyys to npoaanov aov for *}fi ntf 3B71 7K. On the contrary, 
*pE) HS n^N N^> at the end of z/. 20 is rendered ovk aitocrTptyai <re. 
In all these cases, Luc, Targ., Vulg. (paraph, in v. 17, neque enim 
negare iibi quidquam potest), Pesh. (y&( for ^3fi in 0. 17) agree in 
supporting the reading of MT. 

The usage of the expression tMB 3W1 is as follows. It occurs, 
as in the LXX text of these passages, of turning one's own face 
away from anything, only in Ezek. 14. 6 DD'Wa byn ETWI 111^ 
DrrOD OWI DDTDjnn ba Swi; cf. Ezek. 18. 30 where there is 
probably an ellipse of CMS. 7 0*03 ^BM /b turn one's own face 
towards, Dan. 11. 18, 19. On the other hand, the expression is 
used as here in vv. 16, 17, 20 of MT., of turning away the face of 
another in repulse, in II. 18. 24 ; || Isa. 36. 9 nna »JB HK 3W1 1^1 
'« iriK, and Ps. 132. 10; || 2 Chr. 6. 42 ^IWD *3B l^Tl ^. So 
also in the opposite expression of //$<? acceptance of an overture, fcOT 
D"0B, it is always the face of another person which is raised. 

Thus evidence is all in favour of the retention of MT. text in 
vv. 16, 17, 20. 

18. 31D] A formula of assent ; cf. 1 Sam. 20. 7; 2 Sam. 3. 13. 

19. rh irtfliPn] So Vulg., Pesh., Targ. LXX, Luc. m\ (LXX kclt-) 
icj)i\T]o-€v avTrjv presuppose nj ptifa or np$*!. Bo. prefers MT., sup- 
posing that LXX reading points to an alteration on the part of the 
Alexandrian Jews, who thought that such an act of obeisance was 
unworthy of king Solomon. Th. also points out that the cere- 
monial which follows — the placing of a throne for the queen-mother 
and her sitting at the king's right hand — is in favour of MT. 

The importance of the position of the queen-mother 'T^nan is 
attested by ch. 15. 13 ; ||2 Chr. 15. 16 (cf. II. 10. 13 ; Jer. 13. 18 ; 
29. 2), and by the frequent special mention of her name; ch. 
14. 21, 31; 15. 2, 10; 22. 42; II. 8. 26; 12. 2 ; al. Thus, as far 
as can be judged, there would be nothing incongruous in the 
king's bowing to her. 

c 2 

20 The First Book of Kings 

Klo. adopts LXX reading, describing the action denoted by 
MT. as ' gegen alle Etiquette ' ; but as a matter of fact we know 
too little about the customs of ancient eastern monarchs to be able 
to dogmatize upon what might fittingly have taken place, and 
what not so. 

20. aB>rri>K] Here the close connexion of 7K to the jussive by 
means of Maqqef causes a retraction of the tone, just as in the case 
of the Imperf. with 1 consec. Cf. i Sam. 9. 20 Db>Jp"pfe$ ; 2 Sam. 
17. 16 f^rte; al. 

21. 3^2S nx [FlJ] The passive verb is impersonal, and the 
object of the action denoted by it follows in the accus. ; ' Let there 
be giving as regards Abishag,' so, ' Let one give,' or, ' Let her be 
given.' So with the same verb Num. 32. 5 HWH fysn HS ffl* 
*pnyi>; cf. also ch. 18. 13 WW "WN HK vivb "ian abn ; 2 Sam. 
21. 11; Gen. 27. 42 ; al. See G-K. § 121, 1; Ew. 295b; Da. § 79. 

22. nDTl] i And why?' 'why then?' The 1 is very forcible, and 
here gives a sarcastic turn to the sentence. Cf. II. 7. 19 f i mm 
DM W3 iWf! DW3 nirw n^y 'iVay, if Yah we were to make 
windows in heaven, could this thing come to pass?' Other instances 
of the 1 with ruJ? are Num. 14. 3; 20. 4; Judg. 6. 13; 12. 3. 
See Dri. Tenses, § 119 y, n. 1. 

nop] With accent Milrd before the following HK, instead of 
ntSJ. This accentuation is always adopted before words beginning 
with N, y, or n, for the sake of avoidance of hiatus. See Sta. 

§ 37 2a . 

iTIlV . , ♦ "ttV2fc6l l^l] RV. 'Ask for him the kingdom . . . even for 
him, and for Abiathar &c/ A somewhat dubious rendering. As 
the text stands li?1 can scarcely be correct, and must be omitted as 
dittography from the first two letters of the following word. 

All Verss., however, LXX, Luc, Vulg., Pesh., and probably Targ. 
(paraph, nim^l Kin Wl NtfjD vhri), presuppose ih fran nn^N ibi 
'x\ 3W 'And on his side are Abiathar the priest, and Joab &c/ As 
Th. says, it is natural that a second reason for asking the kingdom 
for Adonijah should be mentioned. So Bo. For this sense of v, 

cf. Ex. 32. 26 *S>n rwh ns \ Josh. 5. 13 \snh dn nnN w!>n. 

II. 20-2} 21 

The addition of LXX, Luc, after Joab's name, 6 apxia-Tpdrrj-yos 
cVatpoy, appears to be merely a gloss, 6 dpx- being Joab's usual title, 
and iralpos explaining the reference of )?, ' To him Joab . . . is an 

Klo., starting from the addition of krdipos in LXX, Luc., and 
comparing the Targ. paraphrase 'jll ))n WPJD N?n, supposes that 
a word has fallen out at the end of the sentence in MT., and 
accordingly would supply "ijn • < To him and to Abiathar . . . there 
is an alliance! But against this it is to be noticed that the word 
which is constantly used in the historical books to denote a con- 
spiracy or alliance is never "On but always ~W\> (cf. II. 11. 14; 
12. 21 ; al), and again, it seems very doubtful whether Targ., if it 
had had "On at the end of the sentence, would have represented 
it by N^JD at the beginning. 

23. '31 ."W J-d] II. 6. 31; 1 Sam. 3. 17; 14. 44; 20. 13; 25. 22; 
2 Sam. 3. 9, 35; 19. 14; Ruth 1. 17. In the mouths of heathen 
a plural verb is used ; ch. 19. 2; 20. iot. 

*3] If the substance of the oath be a negation, it is usual to 
introduce it by EX 'i/'; ch. 20. 10 nay pBty DN IDCrt" , ♦ ♦ PD 
'31 DvJJKv plD^ ' So may the gods do to me, and more also, z/"the 
dust of Samaria suffice for handfuls &c. ' ; II. 6. 31 P)p1 s . ♦ ♦ !"D 
DIM v6y DS^ p wh* mr\ 10jr DK; i Sam. 3. 17; 25. 22. In 
analogy with this we should expect iO DK if the substance be an 
assertion; and this occurs once; 2 Sam. 19. 14. It is usual, 
however, to break off after the oath, and introduce its subject by *0, 
the break in connexion being represented in English by a dash. 
So in our passage ; ' God do so to me and more also — Adonijah 
hath spoken this word against his life'; ch. 19. 2 *3 flBDV ♦ ♦ ♦ PD 
DJTD ^PlN E>20D 1^23 HK WW* nn» njD 'So do the gods, (fee- 
to-morrow I will make &c/ ; 1 Sam. 14. 44 ; 20. 13 ; 2 Sam. 3. 9 ; 
Ruth 1. 17. 

*5 is thus very frequently used to introduce an assertion after the 
oath fllPP *n, and with a suppression of'y\ T\W TX2\ cf. v. 24; ch. 
1. 30; 18. 15; 1 Sam. 14. 39; 20. 3, 21; 25. 34; al. (about 
nineteen times in all). In such a case K? DK occurs only once, 

22 The First Book of Kings 

Num. 14. 28, outside of Ezekiel where it is characteristic and 
uniformly takes the place of the usual construction with ^ ; 5. 1 1 ; 
17. 16, 19; 20. 33; 33. 27; 34. 8; 35. 6t (this last a gloss 
according to Cornill) 1 . 

If the oath introduced by '* TJ with a suppressed 'ai n^ ro 
have a negative substance, DK occurs constantly. 

I^EOl] ' At the cost of his life'; ifeM />r<?/*V. Cf. 2 Sam. 23. 17 
Drit?B33 D'dPiin 'who went at peril of their lives'; Prov. 7. 23; 
Lam. 5. 9. So ch. 16. 34; Josh. 6. 26 TTJW31 . . . VQS1S J Chr. 
12. 19 WWO; at. 

24. nu v rwy] Used idiomatically of Yahwe's assurance to 
Solomon of a posterity. So 2 Sam. 7. 1 1 RBflP TP1 *3 ^ ^ T3m 
'* ""ji?; cf. Exod. 1. 21. The more usual phrase is ITQ \X$1\ 1 Sam. 
2. 35 ; 2 Sam. 7. 27; (|| 1 Chr. 17. 10, 25); ch. 11. 38. 

25. Wl] LXX, Luc. presuppose the addition ^nn Dto *njriK 
1 and A. died that same day/ So Th., and Klo. with om. of name. 

26. nroy] A city of Benjamin, Isa. 10. 30 ; assigned to the priests, 
Josh. 21. 18; 1 Chr. 6. 45 ; the home of Jeremiah, Jer. 1.x. The 
modern name is Andta, 2 J miles north-north-east of Jerusalem. 
This agrees with the statements of Jos. (Ant. x. 7, § 3), who places 
it at twenty stadia from the city, Eusebius (Onom) three miles, 
Jerome (adferem. cap. 1) three miles 'contra septentrionemferusalem? 
Rob. BR., i. 437/; Baed. 118. 

"pP by] by used in place of ^X; cf. 1. 38 note, 

pitf] So all Verss. The occasion to which reference is made 
seems naturally to be that described in 2 Sam. 6. 12^. Th., Klo. 
emend ^BK, finding an allusion (as is the case in the following 
'31 rvoynn »31) to the days of David's outlawry, when Abiathar, 
fleeing from the slaughter of the priests at Nob, carried with him 
to David the Ephod which was used in obtaining the oracle of 
Yahwe; 1 Sam. 23. 6, 9. But neither miT (\Tik) 11SK nor T)DK 
DwK (Klo.) occurs elsewhere, and, if any correction of the text be 
deemed desirable, ^iSNn simply is alone in accordance with usage. 

1 With omission both of apodosis and of formal oath fcO DN is by no means 
infrequent. Cf. ch. 20. 23 note. 

II 24-29 23 

IW *rrtf] s riN, not found in LXX, Luc, Pesh., is probably 
a mistaken repetition of jViK. 

LXX, Luc. insert diadrjKrjs, i.e. rVU, after ki^cotov. This is a gloss 
derived from the expression '1 rp"D poN which is frequent elsewhere 
(see 3. 15 »0/<?). Other instances of this same insertion are Josh. 
3. 13, 15 (twice); 4. 10, 11; 6. 12, 13; 1 Sam. 6. 3, 18; 7. 1 
(twice); 2 Sam. 6. 10. 

TH 'OS/] ' In the presence of,' suggesting the idea of ' at the 
direction of David.' So Num. 8. 22 hjjid S"1N3 Drnsy HN 13j;S> 

vn "oah pro* *«&; 1 Chr. 24. 6 ^dh ^ . . ♦ Danrai. 

27. 'ai nW>] i Sam. 2. 27-36. 

28. nDJ nS> Di^a« nriKl] So LXX, Targ. ; but Luc, Vulg., 
Pesh. presuppose nfo?^ ^ttK], adopted by Jos. (^4«/. viii. 1, § 4 4>[\os 

yap rjv avrS \*Ada)vla] paWov fj too fiacrtXe'L 2oXo/xam), and also by Th., 

Ew., Gra. 

This emendation makes the sentence a little diffuse, since its 
statement is already contained by implication in the previous words 
mnK nnx HDJ nNV *3 . On the other hand, a back reference to 
the position taken by Joab in the other rebellion of 'David 's reign is 
very natural. 

29. runi] Without a specific suffix or pronoun following, the 
reference being unmistakable. Cf. Gen. 24. 30 TfiTW B^Nn i>K fcCl 
D^Djn ijy iio'y ; 37. 15; 18. 9; 16. 14. 

n3T»n hf«] LXX, Luc, Pesh. ri3]an rtir^a ink, ■ Hence Th. 
thinks that mnpn has fallen out of MT., and ?nN then become 
corrupted into ?SK. But the use of ?¥N is very natural here (used 
frequently in connexion with l"Q?D ; Lev. I.16; 6. 3; 10. 12; al.), 
and forms an appropriate variation to the phrase used in v. 28. It 
is much more probable that the alteration of the above-mentioned 
Verss. is merely due to that desire for the strict uniformity of parallel 
passages which is so characteristic, e. g. of the LXX translators. 
Ch. 1. 51 appears to have suggested the change. So Klo. 

nob® niw] After Fxbw LXX, Luc. add npos 'lwa/3 \eyav, Tt 

ykyovzv croi on necpcvyas els (Luc. necpevyes eVt) to 6vo-iacrTr)piov / Kai eiirev 
'lcoa/3 "On i<po^r}6r}v cmb TtpovtoTrov aov, Kai i'cpvyov rrpos (tov) Kvpiov. Kai 

24 The First Book of Kings 

a7reVreiXei/ 6 2aXa)/ncoy. This is translated by Th. Hjn no ib&O 3NV";>K 

n^i nii-i^K d^ki spao tijtp '•a nar -iek s i natttrrbs nD3 ^ *A 
- . .. T . ... T T i .. T . . .. T . T v ._...._ T . _ . (. 

nb^lp, and adopted by him as genuine on the ground that a scribe's 
eye might very well have passed by mistake from the first rp^l 
r\u?W to the second. So Bo., Klo. The words exhibit no attempt 
to justify the action of Solomon, nor does there seem to be any 
other reason for their addition by a later hand ; a consideration 
which favours their genuineness. 

13 S^s] LXX, Luc. add k<x\ 6d\f/ov avrov, through desire, as Th. 
remarks, for conformity with £.31. 

Klo. would emend ^n^lfini for n V^. This is unsupported by 
any Vers., and though it may seem at first sight to be required by 
the words of v. 30 N¥ *plon IDS i"D, yet this is not really the case. 
The king, in issuing the command )2 JJJQ, supposed that Joab 
could be brought away from the altar and executed, but Benaiah, 
meeting with his refusal to leave the asylum, returned to the king 
for further instructions. 

31. irTDpl] Added out of consideration for the dignity of his 

position. Cf. II. 9. 34, and contrast II. 9. 10; Jer. 22. 19; Isa. 

14. 19; Ps. 79. 3, where the loss of burial is mentioned as a mark 

of deep dishonour. 

riTprp] It is very rare to find the tone not thrown forward with 
1 consec. in 1st and 2nd sing, of verbs l"y (or y"y). This and 
vmm Jer. 10. 18; ^n^qi Am. 1. 8, are probably all the cases 
which exist. Dri. Tenses, § no, 5, Obs. 

vyft] ' From upon me ' ; the blood being regarded as resting 
upon the head of the g uilty p erson ; so vv. 33, 37; 2 Sam. 3. 29. 
Cf. Jon. 1. 14 fropj th )?hv jnn hx; 2 Sam. 16. 8; S. Matt. 
27. 25. 

32. wi by ♦ * ♦ '* nwi] 1 Sam. 25. 39 ; Judg. 9. 57. 

\01 nx] LXX, Luc. to alfxa rrjs dbiKias avrov, a paraphrase based 
upon the supposition that )J21 refers, not to Joab's own blood, but 
to the blood unjustly shed by him. 

33. '1 &J?E] So ch. 12. 15; Ruth 2. 12; Ps. 121. 2; al Cf. 
the analogous use of ^ nND ch. 1. 27 note. 

//. 3I-3J 25 

34- !w] 'Went up'; in accordance with the expression ^yD 
rOTDft ch. 1. 53 »0&. 

Wan] So LXX, Vulg., Targ. ; Th., Klo. Cf. 2 Chr. 33. 20 
1JYQ 1i"TQp v i. Luc, Pesh. presuppose i~^i?|, and this is favoured 
by Kamp. who thinks it extremely unlikely that Joab should have 
had a house in the wilderness. 

"m»3] Kamp. suggests iTW nan»2 ; Judg. 1. 16; Ps. 63. 1. 

35. After N3tfn 7V LXX, Luc. insert kcli fj ^aaiXela KaropOovro e'v 

'Upovo-dkfifjL. These words are those of v. 46 b of MT. rDPftDitl 
HD^ T'a nJIM, noiwtt being read as D^PTa. 

The correct position of the sentence seems to be at the end of 
v. 35 from which in MT. it was separated by the insertion of the 
Shimei section. Solomon's establishment in the kingdom resulted 
from the death of his powerful adversaries Adonijah and Joab, and 
could not have been much enhanced by the death of Shimei some 
three years later. The fact that in LXX, Luc. these words precede 
the sentence which relates the elevation of Zadok to the high-priest- 
hood, seems to suggest that this latter is an addition of a later editor, 
suggested by the detail which refers to Benaiah's succession to Joab. 

36. ^DB^] Luc. adds vlbv Typd, i.e. ^"1? as in v. 8, adopted by 
Klo., and by Hoo. as coming appropriately at the beginning of the 

37. n"Qyi] The Perf. with 1 consec. used in continuation of an 
Infin. describing a hypothetical event. So in #.42 rD?ni "jriNV DV3; 
8. 33 orim-py Ppara; al Dri. Tenses, §§ 117, 118; Da. § 55c. 

At the end of the verse LXX, Luc. add kol &pKi<rei/ avrov 6 ftaaikevs 
iv Tjj fjpepa iKcivri, i.e. tfinn Dto 7]^n «Tjr»2W^. Th., following Bo., 
regards these words as genuine, on the ground that if they had 
been an insertion from z>. 42 (fTHTQ THSD^n Kl^il), TW1 would 
have been read and Ninn DV2 would not have occurred. So Klo., 
w r ho remarks that since violation of the oath of Yahwe was the 
ground of Shimei' s execution, the swearing of the oath must be 
mentioned in the previous narrative. These reasons, however, are 
hardly consistent. Had the passage been genuine, it ought to have 
followed v. 38 a ; after Shimei has expressed his assent to the king's 

26 The First Book of Kings 

decision in general terms, the king then proceeds to take an oath 
of him. But if Shimei had at first taken the oath, he would not 
have then gone on to use the words of v. 38 a . The swearing of 
the oath of Yahwe may well be implied in the account of vv. 37, 38 a . 

38. Ml D^] LXX, Luc. rpia err] derived from the beginning 
of the next verse. This is another instance of the harmonizing 
tendency of the LXX translator, tending to support the judgement 
expressed above on the LXX passage in v. 37. 

39. W^ M3JJ W] The circumscription of the genitive is 
employed for greater indefiniteness. 'V ^V *}$ might have meant 
l the two servants of Shimei.' Cf. ch. 5. 15 W7 trm ?Wl 3HK, not 
' David's friend,' but <a friend of David'; 1 Sam. 16. 18 *&b p 
'one of Jesse's sons.' Da. § 28, Rem. 5 1 . 

40. ijflDP 1?*l] Luc. adds eg 'lepovaaXfa. If genuine, the words 
call special attention to the fact that Shimei passed beyond the 
limits of his parole ; though this seems to be clearly enough 
implied in the preceding nr\) p^. Klo. supposes Luc's reading to 
be an error for els 'up., and so adopts tVSfhwV *y&& 17*1. But 
in this case we should surely expect 2B*1 and not l^l. 

41. 2^1] LXX, Luc. Ka\ anecrTpey\rev (Luc. enecrTpetye) rovs dovXovs 

avrov, i.e. 1*13jrflK ^FJ-* doubtless a mere gloss. Solomon was 
informed of Shimei's having left Jerusalem, and, as Klo. points 
out, it was of no importance to tell him whether on his return he 
was accompanied by his runaway slaves or not. 

42. 13 iMKl] 'I solemnly admonished thee,' lit. 'protested against,' 
the 3 following the verb pointing to the person against whom the 
admonition is directed. Cf. Gen. 43. 3 B»Kn 133 lyn 15?n; II. 
17. 13 ; 1 Sam. 8. 9 ; at. 

TiyDK' "131H 3113] 'Good is the matter; I have heard it,' i.e. 
I intend to obey it. So Klo., who compares TPinn^n in 2 Sam. 16. 4. 
"131 n 31L3 is thus used absolutely as a formula of assent in v. 38 ; 
ch. 18. 24; cf. Deut. 1. 14; 1 Sam. 9. 10 (*p3l). This sense is 
given by Pesh. jJxV-f lis©* '^^9 +*&»*, and apparently by 
Targ. nynw WMlVa ppn. Vulg., Luc. take *njW as a relative 
sentence; quern audivi; 6 TJKovca; and this is the sense which is 

//. J8—I1L 2, } 27 

given by RV. Such an omission of the relative is, however, very 
rare in Heb. prose. LXX om. through oversight. 

43- '"• run^] Ex. 22. 10; 2 Sam. 21. 7t. The meaning of the 
phrase is elucidated by 1 Sam. 20. 42 '•> XM1 UTOK UW i:yi^ "»£>tt. 

44. l*KMi] LXX, Luc, Vulg., Pesh. presuppose a past tense 
3£>J1 ' he hath requited'; probably correctly. The fact that Shimei 
by his act of perjury had brought the death penalty upon himself 
was Yahwe's requital for his wickedness towards David. MT. may 
perhaps be a correction to accord with v. 32, where, however, the 
case is different; lEn DN 3WTI. 

3. 1 — 11. 43. History of the reign of Solomon. 

The kernel of the narrative is chh. 5. 15 — 7. 51, the description of 
Solomon's building operations, with its sequel, ch. 8. Around this 
are grouped {chh. 4. 1 — 5. 14 ; chh. 9, 10) a series of notices, for the 
most part brief, illustrative of the king's wisdom, magnificence, and 

Ch. 3 forms an introduction to the whole, detailing Solomon's 
request for wisdom, with a signal instance of its exercise: ch. 11, 
as a conclusion, gives a description of the circumstances which 
paved the way for the disruption of the kingdom. 

3« 3-15* The vision at Gideon. Solomons request for wisdom. 

Ch. 3. 4-15 = 2 Chr. 1. 3-13. 

3. 1. There can be little doubt that this verse, together with 
ch. 9. 16, 17% originally formed part of the document embodied in 
the early part of ch. 5 (see note on chh. 4. 20 — 5. 14). 

2, 3. The disapprobation of HEQ worship is based upon the 
law of Deuteronomy, which restricts sacrifice to the central sanc- 
tuary; see 12. 4-18, esp. vv. 13, 14. Similar notices are found 
in ch. 15. 14 (Asa); 22. 44 (Jehoshaphat) ; II. 12. 4 (Jehoash); 
14. 4 (Amaziah); 15. 4 (Azariah); v. 35 a (Jotham). In every case 
the formula is nearly identical, and follows upon a general com- 
mendation of the king's conduct; WJQ "IBM \rwyb ch. 22. 43] Wi 
!W. Cf. also the condemnation of Rehoboam's worship, ch. 14. 

28 The First Book of Kings 

22, 23 (but this may have been mixed with definite idolatry; cf. 
v. 24 pao nM VHp Dai), and the wholesale reprobation of the calf- 
worship of the Northern kingdom as summarized in II. 17. 7-23. 

The old narrative treats iiD3 worship as a matter of course; 
so here in v. 4, and in 1 Sam. 9. 12, 14; 7. 9, 17; 10. 8; at. 
Upon this subject, see R.Sm. OT/C, Lect. viii; Z>i? 2 , Art. 
Deuteronomy, § 15; Dri. ./?*#/. xlix._^*. Thus vv. 2, 3 both 
exhibit the influence of Deuteronomy. It is obvious, however, 
that they cannot be assigned to one author. In v. 3 the subject, 
as in vv. 1, 4, is Solomon, while in v. 2 the peopte are specified. 
Verse 3 simply places two facts side by side without any attempt at 
correlation ; — Solomon loved Yahwe, only he sacrificed and burned 
incense on the high-places: v. 2 supplies an explanation; — This 
noi worship was a popular custom, due to the fact that the house 
of Yahwe was not yet built. Hence v. 3 is the work of R D , and 
opens the account of Solomon's reign by introducing the narrative 
of the vision at Gibeon ; v. 2 proceeds from an exilic or post-exilic 
editor who, with a view to explaining Solomon's conduct, inserted 
the phrase which he found to be frequent elsewhere DTDTD DVH pi 
niEQ3, together with the explanation which follows !"|J2J K? "O 
'y\ IVS, and, in order to illustrate this latter, probably moved v. 1, 
which mentions the fact of the house of Yahwe being not yet 
built, from the position which it properly occupies in ch. 5 LXX 
(note). In LXX of this ch. v. 1 is wanting and v. 2 fragmentary. 

2. '1 DE^] So ch. 5. 17, 19; 8. 17, 20, 44, 48. The original 
is 2 Sam. 7. 13 W^> JV3 tlW Kin quoted in ch. 5. 19; 8. 19. 

3. fizbb ♦ . ♦ SriN^l] A distinctively D phrase. Deut. 10. 12; 
11. 22; 19.9; 30. 16. Cf. also 7.9; 11. 1, 13; 13. 4; 30. 6, 20. 

vv. 4-15. This section shows clear traces of the hand of R D . 
In 2 Chr. 1. 3-13 the story appears in a shorter form, and apparently 
without the additions of the Compiler. That Chr., however, does 
not exhibit the narrative in its original simplicity is proved by the 
details of vv. 3-6 and z>. 13 Ti?1D br\H 'OS&D (cf. ch. 8. 4 a note); by 
the late words JTID vv. 10, 12 ; D^DDJ z>. 12; and the unclassical 
expression j? firo v. 12. 

III. 2-4 29 

1 Kings 3. 2 Chr. 1. 

4 t$2 narb njyaJ ibon "]b^ Much expanded by the 3-6 
*)i>K nblTin noan N\l *3 Chronicler. 

naron by nob&> nby* mby 

5 na-u pyaaa :wnn cnbtf ntni wnn nb^ba 7 
mbna nob^ bx nw nobtyb 

btfB> tfnbtf "l»K"»l nWn b«S5> lb "OW 

6 nob^ no^i : ib ;riN no nob^ notoi : ib jn« no 8 
nn "pay Dy rwy nnx th Dy nw nn« ftrbtib 
■jbn -win bra non •ok 5>vm ion ^ax 
msra npnoi no^a "pjsb 

nx 1b lo^nt "joy aab 

ib jnni nrn bnan nonn ynatem 

:ron Dva woa by ae* p :vnnn 

7 nn« *nb« mn s nnyi pw D^nbx nin^ nny 9 
in nnn pay na nabon nn« '•a uk tyi oy Tnan 
yna Kb pp nyj •ojki 'qk ^nabon 

8 *py *pna -payi : to dk* 

«b n^K an ny mm -ibw nsya an Dy by 

9 nriai :ano nao* abi njD"» nny jps*n 10 
nx ostrb yot^ ab -payb hnvni '•b jn ynoi noan 

"•3 ynb mo pa panb "py *a hnuni nrn Dyn vsb 
noy nx DD^b bav v *py na ds^ no 

10 nann 'i6») :nrn man :bn:n nrn 

nobs? W ••a ^in wjd 

11 njowi : nrn nann n£ no^i n 
nbN£> np« }jr ybx Dviba ipk jy nob^b Dviba 
nb«^ «bi nrn nann nx sbi mab Dy nw nrvn 
nbx^ xbi Dm d^ *]b "naai D^oaj i^y nbx^ 
pbj nb^^ abi "i^y *]b d:i t/n^ &>&> n«i 
pan *jb nb^ ^aw nbx^ ^b D^an d^ 

12 mn :oa^o yo^b ynoi noan *jb b^^ni 


The First Book of Kings 

i Kings 3. 















J^D3 Dip 11 fc6 T»inN1 

13 s nna nW sb ~w Dai 
ma Da n^y Da ^ 

14 Ski tyw ^ cwtan 


id^ *yna 



H^n -tp&o ' 



na ^nrnsm 


15 Di!?n 

nam no^ 


mm mn 



D^P W 


2 Chr. 1. 

nDnnn :vi>y T^tan I2 
i? pna yi^m 

;riN Tiiai D^osai -ipyi 
Mtai? p mn i6 it^N *]i> 

Jp mm 

jinav W rw» 

■w nm^ n»i>B> ton 13 
^xbo tbww pyaan 
i>y *]!w nyiD i?nx 

The words overlined are the work of R D ; those marked by the 
dotted line may possibly be due to him. Probably the original 
form of the narrative was very near to that of Kings, with omission 
of the insertions of R D . 

The w r ork of R D may first be considered : — 
6. yisb *\bri] See note on ch. 2. 4. 

'31 npiMl] Deut. 9. 5 "pnb 18*11 inpisa, the only place where 
the two words are joined. rW 1 fern, only here. 

nonn dk ib -wni] Deut. 7. 9, 12 nonn nxi ♦ , .^ T n ^ '* -10^1. 

Cf. also ch. 8. 23 ; || 2 Chr. 6. 14 ; Neh. 1. 5 ; 9. 32 ; Ps. 

89. 29-r. 
'ai 'b jnni] A reminiscence of ch. 1. 48^ 
ntn DVD] So again in ch. 8. 24, 61 (R D ). The phrase calls 

attention to the fulfilment of a promise or threat, and is 

frequent in Deut. and in books which show the influence of 
Deut. Deut. 2. 30; 4. 20, 38; 8. 18; 10. 15; 29. 27; 
Jer. 11. 5; 25. 18; 32. 20; 44. 6, 23; 1 Chr. 28. 7; 
2 Chr. 6. 15; (|| 1 Ki. 8); Dan. 9. 7, 15. mn Diva Deut. 
6. 24; Jer. 44. 22; Ezr. 9. 7, 15; Neh. 9. 10. Elsewhere 
the phrase occurs only in Gen. 50. 20(E); 1 Sam. 22. 8, I3t. 
Gen. 39. 1 1 is different. 

8. mm ib>n *py] Deut. 7. 6 '* nru "p i\"6n '*6 nm wi? nv "o 

n^D nyb )h nvni? ynbx; 14. 2 ; cf. 4. 37. 
10. '31 inn 3B"l] Cf. Deut. 1. 23 inn ^JD 3»«l; Gen. 

41. 37(JE); Josh. 22. 33 (P). 
12. pn^l D3n n?] The two adjectives are so coupled in Deut. 

1. 13; 4.6. 
"]1CO . . . TUD3 1B>k] Cf. II. 23. 25 1£'K *]bo Vaa!> ClTl m5> 1HD31 

vinw nss^o min S>m nx» ^m waa bni mi> bn '* bx n^ 

inDD Dp £«6, a passage clearly marked as belonging to R D 
by the quotation from Deut. 6. 4. So also II. 18. 5. 

14. 'ai »pn -\12wb ■•ma ^n dm] See ^. 2. 3, 4 »<?/<?. 

TH "]^n l^fcO] R d constantly refers to David as the standard of 
piety; vv. 3, 6 ; eh. 9. 4 ; 11. 4, 6, 33, 38; 14. 8; 15. 3, 
5, 11; II. I4.3; I6.2; 18. 3; 22.2. 12. 

f »* nM TD"iMni] With '* as subject only in this passage. There 
are two more usual constructions: — (1) Prolong ones own 
days, as in Deut. 4. 26 T\"hv tW p^Mfl M^; (2) ZJ^yj ^raze; 
/tfTzg", D^ being subject and*|HMn intransitive (zVz^r/ztf/Hiph.; 
G-K. § 53, 2); Ex. 20. 12 y&i pa-is* jy^. 

15. If according to z>. 4 '/&? great high-place ' was at Gibeon, it is 
difficult to understand why Solomon should have returned to 
Jerusalem to offer sacrifice, except from the Deuteronomic 
standpoint. Hence the whole verse, at least in its present 
form, may be due to R D . 

'* rV"Q piM] Mainly a D expression. Ch. 6. 19; 8. 1, 6; Deut. 
10. 8 ; 31. 9, 25, 26 ; Josh. 3. 3 ; 8. 33 (sections belonging to 
the Deuteronomic editor, marked as D 2 ; see Dri. LOT. 97) ; 
Jer. 3. 16; nnnn piK Josh. 3. 6 bis, 8 ; 6. 6t (all D 2 ). 

32 The First Book of Kings 

Elsewhere '* JVO pHK occurs Num. 10. 33 ; 14. 44 ; Josh. 
4. 7, 18 ; 6. 8 (all JE) ; 1 Sam. 4. 3, 4, 5 (LXX om. mi), 
and several times in Chr. man |n» Josh. 4. 9 JE : p"iK 
ttrfotfl rp"0 1 Sam. 4. 4 (LXX om. n^l) ; 2 Sam. 15. 24 ; 
1 Chr. 16. 6; Judg. 20. 27!. In the curious expressions of 

Josh. 3. ii, 14, 17 (JE) yixn b jhk nnnn }vik, piwi 

rvinn, mn* JVO JViKn, nnnn is doubtless an interpolation 1 . 

4. ta p v )] LXX, Luc. icat dvea-Trj neat inopevBrf, i.e. SJJ*! DjJJl, adopted 
by Klo. on the ground that it more appropriately introduces the 
festive occasion which, as the Chronicler, II. ch. 1, shows, was the 
inaugural action of the young king's reign. 

■pOPl] LXX om. ; Luc. 2o\on<ov. 

n^VUn nvin fcpfl H D] ' For it was the great high-place.' i. e. the 
greatest high-place ; an idiomatic method of expressing the super- 
lative degree. The article with the adjective implies that the 
subject is pre-eminently characterized by the quality described. 
Gen. 44. 12 n!>3 fbj-Ql bm hna? 'he began with the eldest and 
finished with the youngest' Da. § 34; G-K. § 133, 3. 

rpjp] Probably frequentative; ' used to offer! spN thus need 
not denote the number of victims slaughtered upon this single 
occasion, but may be a round number describing the many 
sacrifices which the king offered from time to time. 

riN"0 pjnn : «mn m?»n by] LXX, Luc, Vulg., Pesh. presuppose 
vn>)_ : ftyaaa fcflnn n3]ftn py ; a reading scarcely to be preferred, 
since the omission of the relative 1BW before ])$212 is contrary to 
usage, and Ninn would in such a case be redundant. The reference 
of tt)r\n must be to npn^n nD3fi, which of course connotes the 
presence of an altar. Th. thinks that the Verss. read Nin rQTDn ?JJ 
jiyiai which he renders * upon the altar which is in Gibeon,' a 
strange use of tfin which can scarcely be paralleled even by 

Gen. 38. 21 D^yn Kin nvipn rrw. 

1 In fire-Dent, writings the phrases in use are ^"ftjtn, rnrp ]iiN in JE in the 
Hexateuch (only Josh.); ^"i»n, mit jVw, (DTftNTt) DTTJN p^ in the old narratives 
of Sam. and Kings. The latest expression of all is nvtWi p"i« P. 

III. 4-11 33 

Klo.'s suggestion |iy33n n^N nBTun rOXO by (cf. 2 Chr. 1. 6) is 
quite unnecessary. 

5. nWn Dl^ni] Gen. 20. 3; SI. 24t. Cf. Job 33. 15 D^ni 

rW |v»m. 

nD] Used as relative without antecedent ; ' ask what I shall give 
thee.' So exactly ch. 14. 3 -\yj? nVT no ^ W Kin 'he shall tell 
thee what shall happen to the child'; cf. Judg. 9. 48; Eccl. 11. 2. 
Correctly speaking n£ is really the indefinite antecedent (' any- 
thing' as in 2 Sam. 18. 22: at.), and the relative 1WH is omitted. 
This can be seen from Num. 23. 3 ,, JfcO*'7IE> "QnV lit. c and word of 
anything (which) he shall show me.' In the late Heb. of Eccle- 
siastes we find the relative expressed after HD ? •IT'np; 1. 9; 3. 15; 
6. 10; at. Ew. § 33 1 b . 

6. *py] The phrase '' Dy *pn is very unusual. The only other 
occurrence appears to be Mic. 6. 8 yrbti Dy T\zb yttni . Cf. the 
expression D^nbxn nx "j^-inn Gen. 5. 22, 24 ; 6. gf. The common 
phrase is '* 'OB? \?fl which occurs just before. 

7. N21 nxv] An idiom expressing the discharge of duties per- 
taining to a particular position; 1 Sam. 18. 16; Deut. 31. 2. 

8. 'ai H30^ tfS> 1BW] ^. 8. 5 (|| 2 Chr. 5. 6). Cf. Gen. 16. 10; 
32. 13. For the nuance of the Imperf. 'cannot be numbered/ cf. 
Dri. Tenses, § 37 a . 

9. VOW 2?] Not merely a heart attentive to the directions of 
Yahwe, but expressing further the result of such attention — * an 
understanding heart.' For this sense of y£E>, cf. v. n DDt^D yDEv; 
Gen. 41. 15 intf ins? Dl^n y»^n. More commonly it is employed 
with a negative to express the non-understanding of a foreign 
tongue; Gen. 11. 7; Deut. 28. 49; al. 

Vrf? 31tt pa] Lev. 27. 33; 2 Sam. 19. 36 1. 

nrn nn^n *py n« bbb^] Pesh. l^* )l>o» t->a-v ^.^vS. ©p*j*i^ 

suggests nrn nnnn Dyn "py nx DfiB^, while Vulg. judicare populum 
istum, populum tuum hunc multum, perhaps points to the same 
reading with a transposition of *py and Dyn in translation. MT. 
is, however, confirmed by 2 Chr. 1. 10 ?nan ntn *py fit*. 

1 1 . i? n W] ' Hast asked for thyself: So only in || 2 Chr. 


34 The First Book of Kings 

1. ii ; II. 4. 3; 1 Sam. 12. 17, 19; Isa. 7. 11. This Dativus 
commodi is employed far more frequently in the sense, 'ask for 
some one else'; most commonly in the phrase DW7 '37 bxc ; 
1 Sam. 17. 22 ; Gen. 43. 27 ; at. 

rvfcttPi] ' ^»/ hast asked.' The 1 connects two contrasted ideas, 
and, by aid of the tautology n7K£> K71 , n7N£>1 , gains a rather strong 
adversative sense, ' but! Somewhat similar, but not so marked, 
are ch. 2. 26 frPOK N7 Wl DV31 nnK HID ty>K 'worthy of death 
art thou, to to-day I will not kill thee'; ch. 11. 33, 34 (npN K7l); 
at. This use of 1 is common in Prov.; cf. ch. 10 throughout. 

The 1 simplex places the idea in strict co-ordination with the 
preceding, thus preserving the assonance which would have been 
destroyed by 7K^rv}. 

pan] So Isa. 56. 11 pin urr *6 ; Ps. 32. 9. 

12. Tin J . . » TPBty] Perfects of certitude used here, as frequently, 
in a divine promise; Gen. 15. 18; Josh. 6. 2; Judg. 1. 2; #/. 
The action determined upon by the will of the speaker is regarded 
as already accomplished. Dri. Tenses, § 13; Da. § 41. 

nTi R?] ' Shall not have been/ future perfect ; or more strictly, 
' ivas not [ever), 7 upon any occasion that can be specified. 

13. yw 73 ♦ ♦ ♦ n*n N7 n&>R] ' So that there shall not have been 
any like thee among kings [all thy days].' Here y& 73 makes 
no sense, and the sentence is quite complete without it. Vulg. 
attempts to explain, cunctis retro diebus, but doubtless LXX, Luc. 
are right in their omission of the phrase. It arose probably from 
an erroneous repetition of ^83. 

15* NID^l] LXX Ka\ dvearr) Kai TvapayivsraL els, Luc. Kai dvea-rr] Kai 
elarrjXBev, i. e. K3*l DjJJI ; possibly genuine. 

|V1N ^37l LXX, Luc. Kara 7rp6a(OTTov tov dvaiacrTripiov tov Kara 

n P 6<ro7rop (7%) KLj3a>Tod, i.e. '« pn« v*b -\m nzrtpn vpb. Th., Klo. 

think that this represents the original text, and that the recurrence 
of *037 occasioned the omission in MT. More probably the 
additional words are an insertion of the translator who wished 
to remove the impression that Solomon passed into the immediate 
presence of the Ark. 

///. i2-ij 35 

3. 1 6-28. A notable example of Solomons exercise of wisdom. 

1 6. nj&on TN] The use of TK to introduce a fresh detail or 
narrative is very frequent in Kings. The other instances are 
c&8. i, 12; 9.u b ,24 b ; 11. 7; I6.21; 22.50; II.8.22 b ; 12. 18; 
14. 8; 15. 16; 16. 5 1. Doubtless this was one of the methods 
by which R D pieced together his various sources, and was em- 
ployed when he wished to show that an event was more or less 
contemporaneous with the preceding narrative. When greater 
definiteness seemed desirable, he employed the phrases DHH TPW1 
II. 10. 32; VE^n ch. 16. 34; K\nn nyn ch. 14. 1 (see note on each 

rtifcOft] The use of the Imperf. after TN introducing a past event 
is very usual. So in nine of the cases enumerated above, and also 
Ex. 15. 1 ; Num. 21. 17; al. The event is pictured as growing 
out of the previous circumstances indicated by TN ; a form of idea 
which has become stereotyped in the ordinary construction of the 
Imperf. with 1 consec. See Dri. Tenses, §§ 67, 68. Probably in 
Kings R D sometimes substituted TK with Imperf. for an Imperf. 
with 1 consec. standing in his source ; cf. ch. 8. 1 where we actually 
meet with a shortened form of the Imperf., ??}\>1 TK. When, as in 
ch. 8. 12; 9. 24 b ; al., the Perfect is employed with TN, the mere 
occurrence of the fact seems to be dwelt upon, without special 
stress upon its time relationship. G-K. § 107, 1, Rem. 1. 

17. "Q] Properly 'supplication' and then * oh' or 'pray! The 
word seems to be from V"3, Ar. "7 'to supplicate/ Others derive 
from nys = Aram. Ny? ' to ask/ and make the word a contraction 
of *$|; like *>$ for 7j®, nil for TO"). Cf. Targ. rendering lym, 
Pesh. yj» \j! |u.^,i, here and elsewhere. 

r\DV] 'With her,' i.e. 'in her company'; Lev. 25. 39 ^ty *3 
*py *pntf 'if thy brother be waxen poor near thee'; Ex. 22. 24; 
Gen. 31. 38. When used of proximity to several persons ' among r1 
is a fair equivalent; Judg. 18. 25 ij»y *]^p y»BTl i>N 'make not thy 
voice to be heard among us.' This use of Dy with persons is 
closely similar to that with places noticed on ch. 1. 9. 

d 2 

36 The First Book of Kings 

18. TH/v] 7 with back reference to the point of departure, 
'after my deliverance/ Cf. Gen. 7. 10 &wn nyiwb Vtt 'and it 
came to pass after seven days'; 2 Sam. 13. 23. 

T&1T] Not 'except/ as usually (ch. 12. 20; Deut. 1. 36; at.), 
but, with a looser connexion with what precedes, ' but only! So 
Deut. 4. 12 1 b)p s n^1T DW M^N roiftn. Cf. the occasional ««a«^ 

of el fir], iav fir) in N.T.; Gal. 2. 1 6 eiSores Se ort ou SticatoGrai avOpoonos 
e£ epycov vofiov, eav fir) dia ttl(tt€<os 'irjaov Xpicrrov. S. Luke 4. 25—27* 

19. n^t*] 'Because'; ch. 8.33 "J^ ixttrv n^N; 15-5; Gen. 30. 18; 
31. 49; at. More precise are "lBfc bv 2 Sam. 12. 6; 1f« *3B» 
Ex. 19. 18; "VfK3 1 Sam. 28. 18; "»0KD & c . 

21. i>K pnnNlj 'I looked carefully a/.' So Isa. 14. 16 1 T^ x 

22. mfttt] The participle lends pictorial effect; 'was saying.' 

23. m»t* nxt] LXX, Luc. o-v Xcyets-, i.e. f»";p« AN; scarcely so 
good as MT., where the participle nearly represents the true 
English present; 'this one says,' 2 Sam. 18. 27. Dri. Tenses, 
§ 135, 2 end. 

n«n . ♦ . HNT] ' T^w one . . . arid the other' ; ch. 22. 20 PIT IDN^I 
J"D2 "IDX nn i"D3 ' and one said on this wise and another on that.' 

Da. §5. 

25. vi?j] 'Cut ?>z twain'. So with the substantive, Ps. 136. 13 
twh *[)D D* "IW^ 'into two parts'; Gen. 15. 17. 

At end of verse Luc. adds ko\ to tcOvtjkos opolcos SieXere, ml 86t* 
dp.(poT€pats. So Jos. This appears to be a translator's addition, 
derived, as Klo. notices, from the law in Ex. 21. 35. 

26. TOM] So Gen. 43. 30; Hos. 11. 8 (with *BVia as subject). 
The ground idea is ' to be hot' ; cf. Lam. 5. 10 1"I033 "voro irviy. 

rPbm] Here, as elsewhere, constantly in the plural, representing 
the seat of compassion or affection. 

\XX1 bv\ ' Over her son,' applied appropriately to the infant, but 
in Gen. 43 7K ' towards] with reference to grown men. 

Ivjn] So v. 27; 1 Chr. 14. 4 tPTvJl; but elsewhere only in 
the expression nBW Ti^ three times in Job. In Syr. )?cu^T is 
a common form. 

///. i8—IV. 2 37 

27. Tin TP\"! DX n? wn] Since the woman who spoke last was 
the one who desired the division of the child, we must suppose 
that the king, in uttering the words n? 13fl , made a gesture to indi- 
cate that he referred to the other woman. Luc. (so LXX, omitting 
to &V, rfi yvvatKi) removes the ambiguity by reading AoVe t6 naiSiov 
to £<ou tji ywaiKi tt} eiTTovarj Aore avTjj ovto ; a mere exegetical para- 
phrase. Th., following Bo., supposes that the original may have 
been TO ^JHTIK r6 IJJjl rrjD*6 Sm 1Jn, and that thus trsiotb mx 
i:n may have fallen out by homoioteleuton. But if the LXX 
translator had had these words before him, why should he have 
transposed 1DX and Tin Tl^fl ? 

28. DTIPK fiEOn] Wisdom sent by or proceeding from God. Cf. 

'* nnn Gen. 35. 5 ; '« "insi 2 Chr. 20. 29. 

nfDDn is here used in the special sense of shrewdness and keen 
insight into human nature. Cf. the bearing of the term wise as 
applied to the woman of Tekoa 2 Sam. 14. 2 ff. ; and the woman 
of Abel-Meholah 2 Sam. 20. 16. Upon the later development of 
the term as seen in the 'Jfokhma literature' of the Old Testament, 
cf. Dri. LOT., pp. 368 ff. 

4. 1 — 5. 14. Solomons officers of state. His prosperity and wisdom. 

Ch. 5. ia = 2 Chr. 9. 26. Ch. 5. 6 = 2 Chr. 9. 25a. 

4. 2. )b "1BW D^^n] The circumlocution has the effect of 
retaining the greater definiteness which would have been sacrificed 
if Vy& had been written. Cf. note on ch. 1. 8, and Da. § 28, 
Rem. 5 2 . 

fran ym p irmiy] \nsn must refer to irmry and not to pm, just 

as elsewhere in the list, the title of the office refers to the man first 
specified, and not to his father. Hence Vulg., films Sadoc sacerdotis, 
interprets wrongly. LXX, Luc. omit |fDil, as also fro in v. 5, 
apparently under the impression that its usage is not to be recon- 
ciled with v. 4 D^HD -irTaw pm. Pesh., Targ. follow MT. The 
Chronicler, I. 5. 36, mentions an Azariah as "IfcPN ITOn JH3 "lEW Nin 
d!?CTP2 TYthw 1133, a statement apparently misplaced from z>. 35 
(see Bertheau, a</ toe), where it will refer to our Azariah who is 

38 The First Book of Kings 

mentioned as son of Ahimaaz son of Zadok. Probably Azariah 
succeeded to Zadok, and exercised the office of high-priest at the 
consecration of the new Temple at Jerusalem, and during far the 
longer portion of Solomon's reign. We know that the statement 
of v. 4 h , as regards Abiathar, only holds good for a very short 
period during this reign (ch. 2. 26/]), and very possibly this is also 
true of Zadok, whose son Ahimaaz was a man of some experience 
at the time of Absalom's rebellion (2 Sam. 15. 35, 36), and who 
therefore must have been well advanced in years at the time of 
Solomon's accession. 

3. PpnvN] The only occurrence of this name. LXX 'EXta$, 
Luc'EAm/3 seem to substitute the more ordinary ^*y£. 

N5W] LXX 2a(3d, Luc. 2a([)dT. In 1 Chr. 18. 16 the same man 
is called NW, LXX 'i^o-oCs, Luc. 2ov<rd. 

In 2 Sam. 8. 17 apparently the same person appears as n^b', 
LXX y Aad, Luc. 2apalas; 2 Sam. 20. 25 Kt. WB>, Q're Wf , LXX 
'Irjaovs, Luc. 2ovad. 

Hence — (i) The form iTHtP has only weak attestation. It is 
supported by Luc. once, by LXX never '. 

(ii) The form 'lrjaovs occurring twice in LXX cannot be original, 
since it is most improbable that so ordinary a name as yi^irT» 
should have suffered corruption. On the other hand, it is very 
likely that 2ovad has become corrupted into the well-known 

'1*7 (TOVS. 

(iii) The form KtW is supported — 

(a) By NtW in 1 Ki. 4. 3, the interchange of * and 1 being of 
constant occurrence. 

(0) By 2ovad twice in Luc. 

1 It is true that this is the form adopted in three places by Pesh., and in two 
by Vulg. ; but in the case of proper names we cannot attach much importance 
to the testimony of Vulg., Pesh., Targ., since either the lists in the Heb. texts 
used by these translators appeared in a later form resembling that of MT., or 
else some sort of arbitrary uniformity with MT. has been produced by later 
hands. In the cases to which allusion is here made, correction for the sake of 
uniformity with 2 Sam. 8. 17 appears to have taken place. 

IV. 3-6 39 

(y) In some degree by 'I^o-ouy twice in LXX, and, as regards 
the second £>, by 'Ao-a in a third passage. 

Hence ^WW has by far the best attestation, and may be adopted. 

4. N3VH . . . irToni] LXX om. through oversight. 

D^rD "UTOttt pnvi] No part of the register in its original form 
as an official state document. This naturally headed the list with 
the name of the high-priest of the time, pm p Irmry. The 
insertion was made by R D or by some one still earlier who wished, 
as a matter of historical interest, to notice that Zadok and Abiathar 
were priests at the commencement of the reign. 

5. liTHTy] LXX 'Opvud, Luc. 'Opvid seem to presuppose injriK 
with corruption of "^ into "]. This officer is apparently not else- 
where mentioned under either name. 

TOT] Only here. Luc. Zaxovp, i.e. probably "ftSt, a name of 
frequent occurrence. Pesh. >as)in part supports this reading. 

jro] A peculiar use of the term to denote some high official 
whose functions we cannot precisely determine. Cf. 2 Sam. 8. 18 
VH D^Pia in 'Oil, paraphrased by the Chronicler, I. 18. 17 QWN"in 
*]fen yb. Dri- (Sam., ad loc.) argues from the uniform use of |rD 
in Heb. that the office, if possibly semi-secular and at times 
extended to non-priestly men of good family, must have belonged 
in the first place to the priestly class. 

"jpDH njn] This anomalous punctuation of the st. constr. is found 
again in 2 Sam. 15. 37 1VJ njn, and, according to Norzi, in 16. 16 
in the best MSS. Klo. omits, as an exegetical gloss to explain 
the difficult JPD ; but all Verss. reproduce the word. 

6. nun by *Wfc?l] This is the only important official named, 
vv. 2-7, whose father is not mentioned 1 . Hence there is probably 
some corruption of text. 

LXX seem to have a triple, and Luc. a double rendering. 

LXX Ka\ 'Axei rjv olicovopos I e. TOil b$ ["ft?] Wl 

KCll 'EAlOK 6 olKOVOpOS „ TOA J>JJ [lfe>] "JN^Nl 

Ka\ 'EAia/3 vlbs 2a<p eVt ,, ? by 9\W ]2 3N^N1 

ttjs TTarpias 

1 Verse 4 b is no exception : see note. 

4-0 The First Book of Kings 

Luc. kq\ 'a^x oiKovopos i. e, mr\ by [*ib>] bwnx) 

K al 'EXm3 vios 'leoa/3 „ ? b]3 2XV p SN^Nl 

cVt T^y arpaTtas 

The name ^pN which occurs in three renderings ("] is a mistake 
for 3 in "jfiO^tf) appears to be the genuine form. Probably also the 
two letters it?, which appear to occur in LXX i, 2, Luc. 1, and in 
LXX 3 under the form 2u<£, are a remnant of the father's name. 
Hence we may conjecture 

Th. supposes that LXX 3 (Luc. 2) are a translation of some words 
which have fallen out of MT., and hence after n^n by "»B*riK1 he 
would restore nyp^n^y DB0-J3 3*^9 , supposing that LXX 
TTorpias read HHS^D for nyJX'E. So Ew. 

JV3H by] Prefect of the palace, discharging the king's domestic 
affairs. This office existed subsequently both in the Northern (ch. 
16. 9; 18. 3; II. 10. 5) and Southern (II. 18. 18; al) kingdoms, 
and was a position of the highest dignity, being held by Jotham the 
heir to the throne of Judah after his father Azariah had been 
smitten with leprosy II. 15. 5; cf. also the exalted language used 
of Eliakim upon his promotion Isa. 22. 21, 22. The palace 
prefect was also called pb Isa. 22. 15; see note on ch. 1. 2. 

D"Y0*1N] So LXX, Luc. This form of the name, which occurs 
also in ch. 5. 28, is doubtless correct. The form trhH (2 Sam. 
20. 24; ch. 12. 18; || 2 Chr. 10. 18 ffflfj) is either a contraction 
or a corruption. 

DCil] The forced labour exacted by Solomon for his building 
operations, according to ch. 9. 15-22 only from the Canaanite 
nations, but according to ch. 5. 27 from all Israel. That the latter 
statement is correct is proved by the unpopularity of Adoniram, 
who was stoned by men of the ten tribes ; ch. 12. 18. The DE is 
mentioned as existing at the end of David's reign, 2 Sam. 20. 24, 
and is also spoken of as enforced upon the Canaanites at the 
conquest of the land; Jos. 17. 13 (JE) ; Judg. 1. 28; al. 

7. ^y >TiT] 'It was incumbent upon" : Ezek. 45. 17 K*8W1 by) 

IV. j-io 41 

'y\ nihyn nW; without rtVl Ezra 10. 4, 12; 2 Sam. 18. 11; aL 
The Imperf. expresses the periodical nature of the duty. 

inK i?y] Read -inxn-^y with Q're ; LXX, Luc. hc\ r6r/ &a. The 
article is necessary to express the idea of distribution. 

8. Tin p] Correct. LXX, Luc. Baiap, a corruption. All twelve 
officers are mentioned either by their patronymic only, or by their 
particular name with the addition of the patronymic, which is in no 
case omitted. 

9. "ipl p] LXX vlos 'Pj?x ay > Luc. vlos 'Prjx a P' The name occurs 
nowhere else, unless ij2"]3 II. 9. 25 represents a contraction of it. 
Luc/s ^?*?."I? is at least as probable. 

fpfo] Not elsewhere mentioned. LXX MaKepas, i. e. apparently 
K'DDD (cf. 1 Sam. 13. 2, 5; 14. 31 Maxepds), cannot be right, since 
it is clear that the place must have lain, with the others belonging 
to the same officer, in or about the district originally assigned to 
Dan, and in the west borders of Judah. Luc. Mayxds, and other 
Verss. support MT. 

wJ?yw] Judg. 1. 35 1. Psb0 Josh. 19. 42 f. One of David's 
heroes is described in 2 Sam. 23. 32 as ^h?y$n. 

t?EK> IV3] The modern 'Ain Shems, a village about four miles 
west-south-west of Jerusalem. Rob. BR. ii. 223/I 

|jn ITQ K^l] LXX Ka\ *EXo)jm ems BrjOXctfidv, Luc. Kal AlXcov ecos 

BaiOvadfi, read as the names of two places, doubtless correctly. 
In Josh. 19. 43 p7»K is mentioned as a town of Dan, and pn TYO 
appears to have been discovered under the modern name Beit- 
Haniln, a short distance east-north-east of Gaza. Rob. BR. ii. 
35; Baed. 154. We may, therefore, read |jnTP3 ^ v^$i\ cf. v. 12 
nhriD ia« ny. So Klo., Kamp. 

10. "\Dn , ♦ ♦ 1DPI p] LXX vlos "E(T(O0, BrjpvafiaXovo-afirjvxa koX 

'Prjo-fpapaxfw. This, when transliterated, upon the whole sup- 
ports MT. 

MT. nan p« 5>ai pdd ii? nnisn ion p 
LXX ma p 1 m[o]D ii? anaa non p 

The place filllX is not mentioned elsewhere, but may possibly 
be the same as 3")K Josh. 15. 52, a city near Hebron. The D3 of 

42 The First Book of Kings 

LXX may easily be a corruption of nn of MT., and Drw certainly 
does not point to any known place of a different name. Since 
1WV (probably the modern Yarmilk) is mentioned with !"DD in 
Josh. 15. 35, it has been thought, with some plausibility, that this 
place lies concealed under JTQ1N. So Th. 

The correctness of rDD, which has been identified with Shuweikeh 
close to Beit Netlif, is not to be doubted. Rob. BR. ii. 16, 21 ; 
Baed. 161. LXX reads 3 for 3, n for n, and inserts D, perhaps 
a corruption of D erroneously repeated. LXX, mB is merely a trans- 
position of isn, which latter seems to be correct, Josh. 12. 17. 

Luc. Ma^fi vlos 'E^co/3r/p Brj6vapnXov(a Kai ^Afirj^a kcu rrjs $apaxwa- 

vabdfi is clearly a further corruption of LXX through an attempt 
to resolve it into sense. Eao6 Brjp- has become E^co/3^, then Brjp- 
is repeated under the form Brj6-, -aapTjvxa is divided into -£a (nai) 
AjjLrjxa, Prja- becomes Trjs, and finally -<papaxeiv with the H'M'QN of 
the next verse appears as QapaxwavaMfi. 

11. nan DDi bl 'K p] ' Ben-Abinadab — all the high country of 
Dor'; correct. For INT nBJ, cf. Josh. 12. 23 "to HSJ; 11. 2 "lfa niBJ. 

The meaning of the root Pp: is illustrated by Ps. 48. 3 *lfa HD? 
' beautiful z» elevation* of Mount Zion. 

LXX ava Adv is a Corruption of 'AfiivaddP, and ara 3>a#ei of Na(pd6. 

The words a^p TaftXrjBel represent DSD "INI read as H73B 1N3. 
Probably "WJ was at first attached to ]"IB3 by the translator, the 
whole being transliterated Na^a^a^p, which afterwards came to be 

nstp] With the old f. termination. So with other personal 
names, both f.:— npfe>2 z>. 15; Gen. 26. 34; r^TO Gen. 28. 9; 2 Chr. 
11. 18; or, more strangely, m.: — rD?jl ^. 11. 20; Jl^a <r^. 16. 21; 
Dibs 1 Sam. 9. 1 ; T)lb* 1 Sam. 17. 4/.; rttnK Gen. 26. 26. It is 
noticeable that most of these names are non-Israelitish : ntriN, nv3 
Philistine ; T)2ft probably Edomite or a Semiticized Egyptian 
name like n?DK Gen. 41. 45; DpriE Ishmaelite; and HSD, riEK>3, 
if daughters of Solomon's foreign wives, probably Canaanite; riBBQ 
Gen. 26. 34 being specified as Hittite. Hjy, mentioned Judg. 3. 31 ; 
5. 6 as the parent of "^D^ is the name of the Canaanite goddess, 

IV. 1 1- 1 2 43 

traces of whose cult appears in the localities njjnVjjl Judg. 1. 33; 
nujpv? Josh. 15. 59 ; T\\T\yV : Jer. 1. 1; al. 

Similarly, we find a number of place-names with this termination, 
these being clearly Canaanite in origin : — nyaio (perhaps a segho- 
late termination) Josh. 13. 18; r\"]Vp Josh. 15. 59; T\gS2 Josh. 
15. 39; II. 22. 1; nnOMn Josh. 16. 6; njna (?text obscure) 
Josh. 18. 28; mn'jn Josh. 19. 12 ; I^J Josh. 21. 28; m\> Josh. 

19. 15; n^n josh. 19. 25; n^n j os h. 21. 31; ronb itotf josh. 
19. 26; n^n, ngi josh. 19. 35; nigra josh. 19. 44; ^. 9. 18; nas 

Judg. 1. 17; ri3D Judg. 7. 22; ri£)"]V Ob. 20; ch. 17. 9, 10; and 
perhaps FPU 1 Sam. 19. 18 (on vocalization, cf. Dri. ad lac.) 1 . Out- 
side Palestine we have r)7»X Deut. 2. 8; ah; and mnD in Moab, 
Mesha, /. 14. 

Comparing the inscriptions of neighbouring countries, it may be 
noticed that both Phoenician and Aramaic afford many examples 
of f. proper names in -ath, this being the regular f. termination in 
Phoen. as in Moabitic : Phoen. (CIS.) T\122 Kabdalh, 372, al.; 
flKHN 'Arishath, 307, al. ; Tfthy ' Elishath, 481. al, &c; — Aram. 
Nabathean (Euting, Nabatdische Inschriften) 1T03 Banayyath, 1 3 ; 
nfcOtt Guzai'ath, 15; n:\l Hinalh, 26, &c; while Aramaic alone 
yields instances of m. names with this termination ; — Nabathean 
(Euting) nmn Haritath (Aretas) ; mw Bagrath, 8 ; m» Murrath, 
18; ntan Hamlath, 7; njttD Muriath, 6, 19; rfP3y 'Obaidalk, 
23, 24; JWDP 'Amiralh, 19; — Palmyrene (De Vogue, -Syrz'tf CVzz- 
/rtZ/te) rWHK 'Odainalh, 21, a/./ — Babylon (CIS.) niEK 'Ummadath, 
66; — Assyria, mmx 'Ar/ada/h, 100. Phoenician, on the other 
hand, only exhibits m. names in -<2/$ compounded with the f. name 
of the goddess rD7D Milkath, just as Aramaic abounds in m. com- 
pounds of the f. n?N 'Allalh. 

12. TH1D1 *pyn] Mentioned together as the scene of the great 
battle of Deborah and Barak with the Canaanites; Judg. 5. 19. 
*pyn now appears as Tdannilk, not far to the south-west of Z^.rin, 
i. e. 7tfjn?\ VtiD is conjectured by Rob. to be the modern Lejjun, 

1 No attempt has been made to include or classify proper names in Chr. 

44 The First Book of Kings 

the Legio of Jos. and Eusebius, said by them to be three or four 
Roman miles from Taanach. This place lies north-west of Tdan- 
niik, and due west of Zerin. BR. ii. 316, 328; Baed. 227; Smith, 
Hist. Geogr. 386/ 

JKP TO] Also \f TO 1 Sam. 31. 10, 12; or P~W* 2 Sam. 21. 12; 
the Scythopolis of later times, and now, by a rather strange con- 
traction, Beisdn to the west of the other cities, and near the Jordan. 
Baed. 222; Smith, Hist. Geogr. 357^". 

rums] Ch. 7. 46 mentioned with ntoD (see note); Josh. 3. 16 
said to be near BIX, i.e. probably the modern ford of ed-Ddmieh 
close to Qarn Sartabeh, with which, however, jm¥ cannot be 
identified (Van de Velde, &c.) without violence to philology. 2 Chr. 
4. 17 reads nriTlir for fms of ch. 7. 46; HTIS being mentioned, 
ch. 11. 26, as the home of Jeroboam in the hill-country of Ephraim. 
The identification of the two places seems, however, to be doubtful. 

■QJJD *iy] 'As far as the other side of ; not as RV. marg. 'as 
far as over against' i. e. on this side of. The former is the uni- 
versal sense of the phrase used from the point of view of the 
speaker or writer. Thus Hi"]?? "9^?, H!")— " ) ?^? can denote either 
the country to the east of Jordan, Num. 22. 1 ; Deut. 1. 1 ; Josh. 
17. 5; or that to the west of Jordan, Deut. 3. 20, 25; 11. 30; 
Josh. 5. 1 ; 9. 1 ; 12. 7; according to the position or point of view 
of the user of the phrase. In Num. 32. 19 the double "Dyo 
does not violate the rule, but is employed by way of contrast, the 
first being spoken from the actual position of the speaker east of 
Jordan, and the second from the new point of view pictured by the 
calling up before the mind of the country west of Jordan. So in 
Josh. 22. 7, the phrase is used with reference to the position of 
the other half-tribe on the east. See Dri. Deut. xlii.yC 

DyDp" 1 ] A place of this name is mentioned, 1 Chr. 6. 531% as 
a Levitical city in the hill-country of Ephraim. In Josh. 21. 22 
(|| 1 Chr.) the name is given as D^j?, identified by Col. Conder 
{Handbook, 417) with Tel el-Kabils near Bethel. This locality 
is much too far south of the cities previously named to suit the 
present mention, and, besides this, the DHSK in has already been 

IV. i3-i6 45 

assigned (v. 8) to nin p . This DJflDp* therefore cannot be the DyEp s 
of i Chr., unless Conder's identification is wrong, and the city lay 
quite in the north of the DnSN "in. Rob. BR. iii. 115 follows AV. 
in regarding the name as a corruption of &y?i?J, Josh. 21. 34, #/., 
which he finds as Tell Qaimiln, south-east of Carmel. Baed. 228. 

13. njJ7JI DDin] Cf. note on ch. 22. 3. 

After the first *i7, LXX, Luc. omit 17 ♦ ♦ , mn by homoioteleuton. 

nin] 'the tent- villages '; Ar. {J"^ collect together, *1L». # group 
of tents near together. 

iy?n . ♦ ♦ "VW nin] So Num. 32. 40, 41 ; Judg. 10. 4, rightly. 
Deut. 3. 14; Josh. 13. 30 (D 2 ) locate the villages in Bashan. See 
Dri. Deut., ad loc, who explains the origin of the mistake. 

3a*W 73n] Targ. N:i:nt3 *]7S ' the region of Trachomas/ i. e. the 
modern El-Leja, a district to the south of Damascus, forming 
a great lava-bed of about 350 square miles in extent. This iden- 
tification seems, however, to be improbable. See Dri. on Deut. 
3. 4, 5 ; and in DB. Edinb. s. v. Argob. 

'}) niina D^y] ' Great cities . . . walls and bars of bronze ' ; 
or, as we should say, ' with walls, &c.' The extension 'y\ nftin, 
in loose apposition to ni7*M D"H3J, serves in part to describe the 
cities, in part to characterize their greatness. Cf. Deut. 3. 5 ; 
2 Chr. 8. 5. Dri. Tenses, § 188, 1. 

14. niD'oniD] LXX Maavaielov, Luc. iv Ma^etXa/x, perhaps read 
B?3DP ; but, as Klo. says, the n loc. can be justified by supposing 
the implication of some such expression as ' appointed to M/ 

15. iWVO\ LXX, Luc. om. through oversight. 

16. "IBWS] LXX, Luc. om.; but allusion to this district follows 
naturally after vnDJ in previous verse. 

ni7}QV] No such place as HvV is mentioned elsewhere, and 
l"yX? of ch. 9. 18 is apparently the same as the TY?y2 of Josh. 19. 44 
mentioned among the cities assigned to Dan, and so unsuitable, 
since this district has already been dealt with in v. 9. LXX 4p rfi 
MaaXd, Cod. A Ka\ iv MaaXcor. This suggests T\\?vp^ or rrtTjfDM, and 
accordingly Th. thinks that the country round about Accho and 
Achzib may have been known as ' the steps ' or ' ascents,' even 

46 The First Book of Kings 

if the original reading of the Heb. text was not "ift n .?VP ; cf. 
Josh. 10. 10 pin 1V3 rvy?D. Against this, we have no trace else- 
where of the use of the term in this district. Luc. iv rfj TaXaaS 
seems to be merely an alteration of LXX. Gilead is dealt with 
in vv. 13, 19. Klo. suggests P'^j anc ^ since this tribe would 
naturally be mentioned in connexion with "IBW, vnQ3, and "0£>E>\ 
the emendation is probably correct. 

19. lybi p^n] LXX, Luc. iv rfj yfj Tab. Probably a mistake. 
The land of Gad is rather too precise, part of the kingdoms 
of Sihon and Og having been assigned to Reuben and the half-tribe 
of Manasseh ; Josh. 13. 21, 30 f. On the other hand, from the 
wider term 1])bi piK we conclude that Geber ben-Uri had super- 
vision of all the country east of Jordan not assigned in v. 13. 

pK3 "IEW nnN n^l] RV. 'and he was the only officer which 
was in the land.' This is usually interpreted thus : As the district 
was a very large one, more than one officer might have been 
expected to superintend it; but as a matter of fact this was not 
the case, probably because the country was rugged and thinly 
populated. But this translation, together with its explanation, 
would at least require &W HS? "f^ n C^7 y ^ Wn l, and there 
are no signs of the text ever having existed in this form. LXX 

kol vaaecfi els iv yfj *Iov8a, Luc. Nao-e<3 iv rfj yfj 'lovda make the 

reference to be to yet one more officer who has supervision over 
Judah, thus restoring the number twelve which these Verss. would 
otherwise have lost through the corrupt rendering in v. n a . But 
it is strange that this officer should be thus vaguely mentioned 
without record of his name, nor does Luc. appear to be correct 
in viewing y?) as a proper name ; and besides this, having adopted 
the obviously original ITWQN p of v. n a we have now thirteen 
officers in contradiction to the statement of v. 7. 

Klo. ingeniously suggests YW T^ Dr ???rri>3 ^ n 0? ^i] 
i and one officer was over all the officers who were in the land,' the 
allusion being to jnJ p irrnTy who is mentioned in v. 5 as DUVJH ?JJ. 
Such a second passing notice of this official at the end of the list 
would be most appropriate. The emendation is to some extent 

IV. ig — V. i 47 

supported by Vulg., super omnia quae erant in ilia terra, and may 
be worthily adopted \ 

Verse 20 — chapter 5. 14. 

This section appears in LXX, Luc. in a form somewhat different 
to MT. 4. 20; 5. 1, 5, 6, and part of v. 4 ("irtJn ♦ . ♦ riDSno) 
do not appear, but are to be found in the addition at the end of 
ch. 2. 46. At the close of v. 19 of ch. 4 the text continues with 
ch. 5 in the following order: vv. 7, 8, 2-4, 9-14, after which 
follow ch. 3. 1 ; ch. 9. 16, i7 a . Thus the commencement of v. 7 
'jl fipNfi MXJil liw^l hinges directly on to the section ch. 4. 7-19 
which enumerates the D"QW and their respective districts. This 
explains n?KH of ch. 5. 7, which is otherwise anomalous. There 
can be no question that the text of the section, as preserved 
by LXX, is complete in itself, and bears the stamp of originality 
rather than the somewhat confused account of MT. The dis- 
turbing factors in MT. appear to have been 4. 20; 5. 1, 5 2 . 
These, which contain no very precise information, were added 
probably not from a written source but from oral tradition, 
by an exilic or post-exilic 3 scribe, who desired reference to the 
happy times under Solomon's golden age. The insertion led 
to the dislocation of vv. 7, 8, causing them to be placed after 
vv. 2, 3, 4. Probably the same hand excerpted the notice about 
Pharaoh's daughter and her dowry from its true position after 
v. 14, dividing it and placing part at the beginning of ch. 3 (for 
the reason given on 3. 2, 3 note ad fin.) and part as a sequel 
to the mention of "lta in ch. 9. 15. 

20. r y\ 7irD] A common simile for a very large multitude; so 
exactly 2 Sam. 17. 11 ; cf. 1 Sam. 13. 5; Josh. 11. 4; Judg. 7. 12. 

5. 1. 7I?1D iTTl] The participle with the substantive verb em- 

1 Cf. Jos. {Ant. viii. 2, § 3) kirl 8e tovtqjv eh ird\iv apx^v airoSedafCTo. 

2 Verse 6 belongs properly to ch. 10 where it occurs in LXX, Luc. in 
connexion with v. 26. 

3 Necessarily so ; for exilic hands had already been at work upon ch. 5. 4 
(note) in the part which is common both to LXX and MT. 

48 The First Book of Kings 

phasizing the idea of duration — 'was ruling' ; so v. 24 'was giving,' 
continuously for some long period; ch. 12. 6; al. Dri. Tenses, 

§ i35> 5- 

f V\ "inM }D] The ideal limits of Israel's dominion; cf. Gen. 
15.i8; Ex. 23. 31; Deut. 1. 7; 11. 24; Josh. 1. 4. ' nnjn '/A? 
river' always denotes fPS "Vtt, the Euphrates; hence Vulg. 
a flumine terrae Ph., Pesh. (LfcJi^s? l^»!? )*<hj ^jo, which make 
'a pN an accus. of place, are quite wrong. 'a px is an accus. of 
motion towards, 'to the land of the Ph.'; cf. Gen. 45. 25 pK 1Nn s i 
}V33. Da. § 69b. 2 Chr. 9. 26 reads 'a p« Tjn. 

'» haa Ijn] '-£&*» to the boundary of Egypt.' The Dnvo 5>133 
seems to be the PF<z^ el- A risk, which bounded the southern 
extremity of Philistia, and is mentioned elsewhere as the southern 
boundary of Palestine; ch. 8. 65; Num. 34. 5; Josh. 15. 4, 47; 
Isa. 27. 12. 

DH2JJ1 . , . tW:B] ' They brought &c.' ; impersonal. Cf. Gen. 39. 2 2 
?TO rVTI Kin D^ D^V "lPK Jd nx ' whatsoever was done (lit. they 
did) there, he was the doer of it.' This use of the participle with 
the indefinite subject unexpressed is somewhat uncommon. Cf. 
Dri. Tenses, § 135, 6. 

nroD] 'Tribute' ; so II. 17. 3; Judg. 3. 15, 17; 2 Sam. 8. 2, 6. 
Elsewhere the word has the more general sense of a present 
brought voluntarily to gain favour in the eyes of the recipient ; 
II. 8. 8; 20. 12; Gen. 32. 14. As a sacrificial term the word 
in P denotes the meal-offering. Cf. further, ch. 18. 29 ?iole. 

3. "»5n] 'Pasture'; a a7m£ A*y. The common word is •"•yip. 
According to the vocalization of "1JJ5 si. ads., ^V"\ stands in apposi- 
tion, defining the class under which these cattle fall ; ' meadow-fed 
cattle! Dri. Tenses, § 188, 1. 

-)1En v i] LXX, Luc. om. 

D^DinK Dnzm] 'I is a ana£ Xey. The root D2X is seen again 
in Prov. 15. 17, D13X "W 'a stalled ox/ the substantives D»N 
'stall,' Isa. 1. 3; Prov. 14. 4; Job 39. 9; and MK» 'granary,' 
Jer. 50. 26f. All Verss. give the sense of fatted or selected fowls, 
without specifying the kind ; Kimhi capons, Ges. geese (from TO , 

V. 3-7 49 

to be pure or white), Th. guinea-fowls (an onomatop. from the cry 
of these birds). 

4. nrtin "Qy] 'The other side of the river'; referring to Solomon's 
dominions to the west of the Euphrates. The phrase, as in 
Ezra 4. 10, n, 16, 17, 20 ; 5. 3, 6 ; 6. 6, 8, 13 ; 7. 21, 25 ; 8. 36 ; 
Neh. 2. 7, 9; 3. 7, implies an exilic standpoint. The passage, 
therefore, is an insertion later than the redaction of the book 
by the pre-exilic R D ; but not so late as the dislocation caused 
by the insertion of 4. 20 ; &c. See note ad loc. On the other 
hand, the phrase as used in ch. 14. 15 (R D ); Josh. 24. 2, 3, 14, 15 ; 
2 Sam. 10. 16; || 1 Chr. 19. i6t; cf. Isa. 7. 20 fin) nnyn) denotes 
the country east of Euphrates, from a western standpoint. 

"inn ♦ ♦ ♦ nosriD] The omission in LXX, Luc, though perhaps 
marking the words as an insertion later than the main part of the 
v., and by the same hand as 4. 20 ; &c, may, on the other hand, 
be merely due to homoioteleuton, the scribe's eye passing from 
the first iron "Dy to the second. 

Vnny bm] 'Upon all sides of him.' So Jer. 49. 32 vny 5>3D 
DTK HK W3N; cf. Ex. 32. 15 Dmny WD D*3Tb nr6. The text 
of Van der Hooght reads V12V, a scriptural error unconfirmed 
by any Cod. or Vers. 

5. 'jn 1323 nnn] An idiom expressive of pastoral prosperity ; 
Mic. 4. 4t; cf. Zech. 3. 10; II. 18. 31. 

SDB> *I6G lyi pD] The standing phrase to express all the 
territory of Israel between the north and south limits ; Judg. 20. 1 ; 
1 Sam. 3. 20; 2 Sam. 3. 10; 17. 11; 24. 2, 151% p Ijn JDP "IK3D 
occurs in 1 Chr. 21. 2 j 2 Chr. 30. 5t. 

6. 9$H D^2"in] So Vulg., Pesh., Targ.; and Luc. in 10. 26. 
LXX in 10. 26 reaaapes x^taSes, and so 2 Chr. 9. 25 tPsbtt nj0"tK. 
The smaller number is adopted by Ew., Th., and others, and 
is perhaps more likely to be correct. 

rrnK] rtfna || 2 Chr. 9. 25; nDnni mora hJ? nna 2 Chr. 32. 28t. 

'Stalls'; Ar. ^1 and <jj\ ; Aram. H*o/, corresponding e.g. to 
DtoK Isa. 1. 3; and to (pdrvrj S. Luke 2. 7. 

7. friy;] 'Omitted'; Pi'el only here. Elsewhere Niph'al, 'be 


50 The First Book of Kings 

missing,' six times. In Ar. Jj£ is used of a sheep lagging behind 
the rest of the flock. 

8. W ♦ ♦ ♦ Dny^ni] ' And the barley, &c, they used to bring unto 
the place to which it might pertain.' The subject of HW is 
pnm D' r wn, naturally thought of collectively. Each officer had 
in his month to supply the different ^5v? ^V* t0 which allusion 
is made in ch. 10. 26. So Klo., RV. marg. 2; &c. LXX, Luc, 
Vulg. supply ^JJtjn as subject of n\T, and this is followed by RV. 
marg. 1. It seems clear, however, that the word supplied is 
merely a wrong explanatory gloss on the part of the translator. 
The business of the D"Q¥3 can scarcely have been to follow the 
king from place to place with fodder for the limited number 
of horses which he might have with him. 

For the nuance of the imperf. n\T cf. Dri. Tenses, §38/3. 

&y\] RV. 'swift steeds.' From the contrast to D^DID the word 
seems to denote some special kind of horse, whether used for riding, 
Est. 8. 10, 14, or for chariots, Mic. 1. 13I". In Pesh. \JLot is the con- 
stant equivalent of DID when used as a collective sing., or in the pi. 

9. 2? Dm] 'Breadth of heart.' 2? is here used as the seat 
of the intellect; cf. Job 12. 3 D3D "OJK b?fi tib D31E3 22*? b M, 
and 24; Jer. 4. 9; the expression 2? "ipn 'devoid of intelligence,' 
peculiar to Prov., where it occurs eleven times, 7. 7 ; al. (rriJIDri ">pn 
once as a variation 28. 16); and the common phrase 2<>~DDn 
Ex. 31. 6; al. 

With our phrase cf. Ps. 119. 32 *J? ymn *3 p"iK TT\WD TH. 
'y\ 71 ro] Here the figure is suggested not, as in ch. 4. 20, by 
the innumerable grains, but by the vastness of the level expanse. 

10. D*]p •oa] In Gen. 29. 1 this expression is used of Mesopo- 
tamia, but elsewhere, Judg. 6. 3, 33 ; 7. 1 2 (coupled with pbftV) p*l£)j 
Isa. 11. 14; Jer. 49. 28 (|| Tjl?); Ezek. 25. 4, 10 (DiTTm^ 'their 
tents' mentioned v. 4) ; Job 1. 3t, the phrase denotes the Arabian 
tribes to the east of Israel, and spreading as far as the Euphrates. 
So also, while Dip mn Num. 23. 7 (|| E"}K) are the mountains 
of Mesopotamia, Dip pK Gen. 25. 6 is the land into which 
Abraham sent the CBOTSn ""pa previously enumerated as Arab 

V. 8-n 5i 

tribes, and blpn "in Gen. 10. 30 seems to be the Arabian hill- 
country called en-Nejd stretching eastward from Hadramaut. 
Thus Solomon's wisdom seems to be compared, not with the wisdom 
of the Chaldeans, who were chiefly known as astrologers, but with 
that of the Arabs, whose country, as Ke. points out, is the fatherland 
of proverbial wisdom. Agreeable to this is the mention, ch. 10, of 
the visit of the queen of Sheba in south-west Arabia, who came 
to test Solomon's wisdom with hard enigmas. So Ke., Ew., Th. 

DHVO niMn] The wisdom of the &^tr]n. men f t h e priestly 
class who employed themselves in the study of hieroglyphics, 
astronomy, and magic; Gen. 41. 8; Ex. 8. 3, 14; al. Ebers, 
Aegypten, p. 344 f. Cf. also Isa. 19. 11 ; Acts 7. 22. 

11. 'm Tnmn ;rm] The four (jrn for jmij but Codd., Luc, 
Pesh., Targ. agree with Kings) are mentioned with "HET 1 Chr. 2. 6 
as sons of rnj the son of Judah by Tamar, Gen. 38. 30. So 
Targ. interprets TPTKn as mt "D. In 1 Chr. 15. 17, 19 a Heman 
and an Ethan appear with Asaph as appointed by the Levites 
to be precentors in the temple, the three representing the families 
of Kohath (1 Chr. 6. 18), Merari (1 Chr. 6. 29), and Gershom 
(6. 24-28) respectively. In 1 Chr. 25. 1 fW and flTWT ( c f. 1 Chr. 
16. 41, 42; 2 Chr. 5. 12; 35. 15; apparently the same as J1VN) 
are mentioned as '31 nn333 D^SSSTT, and in v. 5 jDTl is called 
mbm n:i3 ltan n)h. Ps. 88 is ascribed in the title to *mTKfl JOT, 
Ps. 89 to *mwn \WK, Pss. 39, 62, 77 to pntT. Hence the 
chronicler distinguishes Ethan and Heman, the sages of the tribe 
of Judah, from Ethan and Heman the musicians, who were Levites; 
and further, his statement that they were sons of Zerah need not 
conflict with that of Kings, ' sons of Mahol,' since Zerah, as is 
suggested by the title Tnwn , may have been the remoter ancestor, 
Mahol the immediate father. On the other hand, the author of 
the Psalm titles, in naming his men Ezrahites, seems to be intro- 
ducing a confusion between the Levites and the Judaeans. 

1DB>] ' His name,' i. e. his fame ; cf. the phrases b D^ n'py 
2 Sam. 7. 9; al; D^ njn Isa. 55. 13; D^n ^:K Gen. 6. 4 ; 

cf. Num. 16. 2; ny \b *aa job 30. 8. 

E 2 

52 The First Book of Kings 

12. TW] ^W is never elsewhere used as a collective. Hence 
Klo. reads Vyp ^HJI, supposing that the scribe's eye was caught 
by the similar 1DB> VP1 in the previous line. 

e^KI fOTn] LXX, Luc, several Codd.Vulg. presuppose ntston 
B^EyK. This latter, as a round number, seems preferable. 

13. D*syn] As a general rule the sing, collective denotes growing 
trees, the pi. pieces of wood, logs, or timber, as e.g. in v. 22; 
ch. 15. 22. When in classical Hebrew the pi. is used of living 
trees, there seems to be some emphasis, however slight,. upon the 
different varieties. So here, Judg. 9. 8 ff. (Jotham's parable), and 
perhaps Isa. 7. 2 \ 

Elsewhere the pi. use appears to be late or poetical; Isa. 44. 14 ; 
Ezek. eight times; Joel 1. 12, 19; Song of Sol. 2. 3 ; 4. 14; 
Ps. 96. 12; 1| 1 Chr. 16. 33; Ps. 104. i6f. 

14. '31 "ota bl nND] ' Deputed by all the kings, &c.'; so exactly 
2 Sam. 15. 3 "jtan nSD *ji? ftf y*X1 RV. ' there is no man deputed 
of the king to hear thee.' Ew. makes 'y\ DKD a closer definition 
of D^yn 73D ' specially some from among all kings, &c/ For this 
sense it would be more natural to read |0 simply without DK 2 , 
and even so the expression would be rather strange. 

Luc. inserts Ka\ iXd^ave dcopa before DND, and similarly Pesh. 
|j.2>9clo Joo» "^^ft-^o, i.e. nrop HJ5J1 adopted by Klo., Hoo. 5 and 
very probably correct. The reception of rich presents would be 
one mark of the prosperity of an ideal eastern monarch; cf. 
e.g. Ps. 72. 10. 

5. 15 — 7. 51. Solomons building operations ; chiefly, the construc- 
tion of the Temple and its furniture. 

Chh. 5. 15 — 7. 51 supply the basis of 2 Chr. 1. 18 — 5. 1. 

15. D*vn] The name is contracted from E"Vnx 'brother of the 

1 Josh. 10. 26, 27 'y\ 0'22 mcnn by abm is probably no exception. The 
meaning seems to be ' five gibbets? and, in addition, the numeral influences the 
use of the pi. 

2 n«D 'from proximity with'' (see Heb. Lex., Oxf., p. 86) is too closely 
specific of locality to be used in such a sense as this. 

V, i2-ij 53 

lofty One/ a form which occurs as a Heb. name, Num. 26. 38. 
The same contraction in Phoenician is seen in the names rD?E>n 
Himilcat, for rotariN 'brother of Milcat'; rptann Hothmilcat, 
for nnfennK ' sister of Milcat.' So in Heb. bwn for bwm ch. 
16. 34. The form D^n occurs in 2 Chr. 2. 2, 10, 11 ; al. : cf. the 
variants Sw?N 1 Sam. 25. 3, al., ^OK Kt. j>. 18 ; !>tt*»n Kt., feton 
Q're II. 23. 31, 24. 18; ^JS Gen. 32. 31, ^Q jr. 32; ffyak 
f^. 16. 34, Assyr. Abu-ra-mu, COT. ii. 479. 

*]W> ♦ ♦ ♦ vxhv bvi] LXX (Luc. tov) xpl<™i rov 2. merely repre- 
sents a corruption of MT., which latter is supported by other Verss. 

in«] Emphatic by position : ' they had anointed him '; perhaps 
with reference to the events of ch. 1. 

IiTQX rinn] LXX, Luc. avTi Aaveib tov irarpos avTov, correct, as 

being more circumstantial. The immediate mention of the name 
"in in the next sentence favours its inclusion here also. 

yrb . . . nntf] Cf. ch, 2. 39 note. 

D^ETl bl] ' All the days,' with the implication ' all his days.' So 
very frequently in preference to the use of the suffix VDJ"v3, ''PJ/S, 
&c; ch. 12. 7; 14. 30; II. 13. 3; Gen. 43. 9; 44. 32; 2 Sam. 
13. 37 b ; al. In 1 Sam. 1. 28 we have the expanded phrase 
•Til n^K D^ETl bo. Upon the phrase DnDNT bl used absolutely 
(Deuteronomic) in the sense ' continually/ cf. ch. 9. 3 note. 

16-19. These verses have, in their present form, been amplified 
by R D upon the lines of 2 Sam. 7. On v, 17 r i wb IVl TVtiJ? cf. 
ch. 3. 2 note ; v. 19 w5> JV3F1 nW 1 Kin 2 Sam. 7. 13 ; ». 18 nnyi 
MD» •»!? \-6tf ^ fWn 2 Sam. 7. 1, n; cf. Deut. 12. 10; 25. 19; 
Josh. 21. 42; 23. 1 (D 2 ), and also Deut. 3. 20 ; Josh. 1. 13, 15; 
22. 4 (both D 2 ). 

17. V!"6n] LXX, Luc. tov 6e6s jwov, an error. 

'31 innnD 1PK nDTOBn] The speaker, in using nonfon /#<? j/a/* 
3/" warfare, has implicit in his mind B^kn the enemies, who were 
its cause, and so immediately passes into the pi. ^5??? an d is able 
to continue &HK " nn IV. Gf. Judg. 5. 7 JIPB 17*111 (government 
for governors). This manner of thought is illustrated by the less 

54 The First Book of Kings 

extreme case Isa. 25-3 TN~>" D^iy D*W TCf. (where the thought 
of the sing. TP~\\> is lost in the idea of the d^ who inhabit it), and 
by the common use of a sing, collective for a pi. Cf. Ew. § 3i7 b ; 
Da. §17. 

LXX, Vulg., Pesh. render HEntan by a pi. 'wars' ; Luc. t£>v 
TroXcpicov, Targ. KIHp "H3JJ paraphrase 'enemies/ From this latter 
Klo. would emend nonpp ^S ; but this is unnecessary, and also 
out of accord with Heb. idiom, the phrase always denoting mem- 
bers of Israel's * standing army, never their foes. The expression 
■»yn TOrta B»K 2 Sam. 8. 10 (|| 1 Chr. 18. 10) is different. 

tan jtim nnn] Cf. Mai. 3. 21. 

18. }BE>] Illustrated by ch. 11. 14, 23, 25; 1 Sam. 29. 4. 

XH Jtt£>] ' Evil chance'; Eccl. 9. 1 1 1 nta J1K mp* V:D1 ny 'time and 
chance encounters all of them.' V3B is something which #z#?/,f one ; 
cf. the use of the verb, 1 Sam. 10. 5 D^ni tan njwai; Am. 5. 19 ; #/. 

19. nmi? ntttf] 'I purpose to build.' So Ex. 2. 14 nnK UTV&n 
-»DN; 1 Sam. 30. 6; 2 Sam. 21. 16; Ezr. 20. 8; Ps. 106. 23. 
Similarly in the sense ' promise to,' ch. 8. 12 pvh "IDN; II. 8. 19. 

With the meaning l command to' the phrase occurs 2 Sam. 1. 18; 
2. 26; and very frequently in late Heb., 1 Chr. 13. 4; 15. 16; 
Est. 1. 10; Dan. 1. 3, 18; 2. 2; al.j and in the Aramaic of Dan. 
2. 12, 46; 3. 13, 19; 5. 2. 

20. im^l TO] ' Command and let them hew/ i. e. ' command 
that they hew'; the voluntative with weak 1 expressing regularly 
the purpose of the previous act. Dri. Tenses, § 62. 

DTW] LXX, Luc. gv\a, i.e. E^, probably a correction in view 
of the fact that (v. 22) Hiram supplied Solomon not merely with 
DniX ^V but also with tWU 'W Cedar wood, as the most 
important necessity, may very well be specially mentioned. 

21. nirP] Luc. Kvpios 6 dcos tov 'laparjX. So || 2 Chr. 2. 1 1 ; Klo., 
Hoo. As Klo. remarks, the expression btiTWP \li?K nUT is more 

1 Joel 4. 9 is the only passage where the phrase is used of foreign armies; 
and here too the 'on 'imn are spoken of, not as Israel's foes, but from the point 
of view of the Dm themselves. 

V. i8-2j 55 

appropriate in the mouth of Hiram than niiT only. Vulg. Dominus 
Deus preserves part of the original text. 

22. ^van ?3 nK rtBtyK] So v. 23; and of doing one's own 
pleasure, Isa. 46. 10; 48. 14; 58. I3t. 

23. nnni] ana£ Xey. LXX, Luc. (rx^ias, Pesh. Isa^, Targ. 
fDJTin; 'rafts' or* floats! This meaning agrees with the following 
DTtfQJI 'I will break them up'; cf. Ps. 2. 9; Jer. 48. 12. Vulg, 
in ratibus is a guess from the context. 

In || 2 Chr. 2. 15 finDD!, a anaf- Xey. of doubtful derivation, is used. 

24. fro BYVn W] Cf. 0* 1 note. 

25. 'J1 fro nD^l] The subject is intentionally emphasized so 
as to throw the sentence into antithesis with z>. 24 fro OWn Wl. 

Cf. **. 10. 10, 13 fro hd^ item ♦ . ♦ iW> fnni; 12. 29 na b^i 
pa fro irian nxi 5>k rpm "man; 18. 42 nhr in^w . . . nanx rby*\; 

22. 20^ H32 n»K nn ran nt nDtfl ; Gen. 4. 2, 3, 4 ; 36. 4. See Dri. 
Tenses, § 160, 6%., who calls this variation in order, 'the Hebrew 
equivalent to /xeV . . . 8e of the Greeks/ 

nbbp] For rijbKD Isa. 9. 4, i8t, with assimilation of the weak 
cons. X. Sta. § 112, 1, Rem. 2 quotes as parallels flKDKpSl for 
n«DXD3 Isa. 27. 8 ; HTnX for rnS*1flK from mi (or a redup. of the 
syll. &n) Isa. 38. 15; ^WW for T^KE> Ezek. 39. 2. More 
frequent is the dropping of the quiescent X with a lengthening of 
the preceding vowel; so rfjbo for rVjbSjD Ezek. 20. 37; V)$ for 
?]m Job 32. n ; al. G-K. § 24, 3 ; § 68, 2, Rem. 1 ; Sta. 112, 1. 

fDC> "O D"n^y] The 13 was a dry measure, and the quantity 
specified is much too small. We must follow LXX, Luc. (and 
Pesh. for the numeral), and read \®$ HS p£k D*}fej ; cf. 2 Chr. 2. 9. 
So Jos., Th., Klo., Kamp. 

nTD |BB>] 'Beaten oil/ obtained by the pounding of the olives 
in a mortar. This is specified for the lamp of the Tabernacle, 
Ex. 27. 20 ; Lev. 24. 2 ; and to form part of the npl nnJD and 
2"\y nmD, Ex. 29. 40; Num. 28. 5t. 

rOEO iw] So Lev. 25. 53; Deut. 15. 20; al. 'Year by year/ 
properly, 'yearyftr year/ the meaning being that what was done 
in one year exactly corresponded to that which was done in others. 

56 The First Book of Kings 

Cf. ch. 10. 25 7\W1 rW 12ft, Heb. Lex., Oxf., p. 90% compares 
Dto nv in very late Heb., Neh. 8. 18 ; 1 Chr. 12. 23; al.; Bta Dftp 
1 Sam. 18. iot; DyS| Dy23 Num. 24. 1 ; Judg. 16. 20; al; Bhh 
Bhha 1 Chr. 27. it. 

26. nS? "Dl -wto] Cf. <r^. 8. 20 ^ in *wo; z>. 56 i3rw 5>m ; 
». 53. The idea and phrase are those of D; cf. Deut. 1. 21 ; 6. 3; 
9. 3; al; Dri. Deut. lxxxi, who cites from D fifteen occurrences 
of (?) '"> "OY1KW3, besides instances from the compiler of Judg., 
Josh. Thus the whole of v. 26 a must be assigned to R D ; and 
this is confirmed by the fact that the back-reference seems to be 
not so much to the original narrative of the vision at Gibeon, 
where Solomon's request is not for nD3n precisely but for yDK> 2? 
'ai \Osh "py riK BDB& (ch. 3. 9; cf. v. n), as to R D 's own addition 
(v. 12) which states Yahwe's definite promise of a JU31 D3n J?. 

2 7 . bvi] ' Brought up ' or ' raised ' a forced levy. So ch. 9.15 

rbyn new D»n j cf. 27. 21 12JJ dd^ ♦ ♦ ♦ thvi. 

28. niB^PI . ♦ ♦ DlW*l] 'He sent them in relays.' 'n is an 
accus. of manner or condition, a usage very common in Heb., 
whether the accus. be a substantive, adjective, or participle. Such 
an accus. may determine either the object, as here; ch. 20. 18 Dl^an 
D^n ' take them alive' (as living ones); or the subject; II. 5. 2 D"M 
tWUI IN*' 1 'and Aram went forth in bands'; 18. 37 DHJQ Wtp. 
Da. § 70 ; Dri. Tenses, § 161, 2, 3. Instances of this accus. of state 
referring to a genitive are noticed r^. 1. 41. 

niB^n] For the meaning cf. Job 10. 17 N2¥l niD^n 'a host in 
detachments or relays! Similar is Job 14. 14 IV blTK "'Nnv ^ S>2 
TlQ^n fc02 ' all the days of my warfare would I wait, until my relief 
should come/ the figure being that of a soldier at his post. 

1JT32] We should expect ^23 t^N as in Ezek. 8.12; a/. Hence 
we must suppose either that t^N has fallen out, or, with Th., that 
it is implicit in 1JV22. Klo.'s B£^, which he restores from the 
free rendering of LXX, Luc. lv tols o'kou avrcov, is an impossibility 
in good Heb. style. 

29. ?2p KfiJO] Lit. 'bearing as porters/ or 'bearers, porters/ 
?2p being in apposition to K£>:. LXX, Luc.,Vulg., Pesh. read 

V. 26-32 57 

?1D Kfcb 'bearing burdens! 2 Chr. 2. 1, 17, based upon this verse, 
omits $m and reads fclp B^K, 7JD. 

The relationship of this 70,000 + 80,000 to the 30,000 of vv. 27, 
28, is obscure. According to 2 Chr. 2. 16, 17 the former con- 
sisted of ' the strangers that were in the land of Israel/ Probably 
vv. 29-32 are from a different source to vv. 27, 28. So Ew., Sta.; 
the latter noticing that jmi?n of v. 28 is in v. 29 called "inn. 

30. HIND B&B>1 CB^K Db£b>] LXX rpets xiAiaSes *at igaKoaioi, in 
agreement with 2 Chr. 2. 1, 17, and probably genuine. So Th., 
Klo. Th/s attempt to divide the 3,600 into the 70,000 + 80,000 
= 150,000 of v. 29, +30,000 of v. 28 = 180,000, thus assigning 
fifty workmen to each overseer, seems to be unlawful; since it 
places the 30,000 Israelites upon the same footing as the 150,000 
strangers, and, in supposing that the overseers had charge of the 
work of the former, is neither consonant with the statement of 
2 Chr. 2, nor with the view that v. 28, vv. 2gff. are portions of 
different documents. 

Luc. for the second number gives eirraK6(noi } Cod. A irevrax6aioi. 

31. *]tan 1^1] LXX om., probably owing to the transposition 

noticed below. LUC. Kal iveTtikaro 6 fiacrikevs roh apxovaiv, i. e. 

B' 1 ?^, scarcely improves MT., and is probably merely an exe- 
getical addition. 

In LXX, Luc. vv. 31, 32 a are placed after v. 32 13 , ch. 6. 1. Sta. 
points out that this gives a bad succession, because the command 
to prepare the stone in the fourth year follows the statement in 
5. 17 (LXX) that the hewing of stones and timber had been going 
on for three years. He also notices that in vv. 31, 32 s , 32 b MT. 
]PDn, ?D&, fon naturally follow one another in appropriate order. 

32. Dv«?an|] Difficult. As the word stands it has been taken 
in two senses — 

(i) 'The stone-squarers.' So apparently Targ. NvTDnKI, Pesh. 
Jl^a^j'io 1 , and hence AV. However, the word is not used else- 

1 The derivation is doubtful. Levy thinks the word a transposition from the 
Gk. ZpyoXafios, while Jensen, ZA. vii. 218, explains by the Assyr. bargulu. 

58 The First Book of Kings 

where in Heb. with such a meaning, and if it be adopted we must 
suppose that the 1 is employed for closer specification, 'namely! 
which is improbable. 

(ii) ' The Gebalites! So Vulg. Giblii, RV., Ges., Ke., Ew., Kamp. 
The 1 must then mean ' and especially »/ the men of Gebal being 
particularly singled out from among the servants of Hiram. But, 
as Th. remarks, no one has as yet succeeded in explaining why 
they should receive such special notice. 

Hence it seems probable that we have here a corruption, and 
that we must look for some verb following upon the preceding 

1?DS' |, l. So LXX Kai efiaXav avrovs, Luc. Kai ivefiakov avrovs. Th. 

restores t3v3|W ' and they bordered them with grooved edges', and so 
substantially Klo. Dv*3}tt}. Th.'s emendation is favoured by Sieg. 
u. Sta.; Heb. Lex., Oxf., and may be adopted. 

rVSn ni337] LXX omits and reads instead rpLa err]. Luc. rpiah 
€T€aiv els rrjv olKodofir)v tov oIkov. This addition is favoured by Th., 
who thinks that without it v. 32b is pointless, and supposes that 
three years' preparation of stone and timber preceded the com- 
mencement of the building, ch. 6. 1, in order that the work might 
go on without interruption. On the other hand, Sta., Klo. regard 
the words as a false inference from 6. 1. The former points out 
that even supposing that a very short time elapsed between the 
commencement of Solomon's reign and his intercourse with Hiram, 
yet, notwithstanding, a longer time than three years is needed for 
the hewing of the timber in Lebanon and its conveyance to 
Jerusalem. Sta. thinks also that the long duration of the work 
of building is not to be understood, if at the commencement stone 
and timber were already prepared. On these grounds MT. seems 
to be preferable. 

6. 1. As has been noticed above, LXX inserts this verse before 
vv. 31, 32 a of ch. 5. In its place we now have ch. 6. vv. 37, 38a 
which give the dates of laying the foundation of the Temple and 
of its completion. Wellh. (C. 267) remarks that these latter verses 
in MT. break the continuity between 6. 36 and 7. 1-12, while in 
the position which they occupy in LXX they completely supersede 

^ VI. i 59 

v. i MT. which holds the ' very unfortunate position ' above men- 
tioned. Hence he concludes that v. i is the work of a later editor 
who relegated vv. 37, 38 a to their present place in MT. to make 
room for his addition, and that LXX represents the original text \ 
This will account for the position of v. 1 in LXX, the late addition 
having been first written in the margin of a MS., and afterwards 
incorporated in the text as best it could be. As a mark of the 
different authorship of v. 1 Wellh. notices that it uses tJHn where 
w- 37, 3§ a have ITV ; wn B^nn KV1 It BHrQ standing in place 
of wn EHnn Kin it rrva. 

Another consideration favours the lateness of this verse. The 
number 480 appears to be not strictly historical, but to be a round 
number obtained, as recognized by Bertheau and Noldeke, from 
40 x 12, forty years being regarded as the approximate length 
of a generation 2 , and frequently occurring in Judges in descriptions 
of the duration of periods of peace or oppression 3 . Attempts 
have been made so to arrange previous chronological notices that 
they may together correspond to this given period 4 ; but no scheme 
has been entirely successful. 

Now it is at least conceivable that the author of our verse 
may have been influenced by that fondness for the construction 
of artificial periods of similar length exhibited by the chrono- 

1 Sta. agrees with Wellh. that v. 1 is a late insertion, but refuses to regard 
the position of vv. 37, 38* in LXX as original, on the ground that a notice 
as to the completion of the building is out of place at the commencement, the 
expressions YBBtDD bi^ inn bib pointing backward to a previous description. 
This argument scarcely seems to carry conviction. 

2 So in S. Matt. 1. 17 Awd rf}s p,€ToiK€<jias Ba@v\wvos ews rov Xpiarov yevcal 
8(Karicaapes, 40 x 14 = 560, approximates very fairly to the real length of the 
period — 586 years. 

3 So of the peace enjoyed after the victories of Othniel (3. 11), Deborah 
(5. 31), Gideon (8. 28), Ehud (3. 30) eighty years, i.e. 40x2; and of the 
Philistine oppression (13. 1). Samson's judgeship (16. 31) twenty years, is 
half a generation. Cf. the periods assigned for Eli's judgeship (1 Sam. 4. 18), 
and for the reigns of David (2 Sam. 5. 4) and Solomon (1 Ki. 11. 42). 

4 Cf. Wellh. Prolegomena, 230/. Jos. states the number of years to have 
been 492. 


The First Book of Kings 

logist in S. Matt. 1. 17, and may thus have purposely approxi- 
mated the length of the little -known period from the Exodus 
to the building of the Temple to the chronology of some sub- 
sequent period for the knowledge of which he possessed available 

If then we start from the commencement of Solomon's Temple, 
and add together the years of the reigns of the kings of Judah 
as given by R D , we obtain the following result : — 

Solomon (40 — 3 years before the com- 
mencement of the Temple) 




I. 11. 42. 


14. 21. 


15. 2. 


15. 10. 


22. 42. 


II. 8. 17. 


8. 26. 


11. 3. 


12. 2. 


14. 2. 


15. 2. 


15. 33- 


16. 2. 


18. 2. 


21. 1. 


21. 19. 


22. 1. 



1 1 

23. 36. 


24. 8. 


24. 18. 


To this 430 add the fifty years of the Babylonian exile, and 
we have from the commencement of the Temple down to the 

VI. 2-3 6i 

return from Babylon a second period of 480 years 1 which may 
be fairly considered as having determined the duration assigned 
to the former period. Thus v. 1 appears to be the work of 
a /^/-exilic editor, the same no doubt as will later on come into 
prominence through the insertions made by him under the 
influence of the Priestly Code 2 . 

The reading of LXX, iv tw Teao-apaKoara Kal TerpciKoo-ioo-Tcp erei, 

is a mistake, but cannot be explained with Th., following Winer, 
ii. 327, note 2, as arising from a confusion of B = 80 with D = 40. 
In ancient Hebrew writing the method of expressing numeration, 
in cases where the number was not fully written in words, was 
most probably a system of strokes and similar signs, such as we 
find in Phoenician inscriptions. We have not the slightest evidence 
to prove that the comparatively late system of expressing numbers 
by means of letters was ever adopted in Hebrew MSS. of OT. 
Luc. agrees with LXX as to the position assigned to vv. 37, 38* 

in place of V. I, but Continues Kal G>Kod6fxr)o~ev avrov iv iiTTa ereaiv, Kai 

(oKobopei rbv oIkov t<5 KvpLtp, i. e. vv. 38^, i b . This has obviously 
been added to Luc. by a later hand, both sentences in MT. 
belonging to the author of v. i a . 

2. ima n»N D*W] So Vulg., Pesh., Targ., and 2 Chr. 3. 3 (MT. 
and all Verss.). LXX, Luc. reaaapaKoura fxrjKos avrov, the translator 
apparently fancying erroneously that the reference is to the ^n 
or Holy Place, exclusive of the "^21, and so altering the text 
from z;. 17. 

D'HW] Read n»N Dnpsn with LXX, Luc, Vulg., Pesh. 

Iflftlp HEK wbw] So Vulg., Pesh., Targ. ; but LXX, Luc. kcu 
tt€vt€ kcu eiKovi iv ix^ft to v^os avrov. In 2 Chr. 3. 3, and in the 
description of the dimensions of Ezekiel's Temple (41. 2), there 
is no record of the height. 

3. Dm "OB by] * Upon the face of the breadth,' i. e. corresponding 
to it; but IV2ri "OS by means simply ( before the house.' 

1 This has been already noticed by Sta., Ges. i. 88^!; Kau., Abriss, 172. 
a And therefore elsewhere cited as R p . 

62 The First Book of Kings 

mm HD&O "W] LXX omits through oversight. 

After v. 3, LXX, Luc. insert v. 14 ko< (pKobojirjo-ev rbv oIkov ml 
<rvveTe\e<T€v avrov. In spite of what Klo. says to the contrary, 
it seems to be clearly inconsistent to mention the completion 
of the house before the details as to its roofing, side-chambers, &c. 
LXX order is therefore to be rejected. 

4. n^m D^pt? WH] tfapp (only again in 7. 4 *) probably 
means 'frames,' the reference being to the beams or stones which 
were fitted together to form the outline of the window, *\\>$ ^V?! 
(7. 5t) doubtless signifies 'square in framework' ; P)p£> denoting 
the beams or stones which formed the sides and lintel of the 
doorway; *\)\>P'Q (Ex. 12. 7, 22, 23I") is the lintel or portal; and 
the Talmudic *PPP has the same meaning 'lintel.' Ar. \JjnlS, 
means to roof a building with a vaulted roof i_jLqI> a?i arched 
or vaulted roof the original signification probably being that 
assigned by Ges., to bend down, incline 2 , then, to place upon, 
especially applied to beams, and so, to joist or construct with 
beams. DDK is again applied to windows Ezek. 40. 16 ; 41. 16, 26; 
and is used in the expression fa]K &t?K ' stopping his ear,' Prov. 
21. 13; Isa. 33. 15: Ar. 1L?I 1. to cover, hide, be contracted, iv. 
to close (a door): Syr. y££( compressed, contracted, then, thick, solid, 
and even hard, stubborn (of a disposition and of anger). 

Thus our phrase may be rendered either (i) ' Windows with 
frames closed in,' possibly by gratings (this being implied merely 
and not stated), or more probably (ii) ' Windows with narrowed 
frames] i. e. wide on the inner side of the thick wall, and gradually 
sloping so as to form a mere slit on the outer side, like the windows 
of ancient western fortresses. So probably Vulg. fenestras obliquas, 
and certainly Pesh. Jfcod^Io Jl^a.1^*, Jao 'windows oblique and 
narrowed' (cf. Ezek. 40. 16 ^^ *i*^i3o o^^ ^ao «°u^»,» )&so 
' windows oblique within and small without ') ; Targ. yjbD jrtTl2 pa 

1 D^Dlp© is restored by Cornill in Ezek. 41. 16 mnv^« Q'Diptt? 'JlVn. 

2 In Ar. the term \> aiL,! is used of the flexible neck of the ostrich. Lane, 

Lex. 1383. 

VI. 4-5 6 3 

HFObiD [OTlDI 'windows opened within and closed without' 1 ; 
Jesu bar- Ali who explains that Ifcsjaal^ Jos are 1^*1-»>L a^t )<ko 
.fcw)c*i^j |l^^ ♦mm.s ^aoafcap IV .^-J^> 'windows which are 
not cut through straightly (i. e. squarely), but narrowed upon one 
side obliquely'; Kamp.; and Cornill on Ezekiel, so far as regards 
D^DttN, — ' schrag einfallende Fenster.' 

The Greek Verss. generally connect D^Sp^ with tppwri ' to look 

Or lean OUt of a window': — LXX Ovpidas irapaKVTTTopevas Kpv7TTU.s, 
ai. exempl. diciKvirropevas Kpimra?, and SO 0. ,* 2. 6vplhas kcu extras 
eTTHTKeTrovras ; 'A. drro/3Xe7rou(ra? fiefivapevas ', Luc. 6vpl$as debiKrvcopeuas 

Kpvnras. Perhaps LXX, e., 'A. mean ' with prospects obstructed,' 
whether by grating or otherwise. So Vet. Lat. prospicientes ab- 
sconsas. Luc. dediKr. is probably a corruption of Siawm. in view 
of the explanation noticed below. 

RV., Ke., Th., Ew., Sta., Kamp. (and Cornill in Ezek. 41. 16) 
give to D^BptP the sense of lattices, gratings, or transverse beams ; 
but this seems to rest upon pure conjecture ; and, besides bearing 
no resemblance to the meaning of other Hebrew words from the 
same root, is unsuitable to the use of the same word by the same 
writer in 7. 4 (see note). The rendering of D*DBK by RV., Ke., 
Th., Sta. 'fixed' 'festgemackte,' appears to be an accommodation 
to the meaning given to D^DpC, and fails of justification. 

5. ptt] LXX i'dtoKtv, i.e. Jfi*l; possible (cf. jnJ, v. 6), but not 
superior to MT. Luc. koI eVo^o-ey, i.e. WVl), is influenced by the 
recurrence of this word in vv. 4, 5 b . 

J?W] The meaning seems to be something spread upon or 
applied to the wall of a house, so ' side-buildings ' or ' wings.' So 
approximately Pesh. )!>'♦** lit. ' surroundings,' Targ. Kffi probably 
1 projecting buildings/ The word denotes the whole wing, not the 
single stories : see notes on the other occurrences vv. 6, iof. 
Hence LXX, Luc. peXadpa, Vulg. labulata, whence RV. ' stories,' 
are not quite correct. 

1 These Verss., however, appear to derive their rendering 'open (oblique), 
closed (narrowed)' from the whole phrase d^otdn D'DpiD ; and so apparently 
RV. marg. 

64 The First Book of Kings 

Q're TV r probably aims at distinction from 5H2P l bed/ Gen. 
49. 4 ; al. 

JVin nwp n« MD] LXX, Luc. om. As Sta. points out, the 
words appear to be merely a gloss upon "VTvl TSth 2"QD. So 
Kamp. The strange accentuation, which places the zaqef in each 
case upon l^D, cannot be correct. 

3 s nD nwi>? W>] LXX om., but merely through oversight. The 
words are found in Luc. and the other Verss., and are, as Sta. 
remarks, indispensable. y?¥, properly a rib, is thought to be used 
distinctively of a ^z'^-chamber here and in the description of 
Ezekiel's Temple, but seems to be employed of chambers more 
generally in 7. 3. Cf. note on 7. 2 ad fin. 

6. ronnnn jyivn] yiy (the whole wing, z/. 5) is here unsuitable, 
and is also a masc. word. LXX, Luc. rj nXcvpa, Targ. NnVTIE 
point to V???n as the original reading, doubtless correctly. Cf. v. 8 
flttViri yi?vn. So Th., Sta.; and Klo. doubtfully. 

rfljnaD] ' Rebatements ' ; ana^ Xey. The meaning is clear from 
the context, and from the common sense of y"0 ' take away ' or 
' diminish/ So perhaps LXX, Luc. Bidarrjfia. Pesh., Targ., guessing 
from context, iaj^, NDpQi 'ledges'; Vulg. trabes. 

nnn nwpn mN *nW>] ' That (the beams) should not have hold 
in the walls of the house/ The absence of the subject, not 
previously mentioned, is very harsh ; and we may reasonably 
suppose that HVlipn has fallen out before nwpa, owing to the 
similarity of the two words. Cf. the confusion of these words 
in v. 1 5. Targ. rightly supplies a subject NJTH^ ^H ' the ends 
of the beams/ 

7. This verse intrudes itself very awkwardly into the midst 
of the account of the construction of the side-chambers, and, 
if forming a part of the original description, must at any rate 
be out of place. Kamp. assigns the notice to R D , and Sta., 
following Ew., regards it as a gloss from the margin, and so 
presumably by a later hand, — perhaps the post-exilic author of 
v. 1, &c. The tradition of the building of the Temple without the 
use of tools and of previously prepared material is doubtless 

VI. 6-8 6 5 

derived from or connected with the command of Ex. 20. 25 (J); 
Deut. 27. 5, 6 (cf. especially the phrase T\)u?W D^IX) with regard to 
an altar of stone, and so can have been written by the pre-exilic R D , 
as is suggested by the occurrence of the verse in the same position 
in LXX, Luc. 

On the other hand, the notice is not in the spirit of R D — whose 
insertions, as a rule, subserve a definitely religious purpose — and 
rather answers to the desire for curious details characteristic of 
a later (post-exilic) age ; while the awkward position of the verse 
is strange to the really skilful handling by R D of his materials, 
and more nearly resembles the work of the later editor who has 
complicated the descriptions of chh. 6, 7 throughout. 

We may therefore assign the insertion to the post-exilic editor 
(R p ), and suppose that in LXX the verse was added by a copyist 
from a Hebrew MS. 

yDD T\xk>W ptf] ' Stone rough-hewn in (as regards) quarrying/ 
yDD, in loose apposition (Dri. Tenses, § 188, 1 ; Da. § 29°), defines 
the sense in which the stone could be described as n£>7£\ 

nD?K>] ' Whole/ as hewn from the quarry, without any further 
preparation by sawing or otherwise. The term, as employed of 
the stones of an altar, Deut. 27. 6; Josh. 8. 31, probably denotes 
stones in their natural condition. yB£>, in this sense a ana£ Xey., 
is the ' action of removal/ from Hiph'il ysn ' pluck up/ used 
of moving stones from the quarry in 5. 31. The whole expression 
'y\ pX is an accus. of material; and with an active verb HK nj3 
'jll pK HUH would have formed the second or remoter accus., as in 
Deut. 27. 6 ; 7. 15. Dri. Tenses, § 195. Cf. Ew. § 284c ; Da. § 80. 

v3 72] For 7D at the close of a category asyndetos summarizing 
all possibilities of the class cf. ch. 8. 37 r£riE> bl W b$. 

y?DG20] The verb agreeing, not with the whole list, but with the 
nearest subs, ^a bl in sing. Cf. Deut. 8. 13 *]b rOT nnn PJD3 ; 
Hos. 4. 11 2b np pwni p HUT; Da. § ii4 a . 

8. nwnn] LXX, Luc. ttjs vnoKaTudev, Targ. xrT'yiX presuppose 
njhnrin , which is doubtless correct. So Th., Ew., Sta., Klo., Kamp., 
Benz., Kit. 


66 The First Book of Kings 

0*917] A a7ra£ Xey., the meaning of which is not quite clear. RV. 
' winding stairs ' is derived from LXX, Luc. iXiKTrj (elXiKTrj) dvd(3aais, 
'A. (ml ev) koxXlcus, Vulg. cochlea, Targ. NrDDID; so Ke., Th., 
Ew., Klo., Kamp. Pesh., however, renders )l^©lj»ia^ ' through 
a trap-door] and Sta. thinks that this is nearly correct. In Rabb. 
Hebrew 1 7v can mean a falling shaft covered by a trap-door; 

Middoth 4, 5 vn fros? wipn unp irai> n^jn prnna vn phi? 
DWpn wp rvaio j,ws? w k5>p H3 ni^nn pjiown dn p^po 

' There were /z//i>/ in the loft opening into the Holy of Holies 
through which they used to let down the workmen in boxes that 
they might not feast their eyes within the most Holy Place.' We 
also have the word used to denote a hollow room covered above ; 
Pesachim 34 s , 77% al.; and afterwards it comes to mean a hen- 
roost; Shabbath i02 b , i22 b , al. Hence Sta. understands by fthx> 
hollow chambers covered above with trap-doors, through which 
one might ascend by means of a ladder or steps like those of 

Adopting this explanation we may render 'trap-door covered 

9. This verse is obviously out of place, breaking the connexion 
between vv. 8 and 10; and, accordingly, with Sta. it shares the fate 
of v. 7 as being a late gloss. Against this it should be noticed 
(i) that the verse contains the only allusion to the roofing of the 
house, a detail not likely to be omitted ; and (ii) that mention 
of the completion of the house ought fitly to come into a descrip- 
tion of the building, and may reasonably do so immediately after 
the details as to the construction of the house proper, and before 
those which concern its inward embellishments 2 . Thus we may 
regard the verse as original, excepting the words n")1^1 DU3 not 
found in LXX, Luc, and place it after v. 10, from which position 
it has been transposed by a very early error of transcription 3 . 

1 Cf. Levy, s. v. 

2 Verse 15 immediately continues with a description of nrvya n*2H fiwp DN. 

3 This conclusion is confirmed by the repetition {v. 14) of 9 by the author 
of the interpolation vv. 11-14. See note. 

VI. 9~io 67 

Thus the sequence in description — walls, porch, windows, wings, 
roofing — is perfect, the last detail aptly rounding off the account 
of the outside building of the house. 

D^PNa fi"Wi Q"»3a] A rather strange expression. If we adopt 
RV. ' beams and planks of cedar/ we must suppose that the 2 is 
a variety of the 2 essentiae ; * consisting of cedar.' LXX, Luc. koI 

€KoiKo(TTd6fxr)(r€P top oIkov iv Keftpois, Pesh. JiflQuAa )l^>a\ ot**»o(o 

))>!? seem to have read simply QTttQ Mil HN JBD^, which was 
probably the original form of the sentence. The words mi^l MJ 
are then a later gloss added to explain more precisely the use 
to which the cedar beams were put. 

Jlll^l D^a] D*3J elsewhere means ' pits ' or ' cisterns ' ; II. 3. 1 6 ; 
ah; while miW in its other occurrences, II. 11. 8, 15 ; || 2 Chr. 
23. i4t, denotes 'ranks' of men. Ew., taking D^} to mean lit. 
' cavities/ explains that the roof consisted ' of an ornamental ceiling 
in squares, with small pieces of cedar wood as dividing beams/ 
This agrees with LXX insertion & <paTva>fxa<nv km diard^a-iv 4 Kedpois, 
' panels and cedar boards in rows V Vulg. laquearibus, ' with 
panelled roofs/ Adopting this explanation we may render, ' panels 
and parallel beams' Targ. explains N^yi pinjm ND^ TV Wbi 
WPK nnK> *&n ns^m fcOTD JWD 'And he roofed the house 
with rafters, and above them were a series of cedar boards joined 
together/ Lagarde (Armenische Studien, §499; Mittheil. i. 211) 
for O^a reads &H?i, which he connects with Persian Ju*jlJ7 Armen. 
yppeO, 'vaulted roofs/ 

10. Somewhat obscure. MT. is adopted by Ke., Th., Kamp., 
Klo.; the last explaining: — 'He built it (each story) evenly against 
the wall of the whole house, until it was five cubits high, and then 
the connexion with the house and the roof of the side-chambers 
was formed by the cedar beams and planks, which rested upon 
the rebatements of the house/ Of course this process is conceived 
to have taken place three times, so that the three stories when 

1 But not, as stated by Ew., with LXX knoiXocrTadnrjaw, l made with vaulted 
roof/ which, as above noticed, is a translation of JDD'l merely. Cf. Hag. 1. 4 

F 2 

68 The First Book of Kings 

built and roofed must have had a height of fifteen cubits. Against 
this it should be noticed that yiy in v. 5 denotes not a single 
story (called P^l 1 v. 8), but the whole wing consisting of three 
stories ; hence Sta. is probably correct in reading nBK ,'Tl^ BtoD 
for ni»N £>»n of MT. So Kit. 

The subject of tntfl, rightly divined by RV., Ke., Sta., Klo., 
Benz., is ywi; ' It rested on the house with beams of cedar.' Sta. 
compares TI1K VV2? of v. 6. On the contrary, Verss., RV. marg., 
Th., Kamp., Kit. make the subject to be the same as that of 
p 1 "! ; Vulg. operuit domum, Targ. KIV2 rV Pvtt! ' he roofed the 
house,' giving a wrong sense to TW). LXX <a\ a-wia^v top 
avvbeo-fiov (Luc. tovs arvp&o-fiovs) appear to have read yiyn DN Tnx ,, l . 
This reading is favoured by Ew., but is probably merely a mistrans- 
lation, due to the mistake in the subject of Tnx ,,, i noticed above. 

ri-14. Omitted by LXX, Luc. Verses n-13 are assigned 
by Kue., Wellh., Kamp., Benz., Kit. to R D ; but this is certainly 
incorrect. The section, it is true, contains some D phrases, such as 
could and did pass from D into P; but other expressions belong 
solely to P or to H, and thus mark the verses as the work of R p . 
This conclusion is rendered certain by the LXX omission. Verse 14 
is by the same hand as vv. 1 1-13 ; v. 9 a being repeated in order to 
round off the interpolation and attach it to the preceding narrative. 

The following are marks of authorship which require notice : — 
12. Tlpra I^D DK] This phrase, which never occurs in Deut, 

is found twice in Jer. 44. 10, 23. On the other hand, it is 

distinctively characteristic of H, occurring Lev. 26. 3 (cf. 

18. 4), and constantly in Ezekiel, whose connexion with P, 

and especially with H, is well ascertained 1 ; 5. 6, 7; 11. 20; 

18. 9, 17; 20. 13, 16, 19, 2 it. Cf. the phrase D^an r#na -£n 

Lev. 18. 3; 20. 23 (H). 
ncyn ''DaCD nNl] The exact phrase (with mil* as spokesman ; 

♦BMto) belongs to H; Lev. 18. 4; Ezek. 5. 7; 11. 12; 

18. 17; 20.24; iChr. 28. 7. Inch. 11. 33 VJB "W*n Ttwh 

1 Cf. Dri. LOT., pp.45/: 

VI. 11-12 69 

V3N mna •'DBWi Tlpm, the passage belongs to R D , but the 

words 'El 'ni are an insertion by R p , as is shown by their 

omission in LXX, Luc. 

Even with VVZfl?, D s D&E>an the phrase is not specially 

characteristic of Deut. 1 ; 26. 16; 33. 21 (Blessing of Moses 

in Appendix). Elsewhere, Neh. 10. 30. 

Similar H phrases are b^H hnk Mb^f n&?K EPDtpB (1B0) 

DPQ TR Lev. 18. 5: Ezek. 20. 11, 13, 21+: n"W Q*B&Bto nbB>* 

EnxLev.i9.37; 20. 22; 25. 18; Ezek. 11. 20; 20. 19; 36.27. 
Vn¥E 5>a nx nnEE>l] The phrase appears first in Ex. 20. 6 

(E); Deut. 5. 10 TDfofD ^DWp, and is then very frequent in 

Deut.; passing on to R D in Kings, I. 2. 3; 9. 6; 11. 34; 

ah; and to P, which shows several occurrences. 
Om 313^] So exactly only in Lev. 18. 4 (H) lOTl *BBP» TIN 

am naW> vwn Tipn nai. D's phrase is '* *anna nai£; 

cf. f/$. 2. 3. 
*"jr»K nan ns TlOpni] The expression nan b*pfl with rhrp as 

subj. is found once in Deut. 9. 5, and twice in R D , ch. 2. 4; 

12. 15; || 2 Chr. 10. 15; but is also more general; 1 Sam. 1. 

23 ; Jer. 33. 14; Dan. 9. 12 ; cf. Isa. 44. 26. 
nin fo "man ntfo] Referring, like R D in 2. 4, to Nathan's 

prophecy, 2 Sam. 7. 12-16. 
13. S>KnB* "Oa Tina ^naaen] Very distinctive of P; Ex. 25. 8; 

29.45; Num. 5. 3; 35. 34; Ezek. 43.9. No occurrences in D. 
With the whole verse cf. Lev. 26. it, 12 (H) "oa^D "Timi 

nJ? TP\ni Daaina Tofonni jnana vm bwn xh) Daaina 
: nyb ^ win Dn«i D^nfoi?. 

12. n:a ♦ ♦ . IVan] A casus pendens, 'As for this house/ &c, 
imperfectly reinforced, after the long protasis, by Tina 'JliatP) 
fon^t "oa (v. 13), where we should strictly expect faina. Cf. Dri. 
Tenses, § 197, Obs. 2. Thus we need not, with Kamp., Benz., 

1 D's usual phrases are rmuyb D'tCDiTD "in© ' observe judgements to do them '; 
5. 1 ; 7. ii ; 11. 32 ; 12. 1 ; 2 Ki. 17. 37; Ezek. 20. 21 (cf. 18. 9) : Dnowoo *raV 
niffis 1 ) 'teach (some one else) judgements to do them'; 4. I, 5, 14; 6. 1. 

70 The First Book of Kings 

suppose that before JV2H some words have fallen out, such as *TV. 
~7NI ninina W 'mine eyes shall be open toward,' as in ch. 8. 29. 

15. nTOD] Omitted by LXX, Luc.; but scarcely to be dis- 
pensed with. 

fBBn JlYvp] Read JSBn HNp ' the rafters of the ceiling,' with the 
former part of the doublet in LXX, Luc. Za>s t£>v Sokcov, Vulg. laque- 
arz'a, Pesh. b#o»oj«tj^. So Bo., Th., Sta., Klo., Kamp., Benz., Kit. 

JV2D YV nav] Rejected by Sta. as a summary of the contents 
of the verse which has come into the text from the margin, and by 
Klo., Benz., Kit. as a later gloss added to guard the expression 
3 » ♦ ♦ pM against misunderstanding. The words, however, appear 
in all Verss., and may very well form with the previous 'y\ JJpnpD 
a circumstantial clause; 'And he built the walls of the house 
within with boards of cedar, overlaying with wood within from 
the floor of the house to the rafters of the ceiling.' Cf. Dri. Tenses, 
§ 163, who quotes ch. 7. 51 'fl [J13 D^bn m . . . fcO^ 'and he 
brought in the vessels . . . , placing them,' &c. 

16. 'y\ p^] 'And he built off the twenty cubits from the inner- 
most part of the house with boards of cedar/ VD"P means ' the 
furthest extremity,' and may be applied to the most secret recesses 
of a house or cave employed as a place of hiding, Am. 6. 10; 
1 Sam. 24. 4; or as women's apartments, Ps. 128. 3; or again 
in the phrase ptf TD"V, to the most inaccessible limits of the 
earth, Jer. 31. 7; al ; cf. |1S¥ VDTO Ezek. 38. 6; al. ; TQ WV 
Ezek. 32. 23. J1D of W^D denotes the point of departure in 
measurement, as e.g. 1 Sam. 20. 37 nfrOm *p» 'on beyond thee.' 

nYVpn] Read T)*r\SpT\ with LXX, Luc. em t5>v dowv, Vulg. 
superiora, Pesh. wotov^, So the authorities cited for the same 
emendation in v. 15. 

i6*>. p*i] fc>y»1 is the reading of 1 Cod., LXX, Luc, e., Vulg. 

1?] Daiivus commodi, as in 1. 28; lit. 'he built for himself; so 
Kamp. ' baute er sich's.' Th., RV. ' he even built (them) for it,' 
i. e. for the house, are incorrect. 

"^1?] 'For an adytum/ The word T31, which only occurs 

VI. if-ij 71 

in this section of Kings, chs. 6-8, in the parallel account in 
2 Chr. 3-5, and in Ps. 28. 2 \ is connected with Ar.JjS to be behind, 
whence ->S, t>i hindmost or back part, and so doubtless denotes 
the back or innermost room of the Temple. 'A., 2. xp y ]V LaTl0 " ry ]p' i °v^ 
Vulg. oraculi, whence AV., RV. ' oracle,' connect Tin incorrectly 
with "O^ ' to speak.' 

DWpn KHp?] So <:/$. 7. 50 ; 8.6. The phrase occurs four times 
in P of the innermost sanctuary, Ex. 26. 33, 34; Num. 4. 4, 19; 
in Num. 18. 9, 10 it refers to the offerings of the b'ne Israel 
'31 DnnJD bl; DWpn *vnp Lev. 21. 22 is the portion of the 
sons of Aaron; DWp EHp, seventeen times in P, is applied to 
the brazen altar, the altar of incense, the twelve cakes of shew- 
bread, and the portions of various sacrifices which fell to the priests. 

These are all occurrences of the phrase in P. Elsewhere it is 
found only in late books influenced by P; Ezek., Chr., Ezra, Neb., 
Dan.; and in the three passages noticed in Kings. Thus the 
phrase in Kings is clearly a gloss made by a post-exilic interpolator 
under the influence of P, to explain the possibly obsolete term 
•vm in 6. 16; 8. 6; and nWBfl rvn in 7. 50. 

The inclusion of the phrase in LXX, Luc. in each passage 
suggests that it is not due to the post-exilic editor R p , whose 
glosses and changes are usually absent from the Greek Vers., or 
obviously inserted later from the margin, but to earlier post-exilic 
interpolators upon a smaller scale 2 . 

iy-20 a . inoip ♦ ♦ . ♦ DWWl] The passage as it stands is 
remarkably involved, and appears to exhibit a double stratum 

of glosses. LXX reads Kai rea-o-apaKOVTa nrjxcov rjv 6 vans Kara 
7rp6(TG>irov tov daftclp iv peaco rov o'Uov <fo~<o6ev t dovvai eVce! ttjv Kificorbv 
SiadrjKTjs Kvpiov. *'Uo(Ti 7rr)\(is prJKOs, kol e'lKoai 7rr/x €ls wXaroff, kcu c'lKoai 
nrix«? to ityo* alrov, i.e. ^ ^3.1 iTH rtBKS DVpflKI (p. 17) 

: nliT nna p-w-na nf nnj> pid'osb rpan -jinn -wri {v. 19) 

1 The word should probably be restored in II. 10. 25 ; see note. 

2 These seem to have been mere scribes or copyists, not to be dignified by 
the title ' editor,' working under the influence of P, and thus their small inser- 
tions may be cited as belonging to SS P . 

72 The First Book of Kings 

•iriDip r\m cnkjn ani r\m n^yy) i\*ft nm D s "]b>y (^ 2 o). So 

substantially Luc. 

Here we notice the omission of 7DVin Kin, also lacking in Vulg., 
explanatory of JV3n in v. 17; and the entire absence of v. 18, 
which contains details of the wood-carving of the house. These 
are clearly insertions made by R p . By their removal the monstrous 
^Sp at the close of v. 17, together with "Win ^?h) at the com- 
mencement of v. 20, is explained as arising out of the original 
TQ*in ^sb at the close of v. 17, through the confusion incident 
upon the introduction of v. 18. 

But the account, even as simplified by LXX, cannot stand in its 
original form. The mention (v. 19) of the situation of the TOT 
is superfluous after v. 16, and the expression nii"P rVQ pitf HN 
belongs to D; see note on 3. 15. Thus v. 19 is also an insertion, 
though of earlier date than those first noticed, and possibly 
even due to R D . The description originally ran as follows : 

Dnfew -pmm i v . 20 \ nwri •oab ivan rrri ntsKa tpyzim fa. 17) 

■ : v • : - : V / •:- ":• • — tt t - t ~ r t~ : \ I / 

iSntfp nm Cn'fJH 3jfi P1BK Ci^fVl SRK nttK 'And forty cubits 
was the house before the adytum. And the adytum was twenty 
cubits long, and twenty cubits broad, and twenty cubits high.' 
So Sta., except for the retention of 73\"in Nin (v. 17), against 
LXX, Luc, Vulg. 

18. rV2n 7tf] The preposition 7N is not used in a loose way 
for ?V, RV. ' <?» the house,' i. e. on its walls ; but rather expresses 
presence in or at the building as pictured from a distance ; ' in the 
house/ Cf. II. 10. 14 IpV T?1 in i>N D1BPIB*1 'They slew them 
tf/the pit of Beth-'Eqed'; Ezek. 31. 7 tfm D^D b$ lEn^l 'its root 
was by many waters'; 47. 7 T\ yy i?mn riSE> 5>K .13."! 'behold, a/ 
the edge of the ravine there were many trees.' 

njPpB] 'Carving'; only again vv. 29, 32 ; ch. 7. 31; while the 
verb y?p z/z>. 29, 32, 35+ is also peculiar to this one interpolator. 

CypD] 'Gourds'; 7. 24I-. ny£3 II. 4. 39 1 means wild gourds 
gathered from a 1VV& |S3. According to Tristram, DB? 1244, the 
Colocynthis agri is denoted. 

D^ft? HIDD] 'Open flowers'; vv. 29, 32, 35I-. 

VI. i8-20 73 

19. \T\rb~\ This anomalous form of the infin. constr. occurs once 
again, ch. 17. 14 Kt., where Q're is T\T). Konig's view (Lehrg. I. 
i. p. 305) that the double occurrence precludes the theory of textual 
corruption, and that the final f is a parasitical addition due to the 
fact that vulgarly the recollection of the connexion of Jlfl with ffij 
was totally obliterated, is very forced and unnatural. 

20. "1120 an? inayi] Sta. argues at length against the originality 
of all passages which speak of the use of gold plating in Solomon's 
Temple, making in brief the following points : — 

(i) If for the manufacture of brazen vessels a Syrian workman 
had to be imported (7. 13 ff-), it is highly improbable that sufficiently 
skilful workers in gold were to be found among the men of Israel. 

(ii) Later notices in Kings which mention the treasures of the 
Temple make no allusion to the gold-plating. Thus, 14. 26, 
Shishak carries off only the nUT iva rVPVIK such as would pre- 
sumably be stored in the side-chambers, and the golden shields 
of Solomon; II. 14. 14, Joash king of Israel makes booty of the 
gold and silver vessels found ^DH IVa ni"MN31 .TUT JVa ; II. 16. 17, 
Ahaz in his need uses merely the great bronze vessels found in 
the Temple; II. 18. 16, Hezekiah overlays the doors of the 
JTiT ?yn with gold-plating, but afterwards cuts it off and sends 
it to the king of Assyria. 

(iii) Verses 21/?, 30 stand in wrong position ; v. 21, so far as it 
refers to the gold-plating of the house, is wanting in LXX; and 
vv. 22, 30 are otherwise rendered suspicious by their contents. 

(iv) Ezekiel, in his description of the future Temple, knows of 
no such gold-plating. 

Thus in this connexion vv. 20 b (in part, TiJD ant ingflPl), 21 (all 
but T1TH "OS?), 22, 28, 30, 32 b are omitted by Sta. 

These arguments, though weighty, are not entirely convincing. 
nS¥ may denote not necessarily a heavy gold-plating as in II. 18. 
1 6, but a thin gilding with liquid gold ', such as called for no very 

1 In Prov. 26. 23 fonrHa? HBS?p D^rp P]p3 one thinks of a potsherd silvered 
over, not coated with plates of silver. 

74 The First Book of Kings 

special skill in preparation and application to the wood, and also 
need not imply so prodigious a supply of the metal, nor have 
been calculated to attract the cupidity of a foreign foe bent upon 
hastily pillaging the treasures of the Temple. Again, the fact 
that certain notices are absent from LXX rather favours than 
otherwise the originality of the remainder. Quite probably the 
narrative has here, as elsewhere, been subject to later glosses ; 
but the total denial to the original account of all references to 
the employment of gold in Solomon's Temple must be deemed 
extremely precarious. 

"u2D 2HT] Apparently 'choice' or 'precious gold' (cf. the alter- 
native 21D Hilt of 2 Chr. 3. 8); though how the word gains this 
sense is quite uncertain. A subs. "Mp occurs Job 28. 15. 

PK rQTD ^Vl] But if the altar was merely overlaid with cedar 
boards, what was its inner material? As Sta. remarks, an altar 
if of stone or earth could scarcely be covered outside with boards. 

LXX, Luc. Ka\ €7roir)<rcv dvaiaarripiov, i. e. ^DtD ty)±\ , is doubtless 

correct as regards the verb, but the mention of the material HS 
is indispensable, and must have fallen out through oversight. So 
Bo., Th., Sta., Klo., Kamp., Benz., Kit. 

21. LXX, Luc. have only the last four words of this verse 
which they refer to the altar. This seems to be correct. The 
remainder of the verse is a gloss inserted later, and breaking the 
connexion. The whole sentence ought to run ^.SJj* HN D2]E WVl\ 

TT •• — .- . ; — 

2riT nip*ni3 *Syj1] This can only mean 'he drew golden 
chains across, 9 lit. 'he made a crossing with] &c; but this is very 

In 2 Chr. 3. 14 mention is made of rD^r? the veil ; and, in 
accordance with Th.'s suggestion, it is at least conceivable that 
in our passage R p may have written, or intended to write, "SJPl 
'31 rDnsrrnK 'and he drew the veil across with chains of gold.' 
nay Pi'el is only so used in this passage. The sing. pifll occurs 
in Ezek. 7. 23 (but disappears under Cornill's emendation), and 
a pi. rnprn Isa. 40. 19I*. Klo. makes the very conjectural emenda- 

VI. 2i-2j 75 

tion ant vrilnj? ya*iNl « and its four horns were of gold/ referring 
to the altar. 

2 2 b . '31 nation !>ai] But we have already been informed about 
the overlaying of the altar with gold in the previous verse. This 
passage, omitted by LXX, Luc., is doubtless a gloss, and owes 
its existence to the gloss in the previous v. 2 1 ant JVljWO . ♦ ♦ *pPl 
which, by breaking the connexion, destroyed the original statement 
with reference to the gold-plating of the altar, and so caused the 
necessity for an additional clause to that effect. 

23. JOP *vy] So Vulg., Targ. LXX omits. Luc. i* £vk»v Kvna- 
pi<r<Tiva>v, Pesh. jK»*aaJ» taaAAj. MT. correct. 

inftip] As the verse stands the reference of the suffix is obscure. 
RV. ' each ' is an unsatisfactory escape from the difficulty, and no 
real translation. LXX, Luc. peyctios eo-TaQpopevov, for which Th. 
suggests njantp moSp; but Sta. points out that this cannot mean 
'upright stature,' since f|fi only signifies 'to adjust/ iaraB. appears 
to be merely a translator's flourish. Sta. most cleverly removes 
all difficulty by placing v. 26 between v. 23* and v. 23k This is 
doubtless correct. The suffix of ITIOlp is satisfied by reference 
to wn avian in v. 26^, and the account of the measurements of 
the D^aiia closes very appropriately with the summary v. 25^ 

Mian wi> nnx a^pi nna mo. 

All Verss. follow the wrong order of MT. 

27. MVian HN fni] LXX, Luc. km apxfrfoepa X epovfclv, i.e. *}&* 
Dalian . So Klo., who notices that the fact that the DWta were 
brought into the "Van has already been stated in v. 23* PJP1 
'31 "WQ, Th., Sta. adopt W as more precise, but retain fitf ffi^l 
of MT. This latter, as introducing the statement that when so 
placed their wings touched the wall on either side, can scarcely 
be considered redundant. 

W\^] One MS. mtfl; so Pesh. ^30. Possible, but not 
preferable to MT. 

D^aian »aaa n«] LXX, Luc. to? nrepvyas avT&v, i.e. Dn*M3-riK, 

doubtless correct. So Bo., Th., Sta., Klo., Kamp., Benz., Kit. 
'31 Wni] LXX seems to convey the idea that each ana had four 

76 The First Book of Kings 

wings ' — Kai rJ7TTeTo Trrepv^ pio. rod toi^ou, Kai nrepv^ tjttt€To tov toi^ou 
tov devrepov' Ka\ at nrepvyes avTov ai ev peaa tov o'lkov tJ7vtovto irrepv^ 

n-Tepvyos. This is very inferior to the plain statement of MT. 
supported by Luc. and the other Verss. 

29, 30. These verses, though both appearing in LXX, Luc., 
appear to form no part of the original account. Verse 29 is 
obviously by the same hand as v. 18, assigned to R p , and v. 30 
is redundant after v. 22% and also out of place. 

29. 2DD] Probably to be emended MB? with Klo. 

]Wrb) twata] The reference of ' within and without ' is rather 
ambiguous, a remark which also applies to the similar words in 
v. 30. Klo.'s emendation, l^nj! *9*?6£ 'both of the inner and 
of the outer house,' is probably correct; cf. Ezek. 41. 17. The 
expression ''p'OBn MS} is used of the ^21 v. 27; ch. 7. 50. 

31. nnD nNl] LXX, Luc, Pesh., Targ. seem to presuppose 
nnsjft ; and so Klo. This may be original, but is quite as likely 
to be a paraphrase of the somewhat difficult MT. The latter, as 
Sta. notices, is quite possible, and may be paralleled; cf. Ex. 26. 1 
nJHJ Tfcy iib>JJPl J3#3rrT)K] ; Dri. Tenses, § 195, 1. Th., in retaining 
MT., cites Ew. § 284 a for the usage. 

Vulg. et in ingressu oraculi, takes "V3in riDD fiN to be an accus. 
of place as in ch. 7 . 40 RliT 1T2 in templo domini. 

^Nil] Of doubtful meaning. Neither Sta. ' door-opening,' nor 
RV., &c. ' lintel,' seems to be correct ; for according to either of 
these renderings the breadth of the ^K ought to be commensurate 
with that of the doorway, whereas in Ezek. 41. 3 the former is said 
to be two cubits (broad), the latter six cubits ; cf. Ezek. 40. 9 — the 
porch eight cubits, the 7"»K two cubits. Again, the yx is spoken 
of as something standing in equal proportions upon either side 
of an entrance or porch; Ezek. 40. 48a H3D T\Sm V®n D^K S>N 1DJ1 
nbtt rri&K &m (on 48^ see Cornill's emendation); cf. 41. i. 
Thus the explanation of Bo. (Proben alttest. Schriftklarung. 302^".), 
pilasters or projections in a wall upon either side of an entrance, 
appears to be near to the truth. So Pesh. fc*©j©?k*»o*9 'its 

VI. 2()-}2 77 

Trapaorrddes 1 / Co mill ' Wandpfeiler/ Kit. ' Einfassung/ and appar- 
ently RV. marg. 'posts.' Somewhat similar is the suggestion 
' crepidines' of Ges., who quotes the passages where the word 
occurs, and the ancient interpretations. 

TVBton] So Baer. Less accurate texts JT^fpn. Upon the analogy 
of 7. 5 ^pg? ^JD"] nfausni, and the necessary and obvious emenda- 
tion at the close of v. 33 ^NOT) rrtfflD, IWDn ought to mean l a 

pentagonal' ( \ So Vulg. postesque angulorum quinque, Bo., Th., 

Sta., Kamp., Benz., Kit. Pesh. ^ia.^.sd suggests the possibility 
of an original T\\VfoT\ exactly analogous to ^5") of 7. 5. The 
explanation ' a fifth part' of the entire wall, adopted by Ges., Ke., 
Klo., is alien to the context, the breadth of the wall not having 
been mentioned since v. 20. 

rVB>»n mmo ^«n] It is impossible to regard TWXQ ^Kfl as 
a case of apposition, ' the pilasters were doorposts/ &c, because 
t^N is not identical with nitttp. Hence it is best to adopt Sta.'s 
emendation Tl rriWBftt ?^n, rendering ' the pilasters and doorposts 
were (i. e. formed) a pentagonal.' It is, however, conceivable that 
the text may have originally read IWDfl ^KH, and that niNTB 
is a gloss from the margin as an (incorrect) explanation of the 
difficult ^X. 

32, 35. By the same hand as vv. 18, 29. 

32. ':n T))T\?1 TW)] A casus pendens ; 'as for the two doors,' &c. 

s£i? : ] The perf. with weak 1 here and in v. 35, if part of the 
original text, would be ' an isolated irregularity ' (Dri. Tenses, 
§ 133, 2), but the construction marks the style of the post-exilic 
interpolator. Klo. ^2i?1; but this, if possible in v. 32, is scarcely 
so in v. 35. 

"O.J1] From 111 ; 'and he spread out the gold upon the cherubim,' 
&c. The word is that which is used in Targ. Onk. as an equivalent 
of Vi5"} ; Ex. 39. 3; Num. 17. 4; and its use thus forms another 

1 Unless this represent irpocrTas, 'vestibule.' The other Verss. give no help ; 
Targ. vi'rN ' but ' misunderstands ; LXX, Luc, Vulg. omit. 

78 The First Book of Kings 

post-exilic indication. Luc. koL KarePaivev, i.e. "0*1; Pesh. 4*^0(0, 
i.e. ^.J.!; Targ. *pD31, apparently pTJJI or T} 1 !; Vulg. et operuit, 
a guess. Klo.'s reading T}*1 is unnecessary. 

33. IVJQl n^D] LXX oroal (Luc. oroas) rerpanXcos, i.e. TftWQ 

niyill < doorposts standing foursquare/ is doubtless correct. Cf. 
ch. 7. 5. So Th., Sta., Kamp., Benz., Kit. The verse, all but the 
last two words, is with ^.32 omitted by LXX through homoiote- 
leuton with the end of v. 31. 

34 b . D^p] All Verss. rightly presuppose CJ&tf as in z>. 34 s . 
So Th., Sta., Klo., Kamp. 

DvvJ] ■ Revolving,' or ' turning on hinges,' so 'folding? Thus 
only here. In Ezek. 41. 24 the doors are called ritepID D^IK* 

t : 

35. HBVl] Cf. ^.32 note on ]hp). 

ngn©n"7j| "*$??] 'Applied evenly to the carving.' n^ Pu'al only 
here ; Pi'el ' make straight or even,' of a way, &c. 

36. IVB'Oan ivnn] Surrounding the Temple, and innermost as 
contrasted with the mriNn "Wn 7. 8, containing the King's palace, 
both courts lying inside the nTnan "Wl which enclosed the whole 
group of buildings. See note on 7. i2 b , and plan in Sta. Ges. i. 314. 

At the end of this verse LXX, Luc. continue with the words 
KVK\66ev, Kol tpKo86fir]<rc k.t.X. This seems to represent MT. ch. 7. 
1 2 b , where it receives discussion. 

7. i-i2 a appear in LXX, Luc. at the close of the ch., being 
apparently so placed by some scribe who thought it better to give 
the account of the Temple furniture in immediate sequence to 
that of the Temple itself, and not separated by the description 
of Solomon's other buildings. This is shown to be a late disloca- 
tion by the fact that v. i2 b has been accidentally left behind in 
making the alteration, and now follows immediately after the close 
of ch. 6, instead of after v. 1 2 a to which it clearly belongs. MT., 
which describes all the buildings first and then the furniture of 
the Temple, is correct. 

2. niD"iN] LXX, Luc. rpta»/. Hence Sta. adopts n&bw as in 
agreement with the statement in v. 3 "uDH "OT nB>Dn fttPDm D^TW. 

VI. 3)— VU. 2 79 

This, he contends, must refer to the D^woy, and not to the ftij&y 
(Th.) a fern, noun; Ezek. 41. 8. So Kamp., Benz., Kit. 

Sta. takes the following view of the construction of the house : — 
' It was a house of which the back and sides upon the ground- floor 
were formed of walls, while the front of the bottom story was 
formed by the fifteen pillars of the first row. The pillars of the 
second and third rows stood within the building, exactly cor- 
responding to the pillars of the first row. The second story was 
formed by a number of chambers lying in three rows or flights ' 
(ZATW. 1883, p. 150). A further description, together with 
excellent plans of the building, may be seen in Ges. i. 318^. 
It may be doubted, however, whether Sta. is correct in his arrange- 
ment of the chambers which he assigns to one single story above 
the pillars. The expressions of vv. 4, 5 vhw ♦ . . D'HIB 7\vhw D^SpP 
D^DVD seem to suggest three stories of chambers (so Kit.), and this 
is agreeable to the height of the building, thirty cubits, even sup- 
posing these stories to have been higher than those of the Temple 
wings (6. 6) — perhaps six cubits each, with the pillars below the 
first floor of some twelve cubits in height. The house seems 
to have obtained its name from the fact that the pillars, open to 
view from the outside, gave to the spectator the idea of a forest 
of trees. The rooms, if in three stories, may have run right 
through the breadth of the building, having a window or windows 
at either end, i.e. at the front and back of the house. This 
explains v. 4 D*DJ?S &h& ntniD ?K ntnDI 'and window was over 
against window three times/ The doors, on the other hand, 
opening from one room into another, ran lengthways down the 
centre of the building. Thus each room had two doors opposite 
to one another and communicating directly with the rooms on 
either side. This seems to satisfy the expression nnD ?K nna 71D1 
D^DJ?D Bv6? ' and door was over against door three times/ which 
we shall adopt in v. 5 at the suggestion of LXX, Luc. 

We have no information as to staircase or number of chambers. 
The kind of rooms above described are not strictly the same as 
those described in 6. 5^*., supposing the term TWVTX to really denote 

8o The First Book of Kings 

1 side-chambers.' But the use of J?P¥ ' a rib, 1 to describe a chamber 
is very obscure, and we can scarcely say for certain what sort 
of room could be so called, and what not. riiyhf may perhaps 
refer to the main beams ] , which, resting on the pillars and running 
from wall to wall, formed the basis of the partitions between the 
different chambers, and were, so to speak, the ribs of the building, 
nirro] ' Beams/ as cut or sawn into the required dimensions. 
LXX, Luc. Gluten, i. e. nisns * shoulder-pieces ' at the top of the 
pillars, forming a support for the beams. Cf. the use of the 
word in v. 30. This is adopted by Klo., Benz., Kit., but is 
scarcely superior to MT. 

3. After CTioyn ?]) LXX, Luc. insert km apiOpbs t&v arvXav, i. e. 
DH^syn "I3DD1. By this addition the verse is relieved, and the 
precise reference of the number made perfectly clear. 

4. D^QpC] Explained by Th., Sta., Klo., Kamp., Benz. as the main 
beams supporting the floors and ceilings of the chambers; a meaning 
possibly agreeable to the Ar. uALl quoted on 6. 4. It should be 
noticed, however, that v. 4 b 'ai nirXQ bit ntfflDI seems obviously 
to refer back to the preceding statement, as though ntriD and 
D^Spfi? were closely connected in meaning. Hence it seems 
preferable to assign to D^apt?, here as in 6. 4, the meaning * window- 
frames! So RV. ' prospects.' Kit. ' Fenster (?).' 

5. nim»rri] Read nftn©!^ with LXX, Luc. km m x«>p<u> So Th., 
Sta., Klo., Kamp., Benz., Kit. 

S]p£> D^ym] Cf. 6. 4 note. 

coys vhw niriD ^ nrno h»i] LXX km M too dvp6>paTo S (Luc. 

dno Bvpas) eVt Bvpav rpiaaws, i.e. DWB 6506? nnB~?M nn|D), probably 
standing for '31 nnarpN nna 7Kb 9 which may be adopted. Sta. 
reads nna 7N nna, regarding 71D as a gloss arising from a marginal 

note nna ho nna. 

6. D^ty] LXX nevT^jKovra. But Luc, Vulg., Pesh., Targ. 
support MT. 

1 Cf. the use of the term to denote the beams or boards which went to form 
the inner walls of the house, and the partition-wall of the adytum ; ch. 6. 
15, i6 a . 

VIL 3-8 , 81 

After am and before a?)i<) LXX inserts i{vya>iieva, Luc. e£u- 
ycofjievr]. This appears to be a mere gloss by which it was sought 
to explain the relationship between the second DTlfcS and the a?\& 
DHMDyn. Or possibly the word may form a doublet of um, the 
letters being transposed and read as some part of "inn, perhaps 

3y] The meaning is very obscure, and can only be guessed. 
LXX, Luc. render lit. naxos, Vulg. episiylia, 'cross-beams/ Pesh. 


JUf ' entrance hall/ Targ. xnaipD 'threshold.' The word occurs 
again Ezek. 41. 25 JWIB D^KH "3^ ^ ^1. Here Cornill 
hazards ' Vordach,' and this is perhaps what is intended by Vulg. 
in Kings — the front part of the roof of the porch, possibly forming 
a kind of projecting cornice. Sieg. u. Sta. also suggests ' Vordach, 
Schutzdach.' Th., Sta., Klo., Kamp. doubtfully follow the sug- 
gestion of Targ., and suppose the word to mean an entrance 
with steps. 

7. DP BBB* 1PN] 'Where he should or might judge'; Dri. 
Tenses, § 39 0. 

JBDV] The usual construction would be n*Q ?BD ITO DSPD D^N 
'he made the porch covered,' &c; cf. Dri. Tenses, § 161. 2. It is 
rare for the participle to be preceded by ] when thus introducing 
a subordinate idea as a secondary predicate. See instances under 
05s. 1 of Dri. § cited. 

Vp*)pn ly] Vulg. usque ad summitatem, Pesh. uoto^A L*>*J*o 
read nrrlprriy, which is to be adopted. So Ew., Th., Sta., Kamp,, 
Benz. ; and Klo. doubtfully. Kit. retains MT. The second half 
of the verse has fallen out in LXX, Luc; but, according to Field, 
Hex., the Complutensian reads duo edd(povs cos inepwov. 

8. DP IP* 1 1PN] The same nuance as in v. 7 DDP\ 

mntfil "ren] Also called JV3H D^K "wrj; see notes on z/. i2 b ; 
r^. 6. 36. 

It is unusual in classical Hebrew (though customary in post- 
biblical Hebrew) to omit the article with a subs, when its adj. 
is so defined according to rule. Cf. nji^iari "iyn v. 12. Dri. 
(Tenses, § 209. 1) collects instances of the usage which 'appears 
t G 

82 The First Book of Kings 

to have arisen in connexion with familiar words, which were felt 
to be sufficiently definite in themselves without the addition of the 

u?)nh JTQD] LXX renders curiously H- e'Aio-o-o/xei^? tovtois, Luc. 
f^eXicraoixeurj rovrots, apparently a misreading »"l?Np ♦ , ♦ D, the former 
word being some Pu'al or Hoph'al participle. MT. correct. 

ntPJp] The tense is quite anomalous, and cannot be explained, 
the perfect alone being suitable to describe a single fact in so 
prosaic a connexion 1 . It is at least possible that some scribe, 
intending to copy nb>y TY^ f wrote by mistake nwy 1JV21 through 
confusion with inM) at the beginning of the verse, and that this 
rOTirrai was subsequently interpreted as nspy JV:n. The omission 
of nw in LXX suggests as a second hypothesis that the word 
may be a later gloss carelessly inserted. 

9. nn»3] 'According to measurements,' i.e. of regular dimen- 
sions, and not of various sizes. So v. 11. 

nrnhtt] ' Sawn ' ; only here. A denom. from filMD which is 
derived from 111 l drag.' Both subs. rrOD and denom. verb in 
Qal and Niph'al occur in post-biblical Hebrew. 

*1DE>] ' Foundation ' ; a dna$ \ey. from 10\ the * being assimilated 
according to the small class of contracted verbs »"&; G-K. § 71. 
Other contracted forms from this root are 1EM3 Isa. 28. 16; "riDy 
2 Chr. 31. 7. 

ninaun ly] RV. 'unto the coping'; so LXX, Luc. eos r5>v 
ydaew (with a Schol. aT«pav<6iJidTGiv rj «*pa>i>), and approximately 
2. (eW) twv dnapTia^ciTcov, Vulg. usque ad summitatem parielum, 
Pesh.^:^ |oo^o; Th., Klo., Sieg. u. Sta. Sta., Kamp., Kit. 
follow Ges. in rendering mutules or projecting stones (Kragsteine) 
upon which the ends of the beams rested. The word, which 
occurs only here in this sense, elsewhere means a ' handbreadth ' ; 

V. 26; at. So Targ. N'OCIM, 'A. (eW) ra>v naXaiaTco/jaiTwv. 

The first pnDI, which is indispensable, has fallen out in LXX, 

1 K6., however {Lehrg. I. ii. § 368 k), classes the use with ch. 20. 33* wny 

as an Inchoative. 

VII. 9-i4 83 

Luc. through oversight. The second f^riKfl is very difficult. As Sta. 
remarks, it forms no contrast to nTTUn ^nn. Sta.'s emendation 
HW rva&l is, however, not quite correct. We ought rather to read 
[rnrP n"»3 "ijsnDI, a correction which accords with v. 12, and 
accounts for the letters xniDI in MT. 

10. TD^Ol] LXX, Luc. rf]v Te0€[jLe\ia)fX€VT)v, Pesh. ^ofcoe?, apply 
this specially to the great court. It seems better to regard it as 
having a vague general application to H7N 73 at the beginning 
of v. 9 ; all the buildings. Sta. ' und fundamental (war alles).' So 
Th., Kamp., Benz. 

i2 b . iron ♦ ♦ , ")¥!"6l] As has before been noticed, LXX, Luc. 
at the close of ch. 6. 36 contain the words KvickoOev ko\ wKoSoju^o-e 

to KaTcmtTacrna rrjs avXrjs tov alXcifx tov o'ikov tov Kara 7rp6o~u>7rov tov 

vaov, i.e. probably b^nn ^B'bv T?*? T^l 1 D^>K "»¥[£ !JDB |3*1 3*3DD. 
This seems to represent MT. ^. 7. i2 b rWJBn m.T rP3 Itfrfcl 
JV3H D^nS?!. nDD certainly cannot be original, the phrase *]DE ]yi 
being absurd. The word is probably therefore a corruption of 
MDO repeated from the preceding, and ko\ GJKoSd/iqo-e is clearly 
a gloss formed through repetition of JTI 6. 36 a , to explain the 
connexion of KaraneTaana with the previous sentence. The first 
3 ,, 3Dft is genuine, and should be restored before "Wr6 in place 
of the 1 of MT. LXX is also correct in reading n?an ' tb* w£] 
(this referring to mnan nvn of v. 8), but has omitted ra "WnS? 
TWJDn mrp through the homoioteleuton nvni?. Possibly, as Sta. 
thinks, rWJBn is a gloss from 6. 36, and redundant after ffl ( T rV2. 
Finally, the sentence 73 s nn 'OS 7V n&PK appears to be a gloss 
derived from 6. 3, ran 5>3*n 'OD ^ D^Km, through a wrong 
identification of the D7IX here mentioned. 

We may therefore read v. 12b (JWJfin) nj.TTl^ n*r£ 3*3E>» 
H^3n D7N n¥n21 ' round about the (inner) court of the House 
of Yahwe, and the court of the porch of the palace.' 

13, 14. In 2 Chr. 2. 12, 13 the workman is called *3N &?n, and 
he is H JtofT? n ^"f?- According to Giesebrecht (Z.4 7W. i. 
2 39#) tne text °f Chr. is the more original, the name "OX Emn 
(misunderstood as by LXX in Chr.) having undergone correction 

g 2 

84 The First Book of Kings 

in Kings, and rWD/N being an insertion to suggest that this 
builder of Solomon's Temple was purely Israelitish, and not half 

15-22. This very mutilated and obscure account may be 
compared with the summary in vv. 41, 42 ; || 2 Chr. 4. 12, 13, 
and with the description in II. 25. 1 7, of which a better and fuller 
form exists in Jer. 52. 21-23. 

i5 a . ns*l] LXX, Luc. ko.\ cx&vevo-c, i.e. P&[; probably correct. 
So Th., Sta., Klo., Kamp., Benz., Kit. 

T1KTU D^TOyn W nx] LXX omits by oversight. Luc. reads all 
but rHSTlJ, which is scarcely necessary after the precise statement 
of v. 14 rwrm n3Ni?0 i>3 nicyb, and so may be a gloss, but on 
comparison with vv. 16, 27, 30, 38 is more likely to be original 1 , 
DKTU being an accus. of material. At this point Luc. adds t<o alXap. 
tov o'Uov, and so also LXX with to by mistake for tu, i.e. JV2n D^ifcO. 
This is accepted by Sta. on the ground that the expression w 
DHUDVn ' the two pillars/ requires some such specification of their 
destined position to justify the use of the article. So Th., 
Klo., Kamp., Kit. 

15 • "Ofc^n . . * rUDt^l LXX oktco Kai deica 7rr)\eis v^/os tov o~tvXov' Kai 
7T€plfi€Tpov T€o~<rap€s Kai de<a tttjxcis ckvkXov avTov, to ira\os tov cttvXov' 
Teo~o~iipa>v 8aKTv\a>v to. KoiXbi/xaTa' Kai ovtcos o~tvXos 6 devrfpos, I.e. ™E|? 

TiBpn *2V inx nb* ns« mwir&ntf Dim -nsyn nBip hdk mb>y 

- t • t: t t "" "': v "J : - t ~ t - ••; v 

*3^n n^yn JD] Ma ntoX flST]* < eighteen cubits was the height 
of the (one) pillar, and a thread of twelve cubits compassed it 
about ; the thickness of the pillar was four fingers ; it was hollow : 
and the second pillar was similar.' This description corresponds 
accurately with that which is given in Jer. 52. 21, and is doubtless 
correct, except that ^C?7 is t0 be retained with MT. after the first 
IIDyn. LXX text is confirmed substantially by Luc, and in part 
by Pesh. )-,♦*» O&U l^cu*o .^oo/ |;m\i^l •** )fa>aJ^f c*^oo> 

|ou»/ )?coo-^X loaojo .0^ y*3 ^50/ 'the height of the one 
pillar was eighteen cubits, and a thread of twelve cubits compassed 

1 On the other hand, ^.23 omits rum: in MT. and Verss. 

VII. ij-17 85 

it about ; and the second pillar was similar.' So Ew., Th. 1 , Sta., 
Klo., Kamp., Benz. 1 , Kit. 1 

20^1 ' Could or might encompass'; so y. 23 2D\ v. 26 b*y 
1 could contain' (or in this instance perhaps 'contained,' as a cus- 
tomary state). Dri. Tenses, § 37 |8. Da. (§ 44, Rem. 2) is scarcely 
correct when he renders ' encompassed ' or ' ran round,' ' in 
describing the course of an ornamentation,' as if this Din or the 
1p of v. 23 were part of the ornamentation, and not rather an 
imaginary line of measurement. 

3UJ, adopted in the emendation, occurs, besides the passage 
cited in Jer., Ex. 27. 8; 38. 7 nr6 3123 'hollow, with boarded 
sides,' of the altar of burnt offering, and figuratively Job 11. i2f 
{ a hollow ' or ' empty-headed man.' 

16. nnrD] 'Chapiters'; only used in the description of these 
pillars, here and in II. 25, 2 Chr., Jer. Connected with the root TD 
'surround,' Pi'el, Judg. 20. 43; Ps. 22. 13, from which comes the 
late word iris ' diadem,' three times in Est.f, and in new Hebrew. 

Wl"0 p¥ft] 'A casting of brass,' so 'of cast or molten brass.' 
p¥10 as in vv. 23, 33, 37; cf. Job 38. 38 'a congealed mass.' 
WnJ has fallen out of LXX, but is found in Luc. and the other 
Verss., and, as in the previous verse, is to be retained. LXX is 
also wrong in its omission of rwn ♦ . ♦ PDTT). 

17. rWWTW , , , M3G?] LXX, LUC. kcl\ enoirja-e $vo SiicTva, i.e. 

tPXb TIG? by^l, are correct, the words TYTWtrW ♦ . . HBTO being 
certainly a gloss. D^B' (H??^], nton&n) occurs in all the other 
descriptions, but the expressions riD32> npjflD, cina, fiYWHW are 
not so found 2 . LXX is followed by Th., Sta., Kamp., Benz., Kit.; 
and Klo. as regards the addition of Tit? Wi. 

CMS?] With pi. D s — only here; elsewhere ftfcE&F from sing. 
rD3&?. The word is derived from Ar. &S2, interweave, whence JLX-lii 

1 Th. presupposes 0*113271 instead of 1X1\, but otherwise agrees with the 
text as given above. Benz. *!I!n , Kit. tatfl (omitting T«S»n). 

2 The statement in 2 Chr. 3. 16 is doubtless derived from the gloss in our 

86 The First Book of Kings 

net (for catching fish, birds, &c), and in biblical Hebrew, outside 
the description of these pillars, it occurs only in II. 1. 2 of the 
lattice of a window, and in Job 18. 8, where the parallel word is 
Djhn ' the net V Thus the meaning in this description is clearly 
' network ' or ' trellis' 

Dyia] 'Festoons'; Deut. 22. 12 of the fringes of a garment. 
Ar. J^A-a. a bridle of plaited thongs. Syr. ^»^ very commonly 
means to plait or interweave ; e.g. S. Matt. 27. 29, of plaiting the 
crown of thorns. 

T\TWW~\ 'Chains'; 2 Chr. 3. 5, 16; so in Ex. 28. 14; 39. 15-r, 
of the ornaments or fastenings of the breastplate. tWW Ex. 28. 22 
is a corruption of the same. The word is a Pilpel (intensive) form 
from Tip ' twist/ 

DHOTH PHI J>V 1PK mn^] LXX nepiKaXv^ai to «n'&/Lia t£i/ 
(TTvXaiV, Luc. €7TtKa\v\^ai to. emdefiara twv o-tv\g>v, i.e. mn3~DX niD3p 

D^Tiftyn (nirib). In z;. 18 we meet with a sentence which is very 
like a combination of these readings of MT. and LXX, viz. rriD3? 
D^fenn Vhthrb$ "VfK JT*mbn-n«. Here Q^bin is quite incompre- 
hensible, and we may follow Pesh. )»o v> \ and emend DHlDyn 
agreeably to v. 4i b . This sentence of v. 18 is not to be found 
in LXX, Luc, and thus Th., Sta. are doubtless correct in supposing 
that, after having fallen out of v. 17 in MT., it was first written 
in again on the margin, and then inserted in the text in a wrong 
position, viz. in v. 18. So Kamp., Benz., Kit. 

njn^l , ♦ ♦ nyn^] LXX, Luc. Mktvov . . . Ka\ SUtvop, i. e. 
ronfe* ♦ ♦ . nmb>; doubtless correct. So Bo., Th., Sta., Klo., 

tt: t t : > 777 

Kamp., Benz., Kit. 

Thus v. 17, as restored, will run:— T\)B^ D^ *l£ fe>JW 
mnai) rDntri nnsn mnb!> rone* nntoyn B*rrijy "rate nhnbrrriK 

V V - T T J T V T V V - T T : - T - V ""! T 

: JTO$n * And he made two trellises to cover the chapiters which 
were upon the top of the pillars; a trellis for the one chapiter, 
and a trellis for the second chapiter/ 

1 The root "Tic, which ought properly to be "p^r, occurs Nah. 1. 10 ; Job 
8. 17 with the meaning 'intertwine/ Hence come "rnD, tt^d 'thicket.' 

VII. i8 87 

18. DHllDyn] Obviously incorrect. At this stage of the descrip- 
tion the statement 'he made the pillars' is out of place. Two 
MSS. read D*Ob")n * the pomegranates/ and this is to be adopted 
with Bo., Th., Sta., Klo., Kamp., Benz., Kit. Vulg., Pesh., Targ. 
follow MT.; LXX, Luc. <al Zpyov Kpepao-rdv, i. e. ? . . . riyVW l a 
misreading of ptionn W). 

naa^n by md d'hid wi] LXX, Luc. Suo arixoi po&v x<&*«>v 
debiKTvuiUvoi, i.e. [nn«n] n^n^n-^y n^ra D^bn n« ^. Sc&kt-. 

is thought by Klo. to be a corruption of Siktvco hi, which is possible 
(cf. v. 42 rep diKTvco raj eVi), but not really necessary. LXX reading 
is correct, and is adopted by Sta., Kamp. So Th., with addition 
of MD. 

LXX, Luc. continue with epyov Kpepaarov, (ttlxos cm orixpv. 

This appears to be merely a doublet of the previous ml epyov 

Kpcpaarov, dvo OTl^Ol. 

The sentence '}) niDD? having been adopted into its proper 
position in v. 17, v. 18 now ends abruptly with mn^ iW)) pi 
n^^n, no special reference being previously made to nnxn mrDH. 
Th. therefore inserts, before the closing sentence, v. 2o b in the 
form in which it appears in Pesh. «.o ^'V 00 **'^ ^»i)Lv> |.jjjoq>© 

J*~ Ifcoo^ Jj*~, i.e. rinxn rnnbrri?y md d^ta *$& dvikid D'obim, 

MT. being improved by the addition of W, and the emendation 
nnsn for nwn. This is satisfactory; and it is worthy of notice 
that Pesh. continues this sentence with ]i^»l Jfcoo;a Uoo»o, 
precisely the same words with which it is finished off when placed 
in v. 18. The transposition is adopted by Sta., Benz. with omission 
of the words D"mD S W on the ground that they have already 
occurred in the earlier part of the verse — a scarcely justifiable 
belief in the writer's extreme precision in avoiding even the 
smallest repetition. Kamp., Kit. also follow Th., reading DH1LD 
as in MT. for Dmtt W; and Klo., while taking v. 20b into v. 18, 

1 This can scarcely represent rOTtt? nrcym , since dot© is correctly rendered 
8'iKTva in the preceding verse ; nor can it well translate rvnantt) rroi-Di , this 
being elsewhere suitably rendered epyov trkoKrjs, Ex. 28. 14 ; ipyov dXvoiduTov, 
v. 22 ; epyov epirKoitiov, 39. 15 ; and x a ^ ao ~ T &> 2 Chr. 3. 5, 16. 

88 The First Book of Kings 

expands and alters the whole verse thus formed to a quite 
unnecessary extent. 

Thus the probably original form of v. 18 is :— D^bnrrnK 'w$l\ 

••; .- t • • t : t v t t t : - - •.• : ■• •• ••: 

:n^n rvjrtfc nb>y ^ nnxn nnnbrrby rao <And he made the 

pomegranates ; and two rows of pomegranates in brass were upon 
the one trellis, and the pomegranates were two hundred l , two rows 
round about upon the one chapiter; and so did he to the second 

19, 20 a , 22. The vv. 19, 20 appear in LXX, Luc. after v. 21, 
while v. 22 is altogether missing. Now #.21, which relates the 
erection and naming of the pillars, ought obviously to come at 
the close of the description ; and this consideration, together with 
the state of LXX text, goes, as Sta. has seen, to point to the 
probability of vv. 19, 2o a , 22 being merely a gloss. 

This is still further borne out if we compare the contents of 
these verses with the description of the chapiters given in the 
original text. In vv. 16-18 all that we gather with regard to 
the chapiters relates to their size, and to the trellises and pome- 
granates with which they were ornamented. The description of 
their appearance seems to come naturally to an end with the 
sentence nwn THTob iTO pi at the close of v. 18, and then 
v. 21, containing the account of their erection in their destined 
position, might fitly be expected to follow as the conclusion of the 
reference. But instead of this we have fresh details with regard 
to the |^# nb^p, i.e. apparently the lily-like form of the chapiters, 
and the chapiters properly so called seem to be distinguished from 
a part of the pillar immediately beneath them which is known 
as 19?^ • Now it is reasonable to suppose that in a consistent 
description the account of the actual form and appearance of the 
chapiters would precede rather than follow the reference to such 

1 In view of the precise statement of the number of the pomegranates as 
100 in Jer. 52. 23, it may be questioned whether we ought not in this passage 
also to read n«n for DTiHO. 

VII. 19-20 89 

appendages as the pomegranates and trellises. But, assuming for 
the moment that the additional details are genuine, let us turn to 
vv. 41, 42, where a summary of Hiram's work at the pillars is given. 
Here we have mention of the O^y themselves, the ninjnbn D?a 
which surmounted them, the flte?8?, and the D^b"l ; but there is 
not the slightest reference to any ]&*$ *WW of the chapiters, nor to 
a part called |B3n connected with them. Hence we may confidently 
regard vv. 19, 2o a , 22 as a gloss added to the text by a later hand. 
The interpolator's idea of the form of the chapiters appears to have 
resembled the accompanying illustration. Judging from the ex- 

\ \ Y / /- #** n '^ w. 19, 22. 

r^ ^\ nnnbn rbz v . 42, 

or f^an v. 20 ' nach der Profilansicht/ 

pression nnnbn D?a in v. 42, he supposed the existence of 
a bowl-shaped portion of the pillar underneath the actual chapiter, 
which looked at, as Th. says, ' nach der Profilansicht/ might be 
described as J tD3n . This led him to add the account of the shape 
of the actual chapiters, which he describes as JB>H5> n'K^p. The 
original narrator, however, in speaking of nVvpn D?a, appears 
to mean the actual chapiters, which from their rounded form might 
be thus described. 

19. dPIfcO] So Vulg., Pesh., Targ. Probably correct, and an 
awkward intimation of the position occupied by the pillars ' in the 
porch/ Cf. the notice which we derive from Luc. in v. 15 JT'in tb)tib, 
and v. a 1. LXX, Luc. Kara to alXdfx, i.e. E? 5 ^?, seems to be an easy 
correction of this, and scarcely increases the lucidity of the expression. 

20. nEyta] 'In connexion with': cf. Ex. 25. 27 ftJgDBn nt3j6 
njmtan fWl; 28. 27; al. Tmh in the Hexateuch is peculiar 
to P. With \0 only in this passage. LXX tS>u nXevpcov points to a 
misreading njP*6. For the other peculiarities of this verse in LXX 
cf. notes on corruptions and doublets in Introduction. 

90 The First Book of Kings 

-Q$£] < Over against ' or ' at the side of; RV. ' beside.' Cf. the 
use of "Oy illustrated 5. 4 note. 

23. p¥1D] LXX om. through oversight. Luc. x vT v v - 

D^BvS?] LXX rpeTs (Luc. rpiaij/) *ai rpiaKovra through a mistaken 
repetition of D>S5vE> as w?W. The measure given is the circum- 
ference answering to the diameter \T\W ly \T\WD T\0^2 *wy. 

Hip] Q're 15 * s tne usual word. Kt. nj|J only occurs else- 
where Jer. 31.38; Zech. 1. 16, with Q're 1iJ in each place. 1p 
nftK2 D W^ is a case of apposition ; ' a line — thirty cubits.' So 
Ex. 27. 16 H1|>K B*)bjJ 1JDD; Dri. r«w«, § 192. 1. 

3D^] See #.15 «0&. 

24. H1D&G l^y] This can only be translated as it is by Vulg., 
Pesh., Targ. ' for ten cubits.' The rendering of RV. marg. ' ten 
(sc. D^ypD) in a cubit,' besides supposing, as Sta. remarks, the 
mistake of n^y for m&^y, is quite contrary to the universal usage 
of the expression. We find the same words occurring in ||2 Chr. 
4. 3, and the most obvious explanation is to suppose that an early 
scribe, perhaps R D himself, through lapse of memory confused the 
circumference of the sea with its diameter, when all the while he 
was intending to write H^NIl D^?^, Sta. omits. 

n^3D D^n HK D*Bp»] Omitted by LXX, but contained in Luc, 
Vulg., Pesh., Targ. Sta. regards the sentence as a gloss on the 
ground that the author never elsewhere uses the word sj H pn and 
has already said 11"IK D'Q3D.MD. So Kamp., Benz., Kit. 

mpvn . . ♦ DmtD W] LXX, Luc. om., probably through over- 
sight. Th., Sta., Klo., Kamp., Benz., Kit. retain as original. 

26. This verse in LXX, Luc. precedes v. 25, an emended order 
which is certainly to be adopted. It is only natural that the remain- 
ing details with regard to the sea — its thickness, the formation of its 
brim, and its interior capacity — should precede the account of the 
oxen upon which it was placed. So Sta., Kamp., Benz., Kit. 

hw HI Q^N] Not found in LXX, Luc; but the similar 
reference to the contents of the la vers in v. 38, b*y D3 D^yiiN, 
speaks for the genuineness of the notice in this case also. On the 
tense TO*, cf. v. 15 note on 3D\ 

Fk.. r. 

VII. 2)~2J 91 

2 7~37« This difficult section, which was formerly regarded as 
involved in almost hopeless obscurity, has received considerable 
elucidation through recent discoveries in Cyprus. Two bronze 
stands of late Mycenaean workmanship * have been unearthed, the 
one from Larnaka and the other from Enkomi. The light which 
these bronzes were capable of throwing upon the ten 1TO3D of 
Solomon's Temple was first noticed by A. S. Murray with reference 
to the stand from Enkomi : Journal of Royal Inst, of Brit. Architects, 
1899, vii. pp. 20 ff. The subject was worked out at length by 
A. Furtwangler in an article in the Sitzungsberichte der philos.-philol. 
und der his tor. Classe der kgl. bayer. Akademie der Wissenschaften 
zu Milnchen, 1899, Bd. 2, Heft 3. This was followed by a detailed 
examination by Stade of the section in Kings in the light of the 
new discoveries (ZATW. 1901, pp. 145^".), in which he largely 
modified his earlier views upon the subject, as expressed in the 
article on Solomon's buildings {ZATW. 1883), and illustrated 
by a figure in his Ges. i. p. 341. Figures of the Cyprus bronzes 
are here given 2 . That from Larnaka measures 39 cm. in height, 
23 cm. in width of side, 12 cm. in diameter of wheels; that from 
Enkomi is 16 cm. in height, and about 13 cm. in width. 

It is clear that we have two divergent accounts of the rrWDD 
combined in vv. 27-37. This was first noticed by Klo., who 
distinguished vv. 34-36 as belonging to a second account. His 
view was accepted in the main by Benz. Furtwangler regards 
vv. 32-36 as the remains of an ancient doublet; while Sta. 
supposes that the two accounts have been not simply placed 
side by side, but to a large extent interwoven. Sta. notices 
the following double descriptions: — 1. Decoration of the JiJttD 

1 Furtwangler places the date of the Necropolis at Enkomi cir. B. C. 
1 200-1000. Cf. Antike Gemmen, Bd. iii. 440. 

2 The upper figure in Plate 1 I have been kindly allowed by Dr. Furtwangler 
to reproduce from his article ; the under figure I owe to Mr. J. L. Myres, of 
Christ Church, Oxford, who obtained the photograph for me through the 
British Commissioner at Cyprus. The two reproductions in Plate 2 are from 
photographs taken by the University Press. 

92 The First Book of Kings 

with figures in v. 29 and v. 36. The two verses exhibit dis- 
crepancies (a) in description of the figures — v. 29 mentions lions, 
oxen, and cherubim, v. 36 cherubim, lions, and palm trees ; 
(6) in naming the part of the nJIDD so decorated — v. 29 ni"l2DD 
and D"Q75?, v. 36 rnrp. 2. The Wheels. These are described 
briefly in v. 30 a , and in detail in vv. 32, 33. 3. The msrD of the 
corner pillars in v. 30 and v. 34. Obviously the indefinite JQTtO 
TVIE>rD of v. 34 belongs to an account in which the parts so named 
have not been previously mentioned. 4. The part at the top of the 
n:i3D which held the laver. This is called MfQ in v. 31, while in 
v. 35 the name has fallen out. 5. The double statement that the DIT 
of the wheels were of one part with the rui3D ; v. 32 and v. 35. 

While, however, it is certain that vv. 34-36 cannot, from their 
contents, belong to the preceding account, this is not necessarily 
the case with vv. 33, 34, since there is nothing in the contents 
of these verses to prevent us from regarding them as a description 
of the wheels in detail, after their brief mention in v. 30 a . 

27. LXX, Luc. give the length of the bases as five cubits, the 
breadth as four cubits, and the height as six cubits. Sta. remarks 
that from this difference between length and breadth the inference 
might be drawn that the lavers standing upon the 1TO3D 
were not round but elliptical ; but that this is opposed to v. 28, 
where the ' four cubits ' can only be taken as the diameter of 
a round laver. The JT013D of Figs. 1 and 2 are square, and have 
round cylinders to hold the lavers. Thus the measurements of MT., 
four x four, are to be accepted. It seems not improbable that the 
six cubits of LXX, Luc. represent the total height of the n^20 
three cubits + the D'OSltf \\ cubits (v. 3 2) + the ns ij cubits (v. 31). 

28. JVUDD] The question as to whether this word means 
1 borders ' (RV.) or ' panels ' (R V. marg.) is not at all elucidated 
by the Verss. LXX, Luc. o-uyxXfto-rdv translate according to the 
sense of the root, and perhaps vocalize rQjjD*? » Vulg- interrasile + 
sculpturae appears to be merely guessing; Pesh., Targ. JiajZ^, 
psna is the word used by Pesh. to translate niJPJlD in ch. 6. 6, with 
the meaning 'ledges/ The only other connexion in which mJDO 

BRONZE STAND ll<< >.\| RNKi i ,1 i 

VII. 27-29 93 

in a similar sense occurs, viz. as a part of the table of shewbread, 
Ex. 25. 25, 27; 37. 12, 14, is greatly in favour of the meaning 
1 border ' (i. e. what we now call the frame of the table), whether 
immediately below the top of the table, as in our modern tables, or 
connecting the ends of the legs ; cf. especially nab ITiaDD ' a border 
of a handbreadth,' scarcely ' a panel of a handbreadth.' 

D"0?E>] Only in this description of the bases. The Pu'al parti- 
ciple of a verb J?W occurs Ex. 26. 17; 36. 2 2f Kh|b rriT iRg 
WVttrb« nm rt&Wp *inxn 'there shall be two tenons to each 
board, morticed one to another/ In Talmudic rQ'W denotes //fc 
r»»£- 0/* a ladder ; so Maccoth 7 b PQ^P rtBBBW D^Dl rfcty .TH 
vnnniD ' he was mounting a ladder when a rung gave way beneath 
him/ Hence we may understand by bwP the corner uprights of 
the nj'Dft, and possibly also uprights at regular intervals between 
the corners (cf. Fig. 2). The nn3DD then ran horizontally 
DwBM p2, forming a connexion or framework to the corner 
uprights. Cf. the four horizontal bars in Fig. 2. Perhaps the best 
rendering of WZDW is ' supports* Vulg., Pesh. seem to approximate 
to the right meaning with their renderings juncturas, \ a L» 
'connexions'; Targ, fc03vB>, LXX, Luc. i&xoiievav, 

D^B>n p3 mJDD! DPl5> nn;DD] Are the second Hiatpn different 
from the first ? i. e. ought we to render maDDI c and also border- 
frames ' ? or, if the two are identical, why do we not read JVUlpBrn 
' and the border-frames/ already mentioned ? Again, why D*26#n 
' the supports,' when these have not been previously mentioned ? 
Klo., observing these difficulties, emends &np &2QVft Dr6 rnaDD 
D^zrptpn p3 rOSB&ni ' they had border-frames and supports, and the 
border-frames were between the supports/ It is preferable to suppose 
that the first rmaDD has been written by mistake for DW which 
would naturally be first mentioned : D*ab#n p3 rnaDtM nrb &lb& 

J > : - : : • v t • - : 

' they had supports, and there were border-frames between the supports! 

29. 'ai WIN] Cf. the winged figures of Fig. 1, and the lions (?) 
of Fig. 2. 

p DwBTl ?yi] ' And upon the supports likewise! The render- 
ing of Furtwangler, ' And upon the supports there was a pedestal} 

94 The First Book of Kings 

is unsuitable, because this part of the naiao is described below in 

z>. 31 not as a f? but as a HQ. 

i>yEtt] Follow LXX, Luc. 7yisp} ' <7/z<f above and below &c/ 
niv] Doubtless a corruption of EftSTSJTJ , which is desiderated after 

Iplh niHN^. The corruption is due to the influence of v. 30 end. 
TYlB n^y?o] LXX, Luc. appear to explain rightly Zpyou *ara/3a- 

creoos, ' step-work,' or, as we should say, ' bevelled work' ; i.e. probably 

the edges of the ma DO were bevelled in the form of steps : — 

or a section viewed from the end would have appeared thus : — 

The ornamental borders in Fig. 1, above and below the winged 
figures, have something of this character. 

30. T»D] A a7ra£ Xfy. ; but in Syr. \j+a> 'axle' is common. 
Probably the axles were similar in form to those of Fig. 1. 

'}) VDOya nynNl] RV. ' and the four feet thereof had under- 
setters.' If T\hT\3 (lit. < shoulders ') could mean ' undersetters,' we 
might identify them with the diagonal stays which strengthen the 
legs in Figs. 1 and 2. But these stays would scarcely be described 
as ' shoulder-pieces/ and in fact they seem to be denoted by 
a more suitable term niT in v. 32. Moreover, they could scarcely 
be described as ^f? Anrip, i.e. immediately under the laver. The 
position of these J")bri3 should rather be that of the four birds 
(doves?), at the four upper corners of the rwaiD in Fig. 1, which 
might aptly be described as ' shoulder-pieces! So Hommel, 
Furtwangler, Sta. But then VDOya njnns* (rather HTibys y2i$ f 
with reference to the nJDD). ' its four feet/ can scarcely be correct ; 
for we cannot, with Sta., force the interpretation and suppose that 
1 the corner pillars with reference to their lower ends could very 
well be described as the niDVD of the rU'DE.' When we are speaking 
of the shoulder-pieces we are thinking of the upper ends of the 

VII. jo, )i 95 

corner pillars, and besides, these corner, pillars or supports have 
already been described as &2?W. In the second account, v. 34, 
four ntoro are said to have been rnb&n rri33 Vn"]S b$ < at the four 
corners of the base/ A more suitable term to describe the position 
of the shoulder-pieces could not be selected, and we may follow 
Kamp. in emending yrii23 y3"]K'! ' and its four corners had shoulder- 
pieces' LXX, Luc. p^prj avrwv appears to be an alteration of the 
difficult vniDVS into |pte; cf. Ex. 25. 26, where nXQH JD-JK bv is 

rendered in\ ra reaaapa pep-q. 

nvb £»X "DJJB] ^ (ptf?) appears to denote 'wreaths' or 
'spiral work,' such as forms the principal ornamentation in Fig. 2, 
and appears round the cylinder in Fig. 1. B^K *US?tt is properly 
' beyond or at the side of each.' Cf. the phrase I'HSy 73JD ' at all 
sides of him,' ch. 5. 4 note. We may render ' with spirals at the 
side of each.' The spirals may have run between the shoulder- 
pieces along the top edges of the ruiDD. 

31. liTDl] Read |V£fl 'and its mouth,' the suffix referring to the 
rWDJD. The na is clearly the mouth or opening of the cylinder, 
seen in Figs. 1 and 2, to contain the laver. So Furtwangler, Sta. 

mrob nu»] R. V. ' within the chapiter/ But TTgfi, elsewhere 
always the crown or chapiter of a column, scarcely seems a suitable 
term to describe the part of the HJ'DD which contained the ns ; 
and the fact that the word is defined by the article rather indicates 
that it refers to something already mentioned. We may therefore 
follow Ew/s emendation (adopted by Klo., Sta., and others), and 
read ribri3p TV3D ' within the shoulder-pieces,' just described. 

nBK3 niwi] A number must have fallen out before HENS, and 
this was probably "ins (Kamp., Sta.). But nbwi, which qualifies 
the statement as to the height, ought naturally to follow after it. We 
may therefore read fyVPJ ""i^Ka ^C? l was one cubit and upwards.' 
The statement which comes later in the verse, HENM Wl nEN, is 
merely a repetition of the same fact in more exact terms, and ought 
probably, therefore (with Sta.), to be regarded as a marginal gloss. 

p niPJflD] 'After the structure {form) of a pedestal.' p is used of 
the pedestal of the "ti*3 in Ex. 30. 28; 31. 9; al. 

96 The First Book oj Kings 

'y\ DJTTfODOl] If this sentence is in place, the statement ought 
naturally to refer to the HQ. But then we should expect IVniDBR, 
i.e., in contrast to the round opening itself, ' its borders were 
foursquare, not round' thus forming a pedestal which corresponded 
in shape to the square ruDB beneath. If this be the meaning of 
the passage, the pedestal differed from those in Figs. 1 and 2, 
which are round outside as well as inside. Sta. considers the 
statement to be out of place, and, reading [HVliaDDj refers it to 
the border-frames of the roiSD proper. 

32. miDDn CDBIKfl niTl] 'And the stays of the wheels were in the 
base' ; i.e. of one casting with it. niT 1 seems to denote the diagonal 
stays, which are seen under the m^DD in Figs. 1 and 2. 

33. DiT3j] 'Their felloes'; i.e. the rounded portion of the 
wheel, from 233 * to be curved.' So, in this sense, Ezek. 1. i8t. 

Dnn^ni DiTpBTtl] Both aira^ \eyy. Ges. connects the former 
word with pen 'cleave to' or 'join,' so D*|?^n 'those which join' 
sc. the felloe to the nave, i.e. the spokes; but his derivation of the 
latter word from Ar. j.t ~+ congregdtvit, so "Win ' place in which 
the spokes come together J i. e. the box or nave, seems more than 
doubtful, since, apart from the dubious meaning, a wrong interchange 
of consonants is implied. 

34. iTarD nJ3Dn \0] ' Of one casting with the base were its 
shoulder-pieces.' The same meaning is to be attached to fODB 
in v. 35. Cf. Ex. 27. 2. Sta. regards v. 34 b as a gloss, mainly 
on the ground of the masc. pi. form iVDrD in place of iT»niBri3. 

35. 'J1 rttttDTl lEWDl] The subject of the sentence has fallen out. 
In accordance with v. 31 it should be H3, or some similar term. 

PlDNn *XTl] nvxn Wl ITOK must have been read, if this account 
originally agreed with that of v. 31. 

nTnaDEI HTTP] The niT on the top of the ru3» cannot be 
identified; the rVn:iDB are probably those described in v. 3i b . 

36. nns^l] ' He carved.' The subject is Hiram. 

nn?n] ' The panels ' are peculiar to this second account. 
Judging by the reference to the figures carved upon them, we may 
suppose that they answer to the rmJDD of vv. 28, 29. 

VII. 32-40 97 

iTmJDEI 7371 iTnT] To be rejected as an erroneous dittography 
from the preceding verse. ?yi was probably added later as an 
attempt to give sense to the words as they stand. So Kamp., Sta. 

mem] Palm trees take the place of the oxen of v. 29. Cf. the 
palms (?) in Fig. 1 between the winged figures. 

f V\ iy03] Read MD nv5> B»N "DJflD, in accordance with v. 30. 

37. nnx 3¥p] LXX, Luc. omit. 

njn?3b] The suffix occurs once again, njmirD Ezek. 16. 53, 
also in pause. Cf. G-K. § 91/V Sta. § 352 b. Klo. emends H3H ?hp. 

39 a . LXX Ka\ edero ras Trevre /xf^coi/<u^ curb rrjs cjfiias rov o'lkov if- 

apiarepcov omits P|fD ?V PCni pl^O ITOn through homoioteleuton. 
Luc. further omits irc'vre, thus making it appear that all the bases were 
placed on the left ; but this is clearly an emendation of LXX text. 

40. nn^n] LXX, Luc. rovs Xefaras, Vulg. lebetes, i.e. nrVDn 
'the pots.' Pesh. \co*oq UiiX, i.e. nnWl nn'OH. niT'Dn is 
doubtless correct. It occurs ||2 Chr. 4. 11; in the summary v. 45 
(|| 2 Chr. 4. 16); and in II. 25. 14 ; Jer. .52. 18, where the allusion is 
apparently to the same vessels. So Th., Sta., Klo., Kamp., Benz., Kit. 

*VD is usually a cooking pot in which flesh (Ex. 16. 3) or broth 
(II. 4. 38^".) is boiled; but as a sacrificial implement it is men- 
tioned in connexion with the brazen altar; Ex. 27. 3 VfTVp rp'B>jn 
SW~w ' and thou shalt make its pots to take away its ashes.' 

d^n] ' The shovels' ; included (Ex. 27. 3 ; 38. 3 ; Num. 4. 14) 
among the D^I^l 1 \?|, and employed for transferring the ashes into 
the nn^D ; cf. Kimhi's explanation : — VJinro |BHn Dm D^DD 1W 
nntDHD JBHH Dm spu HW NJVDnjED. A verb njp occurs Isa. 
28. i7t 2TD noriD 113 nyi, probably 'and hail shall sweep away 
the refuge of lies ' ; Ar. ^cj 1. ' collect into one place.' 

HIplTDn] ' The bowls/ which were used for tossing or dashing 
the blood in a volume against the altar. Cf. the use of the verb p*if 
in e.g. Ex. 24. 6 ration bv P*ir Din Wll. The action denoted 
is constantly distinct from that expressed by HjH < sprinkle with the 
fingers ' ; Lev. 4. 6 ; #/. p^TD is always sacrificial, except in Am. 
6. 6 f" "»p-|T»2 DWil 'who drink in (i.e. 0*/ 0/) bowls of wine.' 

niiT no] Accus. of place as in Gen. 18. 1, 10; at. Da. § 69. 
+ H 

98 The First Book of Kings 

41. mron to] Cf. note on w. 19, 20% 22. 

42. D'OKTI CHID W] 'Two rows — pomegranates'; cf. Dri. 
Tenses, § 194. It would be more natural to read either D^b") s "ViD *pB> 
as in v. i8 a above emended, or else D^tt V)B> D^b") 'pomegranates 
in two rows,' 'id \jb> being then an accus. of manner : Da. § 70. 

D*H1»yn "0D ?y] Certainly wrong. LXX, Luc. are probably correct 
in reading bnra&n »3^y. So Th., Sta., Klo. Vulg., Pesh. pre- 
suppose D'Hltoyn w\ by as in v. 41. So Kamp., Benz., Kit. 

45. PHNn] Q're HJKn certainly correct. Thus Targ. translates 
JvNH, and then, apparently with reference to Kt., adds the gloss miSD 
rTO nnyi NJ3K>& *0» ' according to the structure of the vessels of the 
Tabernacle which Moses made/ LXX, Luc, Vulg. omit the word. 
Pesh. )k~*j*uk,L?, probably a paraphrase of Kt. ?\}Kr\. Sta., in 
adopting Q're, points out that the ) before rbttn Dv3n 73 DK must 
(as in Vulg.) be omitted, since otherwise i"!7Nn is unnecessary. 

After the sentence '"• m 'V "]7D7 DTTl Tl&y 1VK, LXX, Luc. add 

not ol (TtvXoi TfcraapciKovTa ko\ oktoj tov oXkov tov fiacrikeoDS koi tov oXkov 
Kvpiov' TTavra ra <?pya tov ftaatKcas eTroir)o~ev Xeipap. . . . , i. e. D^lDyrfi 

cvn ntry rb^n ra^E-bzrnN rri.T mta tipdh rvni? nibe^ D^ya-w. 

t • t t '••• v - v v : t v t : •• : 'v v - ••• t : • t ;- 

It is to be noticed that vv. 4i-45 a sum up the work of Hiram, 
which is described in detail in vv. 15-40; vv. 41, 42 corresponding 
to vv. 15-22, v. 43 to vv. 27-39, v - 44 t0 vv - 2 3 -2 6, and v. 45 s 
to v. 40. If, however, the LXX addition be regarded as genuine, 
we have here a matter of great importance mentioned for the first 
time in the summary without previous detailed description of any 
kind. And not only so, but a work so considerable as the casting 
of these forty-eight pillars is mentioned last of all, even subsequently 
to the notice of the making of articles so comparatively unimportant 
as the brazen pots, &c. We may therefore regard the passage 
as a gloss, of uncertain source. So Sta. ; but Bo., Th., Benz., 
and to some extent Klo., adopt as genuine. 

tt~lED nBTtt] 'Burnished brass.' The verb DID is used again 
in the participle Pu'al ntanb for XMSpb Ezek. 21. 15, 16, and Qal 
passive JiBVTO Ezek. 21. 14, 33, of a burnished sword; and in 
Isa. 18. 2, 7 B"}to (for Blbtp) describes the polished appearance 

VII. 45-5° 99 

of the skin of the Ethiopians. Elsewhere the word is used of 
plucking out hair, and this is the first meaning in Ar. and Syr. 
The Verss. merely guess at the sense of &XDD. Targ. nt3 BTIJ, 
Vulg. de aurichalco, Pesh. ]^fesX*>ao }*«j?, LXX x a ^™ apbrjv 1 , 
Luc. simply x^a ?jv. 

46-50. This section as it stands can scarcely exhibit its original 

(i) ^JND ♦ • ♦ rWl] v. 47 is very obscure and awkward. It can 
only mean, ' And Solomon left all the vessels because of their very 
great number.' This we have to interpret, ' He left them unweighed,' 
a forced and unparalleled explanation. 

(ii) It is unnatural to say that the brass could not be weighed 
because the vessels were so numerous. We have just had a descrip- 
tion of the great vessels, &c, which were made by Hiram, the sea, 
the bases and lavers, and the two pillars, the casting of which 
must have taken an enormous quantity of brass; and in comparison 
with this the brass used for the pots, shovels, &c, however numerous 
they may have been, must have been comparatively trivial in 
quantity. Hence, the reason why the brass went unweighed was 
not the number of the vessels, most of which were small, but the 
great quantity of brass which was used, chiefly for the comparatively 
few large vessels. 

(iii) After the very lengthy description of the brazen vessels 
made by Hiram, it is surely strange that so short a summary 
(vv. 48-50) of the golden vessels, &c, should be given, without 
any account of their appearance or mention of their maker. We 
are justified in regarding an allusion of such brevity, in the midst 
of a document which seems to aim at peculiar minuteness in 
description, as the work of a later hand who desiderated some 
reference to the golden vessels of the Temple 2 . 

1 This is simply a paraphrase derived from the context, and cannot represent 
"rxm of Th. ; still less Klo.'s D^n rran: or D"^np , supposed to mean ' con- 
secrated (?) brass,' according to the (free) rendering of Mai. 3. 24 'rvarri NtoN'}? 
D"ffj ywrrrw , /«) 4' KOoj nal irara^o} tt\v yrjv dp5r]v. 

3 These verses are omitted by Sta., together with v. 47. 

H 2 

ioo The First Book of Kings 

Turning to the Verss., we find that LXX, Luc. presuppose 
a considerably divergent text. In both v. 47 precedes v. 46, and 
vv. 47, 48 s exhibit striking variation from MT. 

LXX, Z>. 47, ovk tjv aradfxos tov ^aX/coi) ov enoirjafv Tvdvra ra tpyu 
ravra £k 7rkrj6ovs o~(fi68pa' ovk rjv Teppa tcov o~Tadpa>v tov xoXkov. 

v. 46. As in MT., omitting ^DTl. 

V. 48 a . Ka\ '4\a(i(v 6 (3aai\cvs Sakoopcov ra crKevrj a erroirjcrcv iv oikco. 

vv. 48 b -5o. Substantially as in MT. 
This may be re-translated : — 

v. 47. iko no rkxn r?i Q^arr^a-ntf nfe>y nete nvntb bpvv pa 

T 4 . .. v •• t L J ••• - t v t t v ~: v : ~ 't : • • •• 

0. 46. As in MT., omitting ^EH. 

0. 48 s . [nirp] n*a nb>y tb>k D^arrriK nbV "^9? ng^. 

Luc. is slightly different : — 

V. 47* OVK *) v o-TaO/xos tov xoXkov ov €Trotr)o~(v cipbrjv' iravTa to. cncevT] 
a fnoirjae, TavTa £k tov ttKtjOovs o~(p6dpa' ovk fjv Teppa tu> o~Ta6p<i> tov 

v. 46. As in MT., omitting -jtan. 

V. 48*. /cat eficoKe "SoXopwv 6 ftaaiKcvs to. o~K(vrj a enoirjaev iv rco o'ikco 


vv. 48^-50. Substantially as in MT. 
Translate : — 

v. 47. "rate n^Kn D^3n-^3 p] natoa nfe^ "iBte n^n^ !»jjeta ps* 
:n^nan bptfo npro n!j ind nao no ntry. 
v. 46. As in MT., omitting ^cn. 
v. 48 a . nim ra nb>y "ifcte D^arrnK nb$c? atari ra*i. 

In v. 47 Luc's rendering can scarcely be original. The repetition 
of TWy "W, and the construction of Dv3H ?3 in apposition to 
nt?n^, are very awkward. On the other hand, LXX text is here 
very clear and good, completely disposing of difficulty (i) by the 
substitution of 'ai bpVD pK for nzbw m*! , and of (ii) by the reference 
of ^KD 1NE niD back to D^mi> bpW pK instead of to S>3 TiK 
Dv3n . Luc.'s text of this verse probably arose through the insertion 
of apftrjv as a doublet of "IND 1NE> no, this breaking the sentence 
and causing the repetition of d cVofyo-e. 

VII 46-51 ioi 

By the transposition of v. 47 and v. 46 we gain a better sequence, 
the great quantity of brass being naturally mentioned before the 
locality in which the vessels, &c, were cast. 

In v. 48 a Luc. is to be preferred to LXX. The nrf>P HW of the 
commencement of v. 47 MT. is here referred to its proper place, 
and its position in MT. is perhaps explained by the transposition 
of vv. 46 and 47. The writer, having wrongly written v. 46 first, 
was proceeding to write z>. 48 which properly followed it, when 
he noticed that he had omitted v. 47, and so added it then and 
there. Thus the first two words of v. 48 came to be placed at the 
beginning of v. 47. 

According to Luc, v. 48 a describes the destination of the golden 
vessels ; it ought, however, properly to refer to the brazen vessels, 
and to conclude the account of them. This should naturally lead 
the way to v. 51, the conclusion of the whole notice. The altera- 
tion of v. 48 a in MT. W) for n^l, and in LXX km eXa/3ei/ for km 
e'5a)K6, is most probably due to the gloss vv. 48 b ~5o which mentions 
the golden vessels. 

Upon these grounds the following may plausibly be considered 
the original text of these vv. 46-51 : — 

v Ah. nxtD ri» rhxn tt!>3rri?:3-nK nfew "\m mrmb ^ p« 

v. n / • . .. •.• •• t . •• - t v t t v _ : v :- 't : • ' •• 

v. 46. As in MT., omitting pBil. 

v.aS. :mn^ rva riwy -\m n^arrnK nbbw [thsf] na*i. 

v. 51. As in MT. 

v. 47. ' There was no weight to the brass wherewith he made 
all these vessels, because it was exceeding much; the weight of 
the brass was not found out. v. 46. In the plain of Jordan did 
he cast them, in the clay ground between Succoth and Zarethan. 
v. 48. And [King] Solomon placed the vessels, in the house of 

#.51. ' Thus all the work that king Solomon wrought in the 
house of Yahwe was finished. And Solomon brought in the things 

*'.",'c of Me^'ae^^v CAMPBELL 

\^ *' 3?\ COLLECTION 

102 The First Book of Kings 

which David his father had dedicated, even the silver and the gold 
and the vessels, placing them in the treasuries of the house of 

46. }TW1 "D3] 'The circle of the Jordan'; || 2 Chr. 4. 17; 
Gen. 13. 10, lit; called also ">3?n ' the circle/ Gen. 13. 12 ; 19. 17; 
Deut. 34. 3 ; 2 Sam. 18. 23; al. The term, a Pilpel form p?"!?) 
from TO ' move in a circle/ is used of the depressed region which 
forms the lower stage of the Jordan valley by which the river flows 
into the Dead Sea ; but may in the earliest times have been 
exclusively applied to the fertile region occupied by the circle 
of cities forming the "^Pl 1 ^-? > Gen. 13. 12 ; 19. 29. See Stanley, 
SP. 284. 

n»*TNn myiM] RV. ' In the clay ground ' ; so Vulg. in terra 
argillosa. rQJJD, root rny 'to be thick, dense' (ch. 12. 10), only 
occurs here, || 2 Chr. 4. 17 having •TO'J^'J ^l. Moore (on Judg. 
7. 22) emends nB1N[n] n"Oy»3 'at the crossing (ford) of Adamah/ 
regarding Adamah as identical with D*T*S of Josh. 3. 16 (ed-DamieJi) 
which is there said to be near jmx. 

nOD] The identification of Rob. {BR., iii. 309^.) with Sdkut 
( e Ain es-Sdqdt) on the west bank of Jordan some nine miles south 
of Beisan, though suiting the connexion with ffPV which is men- 
tioned (ch. 4. 12) together with \SW no, is improbable as being 
philologically unsound. Moore, in accordance with his emendation 
above noticed, thinks HOD to be the place named in Genesis and 
Joshua east of Jordan. This, according to the Talmud (Shebiith 
ix. 2, Gemara), was in later times called npyiT Dar'ala, i.e. probably 
'the present Tell Deir 'Alia, a high mound in the Jordan valley, 
about one mile north of the Jabbok/ G. A. Smith, Historical 
Geography, 585; Buhl, Geogr. 259/! 

5i b . jro] The perf. asyndetos as a circumstantial clause; 'he 
placed/ &c, so 'placing', &c. Cf. ch. 13. 18 )b CTD ; Dri. 
Tenses, § 163. 

I 3~5 I » Wellh. comments upon the absence of any allusion to 
the making of the brazen altar in this description of the Temple 

VII. 4 -6- j i 103 

furniture, assuming that, in accordance with the mention of an 
altar in ch. 8. 64; II. 16. 14, 15, such a reference must have 
originally existed, and has therefore been purposely removed by 
the post-exilic editor, upon the supposition that the brazen altar 
of Moses mentioned by P was, like the Ark, still in existence. 
Now, as we have seen, the glosses of R p are for the most part 
either absent in LXX, Luc, or can at any rate be easily detected 
and separated from the original text into which they have come 
from the margin; and the method of treating the LXX text as 
representing upon the whole a recension untouched by R p has, 
through the results, justified itself as reasonable. Thus, if mention 
of the casting of the brazen altar had existed in the original 
description, some trace of it would certainly have remained in 
LXX ; but this is not the case. And not only so, but there are 
no other traces of the rejection by R p of the statements of the 
original 1 , such a proceeding being quite contrary to his method, 
which was to interpolate without excision. 

Again, as will be seen, the section ch. 8. 1-11 has been largely 
interpolated by R p , and in v. 4 there is mention of the carrying 
up to the Temple of the Wlpn ^3 bl HW IJttD ^"1K riNI miV fViK 
bn$2 "H5W. If, therefore, this editor had only just previously excised 
from ch. 7 the mention of the making of the brazen altar for the 
reason above noticed, he would surely have expressly named it in 
ch. 8. 4 among the furniture of the lyiD ?rijK which was taken 
up to the Temple. 

Thus we may confidently conclude that mention of the brazen 
altar was, for whatever reasons, not contained in the original 
recension of 7. 13-51. The allusion in 2 Chr. 4. 1 n&Tti rUTD Wl 

inEip jyiek "Wi mm hdk nn^jn im^ nEK tmpy is marked as 

a late addition by the absence of all detail in the description. 

1 The addition of LXX, Luc. in v. 45, with reference to the forty-eight 
pillars, is to be regarded as a gloss, for reasons above given. 

io4 The First Book of Kings 

8. Dedication of Solomon's Temple. 
Ch. 8 = 2 Chr. 5. 2—7. io. 
8. i. 'y\ n&b& hnp m] LXX prefaces these words with the 

sentence Km iyivero u>s (TvveTeXfcrev 2aka>pcbv tov olKoboprjaai tov olkov 
Kvpiov kol tov o'Uov eavrov pera eucocri err]. So LllC, with the variation 

iv ra awTeXeaai 2o\oficbvTa. This is regarded by Bo., Th. as part 
of the original text. But more probably the words are an addition 
of the translator, who objected to the use of TN without ' any definite 
point of attachment in the preceding narrative/ This peculiar 
use of the particle is, however, characteristic of R D (see collected 
instances in 3. 16 note; and cf. Dri. LOT. 192), and it is very 
noticeable that in no single case does TN occur as introduction 
to the apodosis of a sentence, after the protasis has contained 
a definite notice of the point of departure. In such a case the 
usual construction would certainly be •] • • % W (cf. 9. 1, 2), 
and there is no reason why this should have been relinquished 
in favour of W ♦ ♦ ♦ *njl. The form of the gloss was determined 
by 9. 1, and the time-notice fxera elVoo-i %rr) derived from the addition 
of DW SOP 6. 38, and r\W TTWy uhw 7. 1. 

i-ii. This section has clearly received considerable interpolation 
by post-exilic hands under the influence of P. In LXX vv. 1-5 
appear in a considerably shorter form, which reads smoothly and 

without trace of abridgement : — totc i^KKXrjaiaaev 6 ftao-iXevs laXcoptov 
ttcivtcls tovs Trpeo-fievTepovs IcrpaqX iv 2eta)v tov iveyxelv ttjv ki{3(ot6v 
dia6r)Kris Kvpiov i< 7r6\ea>s Aaveid, civtt) iarlv "Eetcov, (2) iv prjvl \\6apeiv. 
(3) kcu fjpav oi if pels tt)v ki(3<dtov (4) Kal to o~Kr)va>pa tov paprvpiov kol 
to. o~K€vt) to. ayia to. iv T(3 o~Krjvo)paTi tov paprvpiov' (5) koX 6 fiaaiXevs 
Kai Tras laparjX epnpoaOev ttjs ki/3coto0 Ovovtcs 7rpd/3ara, (36as, dvaplOprjTa. 

So substantially Luc. Here we notice the following omissions : — 

1. 7\vbw i?nn ^>n 5>&ob» mi? nnxn wiw niBDn wi hi nxi] 

Here nn«H , ♦ . *BWl belongs distinctively to P. Cf. ^Ni 
niDDH || 2 Chr. 5. 2 ; Num. 30. 2f. muon DUN W1 
Num. 32. 28 ; Josh. 14. it. DIDD^ nUKH Wi Josh. 19. 5it. 
[niisn] ni3K Wl Ex. 6. 25; Num. 31. 26; 36. 1 ; Josh. 

VIII. i-ii 105 

21. 1, and very frequently in Chr., Ezra, Neh. (34 times) t. 
[nroK, nnsn] n«K JV3 ^fcO Ex. 6. 14; Num. 7. 2, and 
four times in Chr.t N^BO in the Hexateuch occurs but 
once outside P, Ex. 22. 27 (J); in P 82 times, Ezek. 
37 times, Chr. six times t. 

D?BTP] Probably original. The reading of LXX, Luc. seems 
to be a scriptural error due to the occurrence of fl*¥ at the 
end of the verse. 

2 b\?T\W B»K bl nth® *]bnn b$ )bn^)~] An addition rendered 
almost necessary to introduce the date after the weighting 
of the previous verse with the long insertion above noticed. 
Niph. ?np3 occurs most often in P, Lev. 8. 4 ; Num. 16. 3 ; 
17. 7 ; 20. 2; Josh. 18. 1 ; 22. 12, and in books influenced 
by P (Ezek. 38. 7 ; Chr., Ezra, seven times) ; though not 
unknown in earlier writings, Ex. 32. 1 (JE), Judg. 20. 1 ; 
2 Sam. 20. 14 ; Jer. 26. 9+. Notice the phrase Ticbw ^DH 
here and in the additions of vv. 1, 5 contrasted with TXtbw 
w. 1, 12, or *jfen v. 5, of the original narrative. 

^Wn snnn Kin arn] The reference 3ro being drawn from 
v* 65 ann TIN KWl nyn no!?B> W1, the editor plausibly 
assumes from the mention of its duration TF& n]DB> l that 
this was the Feast, i.e. the Feast of Tabernacles, and so 
adds the statement lyatPH ennn N1PI as in Lev. 23. 34 (H). 
In Dt. 16. 13 the date is more vaguely defined as ^JBDKSi 

3. btiTW* *}pt !?3 ISCl] A resumption from 0. i a , due to the 
number of additions intervening. 

4- iW JVW HK i^yi] In vv. 3, 5, 7 (twice), 9 simply (V^ri. 

D^m D^nan DHN Ajn] The distinction drawn between 
priests and Levites implies the standpoint of P. Cf. Dri. 
Deut. 219: — 'The term Levite, it must always be remem- 
bered, has in Deuteronomy a different meaning from 
" Levite " in P. In P it denotes the members of the tribe, 

1 On the rejection of dv "i«j$ nrmN ww nsatzn , cf. note ad loc. 

106 The First Book of Kings 

exclusive of the priests, the descendants of Aaron; in 
Deuteronomy it denotes all members of the tribe, without 
distinction. The " Levites " of P are inferior members 
of the tribe, who are assigned various subordinate duties 
in connexion with the Tabernacle (Num. 3-4; 18. 1-7), 
but are peremptorily forbidden to intrude upon the office 
of priest. In Deuteronomy this sharp distinction between 
priests and the common Levites is not recognized ; it is 
implied (18. i a ) that all members of the tribe are qualified 
to exercise priestly functions ; 18. i b , 2 l) assign to the whole 
tribe the altar-dues reserved in Num. 18. 20 for the priests 
alone; and 18. 6-8, relating to the " Levite " coming from 
the country to reside at the central sanctuary, describes his 
services there in terms which elsewhere, when used in 
ritual connexion, denote regular priestly duties.' 

In contrast to this distinction of v. 4 l> , cf. vv. 3, 6, 10, n 
where B^nbn alone are mentioned; and ch. 12. 31 where 
all Levites seem to be regarded as fit to exercise priestly 
functions:—^ "»:3» vn vb *\m nyn nivpD D^ro W. 

5. fflD?B>] Inserted for the sake of accordance with the title 
used in vv. i b , 2. 

my] The phrase JtfW) rnjj is of constant occurrence in P, 
outside which it never occurs but here and in || 2 Chr. 5. 6. 

1HX )yV D'Hytin] 1JP means to appoint or define a place 
or time, and Niph'al lyij has the sense set oneself at the 
appoi7ited place. This latter occurs very constantly in 
a ceremonial connexion, and so used is characteristic of P ; 
|| 2 Chr. 5. 6; ['•> bv] ^V DHJJUn Num. 14. 35; 16. 11; 
27. 3; ybtt nyui Num. 10. 3, 4; and, with '* as subject, 
i>(1jnN) Tnyui Ex. 25. 22; 29.42,43; 30.6,36; Num. 
17. 19. Cf. the phrase 1JJto ^n« (see below) 'the tent of 
meeting,' i.e. of Yahwe and His people in the person of their 
representative. Elsewhere Niph'al *ryo is only used without 
ceremonial connotation; Josh. 11. 5 (JE) ; Am. 3. 3; Ps. 
48. 5; Job 2. 11; Neh. 6. 2, iot. 

VIII. i- 1 1 107 

mo W $b)] LXX, Luc. dvapiBfiryra for the whole ns?K 
mo W tih) PfiD'» N^ appears at first sight to omit the 
last three words. But a comparison of ch. 3. 8, where 
the same phrase is rendered by LXX 6s ovk dpiBfx^drjaerai, 
suggests that the translator's single word is intended to 
satisfy the whole expression in the Hebrew. 
Further omissions of LXX in this section (vv. 1-11) are: — 

6. mrv nnn] Omitted by LXX only, but contained in Luc. 
The phrase is properly Deuteronomie (cf. 3. 14 note). 

8. Pltn DVn iy DK> Wl] Quite different in character from the 
other omissions. The phrase implies a pre-exilic stand- 
point, and is thus original, and has been removed by the 
LXX translator (or by a later copyist) because in his time 
its purport had ceased to be true, ntfl DWl HJJ occurs again 

9. 13, 21; 10. 12; 12. 19; II. 2.22; 8.22; 10.27 (nvn ny); 

14. 7 ; 16. 6 ; 17. 23, 34, 41. The phrase is in most cases 
the addition of R D , and thus has important bearing upon 
the date of compilation of Kings. See Introduction. 
10, 11. mrr> m] LXX omits riVP and reads T\ s %r\, Luc. in 
both cases top oIkov Kvplov. 
Thus it is clear that the omissions in LXX (vv. 1-5) are later 
additions to the text from the hand of R p . But beyond these 
additions, in the text which is common to LXX and MT. there 
are a few phrases which exhibit unmistakeably the influence of P. 
These must be prior to the separation of the recensions represented 
by MT. and LXX, and therefore prior also to R p ; and are to be 
assigned to late exilic or early post-exilic scribes influenced by P, 
mentioned above (ch. 6. 16) under the symbol SS P . The phrases 
in question are as follow: — 

4 a . IJttO 7i"tN] This phrase occurs a few times in JE; Ex. 33. 7; 
Num. 11. 16 ; 12. 4 ; Deut. 31. 14 ; but is chiefly characteristic 
of P, in which it occurs some 132 times. Outside the 
Hexateuch, it is found only in 1 Sam. 2. 22 ; ch. 8. 4 a ; and 
in Chr. In 1 Sam. the last member of the verse, containing 
the expression, is wanting in LXX, and seems to be of the 

io8 The First Book of Kings 

character of an interpolation. So Wellh., Kamp., Budde. 
Probably also in our passage lyiE 7iiN (the tent of Moses) 
has been substituted for an original ^D^n (the tent of David; 
ch, 1. 39). LXX, Luc. tov napTvplov after 7ilKa in this verse 
is probably added for the sake of uniformity with the 
previous lyiD ?i"iK. 

6. WVnpn W1\> 5>K] Cf. ch. 6. 16 note. 

8, 10. unpn |Jd] Wlpn is 'the holy place/ i.e. the outer room 
of the Temple, called ?a*nri in 6. 17, 33 ; 7. 21. The term 
is obviously used in relation to the name given to the inner 
room &vnpr\ tnp, as is the case in Ex. 26. 33 n^iam 

nwpn trip pai Bnpn pa dd^ naiBn. 

8. rwin 1K"P fc6l] Probably added by the same hand as 
'\>?\ ]D, to guard against the supposition that the staves 
were exposed to the public gaze. 
Thus the original form of the section vv. 1-1 1, as it left the hand 
of R D , was probably as follows : — 

1 ma p-ix n« rxhyrb t&wt btnw ^pr ^a nx nt&v tap m 
2, 3 : pixn dk D^nan iNtri : D^nxn rrva : p>* nti nn i^ nvr 
4, 5 vsb bvnw bi) -jta-n : S>n«a lew enpn *!?a i>a n«i tasTi nsi 

6 wai taiD 1^ «h nBD" 1 tb ton ipai |xv D^naro \T\xri 
nnn S>n rran Tan ^ idipd ^x hit nna pis jik raran 

7 laD^i pnxn Dipo ^>k n^aaa dwb canan s a sowon *wa 

8 nwn wnn onan ianwi j nirota via ^yi pan ^y n^anan 

9 w pn pnxa p« : rirri '"Sii ni? D^'wi Tann s :d i>y nnan 

btnur "oa dv mm ma tc\n anna toe dp iron tc\x n^axn ninb 

10 :rvan ns* xbv pym D^nan nsva \ti : onina ' pito "bhtihci 

11 nirv nua k!>d s a py.n ^bid me6 nDyi> n^.nan ta* n!>i 

jjvan n« 

The words overlined are the work of R D ; those marked by the 
dotted line may perhaps be due to him. 

1 3 6. nirp nna pn«] Cf. 3. 15 note. Probably pnK.n stood 

in the original narrative, as in vv. 3, 5, 7, 9. 
8. 'jn DK> ViTl] Discussed above. 

VIII. I- 1 2 IO9 

9. btOW "02 Dy '* ma "i£>x] The idea of the covenant between 
Yahwe and Israel appears first in JE ; Ex. 19. 5; 24. 7, 8 ; 
34. 10, 27 ; but is brought into special prominence through 
the emphasis laid upon it in Deuteronomy ; cf. 5. 2/. HliT 

anna nnn woy ma wniw ; 4. 23 ; #/. The supposition 

that this sentence is the work of R D explains its imperfect 
connexion with the preceding, the only antecedent to "1BW 
rfO being D'OlKn nir6 W. Doubtless R D was thinking 
of the idea of the covenant (rpian) implied by these mr6, 
and so made his insertion in its existing form. So vague 
a relationship of relative to antecedent would scarcely be 
possible if the whole verse were by one hand. LXX, Luc. 
insert after D^axn r\)rb, nXd™* rfs bcad^s, i.e. irian rrim, 
an addition which brings the sentence into close accord 

with Deut. 9. 9 iti.t rna *wk man nrni> EM3Nn nrni> nnpb 

Dafty. Probably this is a gloss inserted to smooth away 
the roughness in connexion. The explanation of '"■ ma 1BW 
1 where Yahwe made/ &c, with an ellipse of ma as in 
1 Sam. 20. 16 ; 22. 8, is possible but scarcely necessary. 

Possibly Qnvo p«» DDK^n may also belong to R D , in 
continuation of the preceding. If, however, it belong to the 
first narrative, it probably originally ran f \\ hvr\W "02 riNVa. 

12. "IEN TN. See <:>£. 3. 16 »0/*. 

.pB^ "ION] 'Hath promised to dwell'; RV. 'Hath said that He 
will dwell'; 1 Chr. 27. 23 bfcW DK nnir6 "» 11DN ; 2 Chr. 21. 7; 
Est. 4. 7. With ? of the person to whom the promise is made, 
II. 8. 19. Cf. ch. 5. 19 note. 

?B"|JD] ?3"iy is frequently mentioned as the sign of Yahwe' s 
theophany: — 1|2 Chr. 6. 1; Ex. 20. 21 ; Dt. 4. 11 ; 5. 19; 2 Sam. 
22. 10; || Ps. 18. 10; Ps. 97. 2 ; Job 22. 13. The word is con- 
nected seven times with fjy, twice with ^ n , once with rVIDpif, and 
once with B^ay. y*r\y had the appearance of the dark lowering 
storm-cloud, as is clear from 2 Sam. 22. io^". and Ex. 20. 21; cf. 
19. 16. 

no The First Book of Kings 

13. 73t IVl] Possibly 'a house of elevation' or ' lofty house.' For 
the meaning of 7H] 'elevation' or 'height,' Schrader {COT. i. 175) 
quotes Assyr. bit zab'al=~>2'l IV3; Cheyne (Zra. ii. 172/I) cites 
M. Stanislas Guyard as stating that Assyr. possesses the root zabdlu 
= nasu (NtW) in the sense of ' bearing,' and hence (but by inference 
merely) of ' elevating/ This interpretation suits all the Biblical 
occurrences of 7UT as well as, or better than, the old unphilological 
explanation 'habitation'; || 2 Chr. 6. 2; Isa. 63. 15; Hab. 3. 11 ; 
Ps. 49. 15 (Cheyne 72JP)t. The verb occurs once, Gen. 30. 20 
WX H J72P DVDn ' This time will my husband extol me.' In New 
Heb. 7UT = ' temple'; Berachoth ix. i3 l) 7UD jiTT ItttPfitP jniN 
'those (heathen) who stretched out their hands against the 

imp? ya6\ So Ex. 15. 17 rnri* ri7VD ina^7 pars. ^?^ fao 

z>#. 39, 43, 49, cf. Ps. 33. 14. pao gives prominence to the idea 
of the fixed security of Yahwe's dwelling-place. So ^9^ i* 13 *? ^ s - 
89. 15; *D? fbD Ps. 97. 2 ; *3bO Isa. 18. 4. 

DTOW] Used adverbially, 'for ever,' in place of the more prosaic 
Dbivi>. So only || 1 Chr. 6. 2 ; Ps. 61. 5 D"»»7iy "]7rtK3 mtiK . 

The two z/z>. 12, 13 occur in LXX after the section z>z>. 14-53, 
and exhibit considerable divergence from MT. Tore iXaXtju-ev 

2a\(t)fX(ov vnep tov o'lkov a>s avvcTeXecrev tov olKodoprjaai avTov 
"H\iov iyvatpiacv iv ovpavco Kvpios' 

cinev tov KaroiKelv i< yvo<pov. 

OiKoBoprjaov oikov p.ov, oIkov eWpe7T?) cratrna, 

tov KaroiKelv inl kciivottjtos. 

ovk 18ov avTT] yiypaTTTai iv /3i/3Aiep ttjs <obrjs ; So Luc. with the 

Variations eo-Trjcrev for iyvatpiaev, Ka\ erne for eiVev, iv yvo(pco for i< 

yvoqbov, cvnpeTTrj for iKTrpenrj, in\ (3i(3\iov for iv /3t/3Xio>. Here the 

words vnep . . . clvtov are clearly a gloss, due to the fact that when 
the section vv. 14-53 * s made to precede v. 12 the reference of 
Solomon's words in this latter verse is not immediately obvious. 
The remainder, however, as is shown by Wellh. (C. 271), presup- 
poses, after the easy correction of a few translator's errors, a text 

VIII. i 3 in 

substantially superior to MT. cyv&pio-ev perhaps represents ]^r\ x 
an error for J^n which Luc. renders rightly earrja-ev, aavrw v for y, 
hr\ KmpSrrjTos MM^? for D^W, rfc o>o% T#n for ^JD. We thus 
may retranslate : — 

: - t t 

nta«> d*o^3 pan b>gb> 

T : • - T - > • •• vv 

: bz^yz fatib mom 

V T-;t • : • - T 

• T VV T 

nwi nDD-^y navia ion *6n 

T T~ V •• ~ T : • -; 

'Then said Solomon, 

The sun hath Yahwe set in the heavens, 
But hath promised to dwell in thick darkness; 
— Build my house, a house of habitation for me, 
That I may dwell therein for ever. 
Is it not written in the Book of the Upright 2 ? ' 

Here in v. 12, in place of the single clause of MT., we have 
two antithetically parallel distichs, setting in pointed contrast the 
sun brightly shining in the sky above and the thick black cloud 
which fills and overhangs the House of Yahwe. The substance 
of Yahwe's command and promise is appropriately introduced in 
v. i3 ab , while v. 13°, as in Josh. 10. 13 (Joshua at the battle of 
Beth-horon), 2 Sam. 1. 18 (David's lament over Saul and Jonathan), 
bears the stamp of genuineness and ensures the antiquity of the 
short extract. Klo. follows LXX in v. 12, supposing that iyv&purcv 
translates JTtf\ a mistaken reading of V}\) — ' The sun is manifest 
in the heavens.' In v. i3 ab , however, he abides by MT. 3 , with 

1 But pan is never elsewhere in LXX rendered by yvwpifa. 

2 So Kamp. Wellh. reads bcntt for tolftfr, "K?pa for "©p-b?>, but in both cases 
Luc. indicates the more accurate reading. 

3 But more probably the expressions b2}, ]iao exhibit traces of a later phase 
of thought as to Yahwe's dwelling-place. See above as to usage and occurrence 
of these phrases. 

ii2 The First Book of Kings 

the small alteration W3 S )M for W33 TO from ||2 Chr. 6. 2, while 
#. 13° LXX is bracketed as doubtful. Jos.'s somewhat lengthy 
reproduction of Solomon's words (Ant. viii. 4, § 2) depends upon 
a combination of Kings and Chronicles freely wrought up and 

expanded. Thus Kal if- cov o-oitu elpydaco yeyovora tov ovpavbv otdapev 
k.t.X. represents "HAtoi/ eyvutpiaev ev oi>pavG> Kvpios of i Kings, while 
Tovtov be croi KareaKevacra tov vabv entovvpov is drawn from koI eyat 
oiKodopr]Ka oikov ra> ovoparl crov, 2 Chr. 6. 2. 

Vulg. agrees closely with MT. Pesh. j^Na,^ 1&>J ko( Ui^e 
JJ&iJ^:* 'Lord, thou hast promised to dwell in thick darkness/ is 
probably an arbitrary alteration from 3rd to 2nd pers. in view 
of the use of the 2nd pers. in the following verse. Targ. ''jnnN miT 
cfen'a iTnJW flN-iewi* 'Yahwe hath been pleased to establish 
his Shechinah in Jerusalem' is obviously a paraphrase in the 
translator's usual style. Nevertheless, Th., finding difficulty in 
the use of ?sny ' black darkness ' to describe the appearance of the 
'* 1U3 or nj'GtP, by inference a bright cloud, obtains by combina- 
tion of Pesh. and Targ. the emendation ]W? !?"19? nj ?^ n j n ? 
D^VVa ' Yahwe, thou hast promised to dwell in Jerusalem,' a 
somewhat prosaic statement which is partially anticipated by Bo.'s 
suggestion 5wfe*3 tbtfb TDKH T1\T]\ 

14-66. This long section, containing Solomon's address to the 
people (vv. 14-21), the dedication prayer (w. 22-53), tne blessing 
(vv. 54-61), and the short account of the festival (vv. 62-66), 
presents throughout clear indications that it owes its present form 
to the hand of R D . The final portion (vv. 62-66) may perhaps 
exhibit an older narrative into which DeAiteronomic additions have 
been incorporated, but the remainder, and especially the central 
prayer of dedication, has been so thoroughly amplified by the 
editor that it is impossible to discover any older kernel upon which 
he may have based his work. The choice of subjects in the 
successive divisions of the prayer seems for the most part to 
have been suggested by the catalogue of curses contained in 
Deut. 28. 15-68. 

VIII. 14-66 


i Kings 8. 

31 'ai v\yb b*n kbit i£>x nx 
33 a^ix ^ 5>ni^ *py p]aunn 
35 "»&» nw xi>i DW ivyro 

Deut. 28. 

Tiw ^ P|aa '< nan* 25 
l^xi 5>y i£>x "iw t*m 23, 24 
'ai n^na 

37 nw *a "0*1 

'ai inn nx ia *• paT 21 

ppv pa*w 

^on mix 

pprai psn&ja, . . ft > naa , » 22 
iaS>orr '•a p)Dxn dvbi 38 

Cf. also z>z>. 39, 42. 

'ai q*k ^ iy *a 
r£n» i>a yaa i>a 

T"W ^aa ■£ nvm 52 

Cf. #z>. 49^". 

zw. 22, 27, 35, 59-61. 

41 naan i>x Dai 

44 n&nW> i»y X^ *3 

46 Dnnai . ♦ • •£ i^rv ik>x 

'ai oinen a^w "ob!? 

w. 3 6 > 37, 64-68. 

Deuteronomic phraseology is noticed below verse by verse. 

It is more difficult to decide whether the section has suffered 
interpolation at the hands of later Redactors. 

(i) The division of the prayer vv. 46-49, which brings forward 
the possibility of a general captivity of Israel in punishment for 
sins, is considered by Wellh. (C. 270), Sta. (Ges. i. 74), Kamp., 
Benz., Kit. to be marked by its contents as not earlier than the 
Exile, and therefore later than R D 1 . 

Against this view may justly be cited the vagueness of the terms 

of v. 46 naiip ix npim a^ixn px 5>x Dfpat? Dia^i, and the fact 

that the writer (v. 48) appears to regard the Temple as still 
standing during the period of the Exile, , . . D¥1X TH ybx l^snm 
1»B& IVaa i^X rvam. But the chief argument for the pre-exilic 
date of the passage is to be derived from comparison of Deut. 28, 
which, as we have seen above, forms to some extent the model 
of the dedication prayer. This ch. 28 is regarded by all critics as 

1 Wellh., Sta. seem to regard these verses as determining the exilic date of the 
whole section vv. 14-66. Kamp. assigns vv. 44-53 to D 2 ; Benz., Kit. vv. 44-51. 

ii4 The First Book of Kings 

being, if not an integral portion of D (chs. 5-26) \ at least closely 
akin to D in standpoint and date, and thus certainly pre-exilic; 
yet notwithstanding, vv. 36, 37, 64-68 threaten a captivity of the 
nation in language decidedly more definite than that of the passage 
of the prayer which has been called in question. We may therefore 
be content to regard these verses as containing nothing necessarily 
opposed to the supposition of a pre-exilic authorship, and so, as of 
one piece with the whole, vv. 22-53 2 * 

(ii) Sta. (Ges. ii. 248 note) regards CBBM ?N v. 30, and the local 
accusative DVXTl vv. 32, 34, 36, 39, 43, 45, 49 as later insertions 
made upon the view that Yahwe's habitation was not the Temple, 
as is suggested by the old narrative, vv. n-13, but the heavens, 
out of which he exercised a supervision over the Temple. Accord- 
ingly, portions of vv. 22, 54 DWH V2D BHQ^ ; DWH niBHQ VDD1, 
and v. 27 which questions the possibility of God's dwelling upon 
the earth, are also assigned to the same hand. 

This opinion of Sta. is decidedly favoured by syntactical consi- 
derations. The local accusative D^BEM ' in heaven,' following upon 
XJ1DKT1 nn&0, #.32 ah, can scarcely be paralleled. Th. compares 
mnxn "Ml ch. 7. 8. Da. § 69, Rem. 1 places it among words 
subordinated in the accusative more freely ' in elevated speech and 
poetry 3 .' rYOSI, again, at the commencement of v. 28 hinges very 
imperfectly on to the end of v. 27, and much more readily follows 
upon v. 26. 

If this view be adopted, *]rD^ DIpD ?N v. 30 will refer originally 
not to the heavens but to the Temple, agreeably to the idea not 
only of the old narrative, but of the framer of the prayer (R D ) ; 
cf. v. 38 nrn n^nn b$ VB3 KnSI, where the House seems to be 
regarded as Yahwe's abode; vv. 35, 42, at. So also *jrDC pOD 
vv > 39, 43> 49) where, upon the removal of DWn, "jraE> ftotpt? must 
be restored. 

1 Kue. Hex. § 7, 21 ; Dri. Deuteronomy, 303/". 

2 Cf. Kue. Ond. § 26, 5. 

3 || 2 Chr. 6. 21, 23, 25, 30, 33, 35, 39 reads d-dtltt p, but in v. 27 D»DWn 
as in Kings. 

VIII. ij-2i ii5 

The view that heaven, not the Temple, is Yahwe's proper abode, 
belongs to exilic times, and doubtless owed its origin to the 
destruction of the first Temple. Cf. Isa. 66. i DWH * ">DK H3 
^ linn n^K TYO nt "»K 'fcjn DTJ p«m WOa. On the other hand, 
according to Ezekiel the newly constructed Temple and city are to 
be specially dignified by Yahwe's Presence, though doubtless 
according to a more heightened and spiritual conception; 48. 35 

nw nvr dvd n*yn Dtsn. 

15. ta"iB* T&K ^J A phrase very characteristic of R D . Cf. 
vv. 17, 20, 23, 25, (26 om.*>); 11. 9, 31 ; 14. 7, 13; 15. 30; 
16. 13, 26, 33 ; 22. 54 ; II. 10. 31 ; 14. 25 ; 21. 12 ; 22. 15, 18. 
Elsewhere in Kings the phrase is found only in I. 1. 30, 48; 
II. 9. 6 ; 19. 15, 20, and in I. 17. 1, 14 where the text is doubtful 
(see note). 

After hvrw* V&N LXX, Luc. insert (rfoepov, i.e. Di»n. This is 
natural, and probably original; cf. ch. 5. 21 DYTI iW *]112 "IBJOI. 

tffo . ♦ ♦ "Dl "IBW] So v. 24; Jer. 44. 25. The special reference 
of '31 nm "IPK is to 2 Sam. 7. 5/".: cf. 0. i6 a with 2 Sam. 7. 6 a ; 
w. i6 b with 2 Sam. 7. 8-1 1; z>. 19 with 2 Sam. 7. I3 a . 

16. 'ai "vyn wnn k!>] Cf. Deut. 12. 5, 11, 18, 21, 26; al So in 
00.44,48; H.13,32,36; 14.2i; 11.21. 7; 23.27; allR D orR D2 . 

DB> W nVf6] So 0. 29 ; II. 23. 27. Cf. D^ »»B> tfah ch. 9. 3 »^. 

17. 22? Dy \Tl] 'It was at the heart' (<2/W cor, lit. ze>z'//£ the 
heart). This idiomatic use of Dy is of fair frequency; 0. 18; 
|| 2 Chr. 6, 7, 8; ch. 10. 2 ; || 2 Chr. 9. 1 ; 1 Chr. 22. 6; 28. 2; 
2 Chr. 1. 11 ; 24. 4; 29. 10; Deut. 8. 5; 15. 9; Josh. 14. 7t. 

' s DB&] C/i 3. 2 w/*. 

19. T^nD N^n] Only |[ 2 Chr. 6. 9; Gen. 35. 11 tifcbm 

ikv T^nD. 

20. mi nx '* Dp^] 2 Sam. 7. 25. 

'* "in ie>k:d] C/i 5. 26 jw/*. LXX om. rnn\ 

21. 'ai mi new '* nnn] K<?r. 9 »o/^. Luc. Siatf/}^ e^oO, but 
DVPN 1V"D seems only to occur Lev. 2. 13; 2 Chr. 34. 32; 
Ps. 78. 10; Prov. 2. 17, and in the very rare expression rV"Q piK 
DwK upon which see ch. 3. 15 twA?. rVO LXX, Luc. Sieforo Ku/nos. 

1 2 

1 16 The First Book of Kings 

23. nnriE . . ♦ -jibs pa] Deut. 4. 39 ^yBD nwa dv6mi kvi rw 
iiy p« nnnn p»n hn; Josh. 2. n b (D 2 ). 

IDnni nnnn "OP] Deut. 7. 9 ; Neh. 1. 5 ; 9. 32 ; Dan. 9. 4. 
Cf. Deut. 7. 12; Ps. 89. 29. 

'ai 1*135)7] Owing to the influence of the following verse this 

has become altered in LXX into r<a dovXco vov rat iropevopevat ivamiov 

<rov iv 0X77 tt) Kapbia atrov, while in Luc. we have further the paraphrase 
t<o narpl pov for tu 5ovXo> aov. Doubtless MT. is correct. The 
verse enunciates Yahwe's character as shown in His dealings with 
His servants in general. 

ymb mbnn] Ch. 2. 4 note. 

Dai? byi\ Ch. 2. 3, 4 note. 

24. v , ♦ ♦ TniSW IBW] LXX a e<Pv\a£as rat 8ov\a> (rov AavcXb to> 

jrarpi /mou, making ibw refer not to nW of the previous verse, but 
to "iDim man, and omitting the then redundant )b mm n^N n«. 
This interpretation depends upon the reading of l^ay for T"3?5( m 
the previous verse, since ^vb , , , IBfe*, yiiyb mpv ~\m are 
simply tautologous if nvr be regarded as the antecedent of "HW. 

nrn ova] cv*. 3. 6 note. 
25. 'ai ma* nS>] Ch. 2. 4 «^. 
'ai top* dn pi] Cft. 2. 4 »^. 
^ na!>n "us^a] Ch. 3. 14 »^. 

26. fflfl W |»£] As in Gen. 42. 20 &a*3J! «B£1 ; 2 Chr. 1. 9. 

TWQ LXX > Luc -> Pesh - confirm Q're TOT 

27. DJOW?] Elsewhere only || 2 Chr. 6. 18; Num. 22. 37 (JE); 
Ps. 58. 2; DJttN *|«n Gen. 18. 13 (J). 

dJpN serves to point the question very forcibly, 'Is it indeed the 
case that! On the other hand, the form B3EX, which occurs nine 
times, seems, with the single possible exception Job 19. 5, to be 
reserved for ;/0#-interrogative asseverations. 

aft] 'Can God dwell.' So yf?J?y vb ' cannot contain Thee;' 
Dri. Tenses, § 37. a. 

pttl by] || 2 Chr. 6. 18 Y^'bv t^mm. So LXX, Luc. here 
add pcra dvdpconcov, Targ. KBWK *J3 ti3. This is probably genuine, 
and is adopted as such by Th. ; Klo., Benz. 

VIII. 2}-}ob 117 

DWil W) D"Wn] Deut. 10. 14 ; 2 Chr. 2. 5. DWH W1 D^DP 
|| 2 Chr. 6. 18. DWH W Ps. 148. 4. 

*3 p|N] Lit. Indeed (or strictly, adding) that this house (cannot 
contain Thee) ; so, with reference to the preceding sentence, ' how 
much less this house.' Cf. 2 Chr. 32. 15; Prov. 17. 7; Job 4. 19 
(without s< 2); 9. 14; 15. 16; 25. 6, where, as here, the preceding 
sentence states a negation. When preceded by a positive statement 
"O f)K naturally gains the sense 'how much more'; so Deut. 31. 27 ; 
2 Sam. 16. 11 ; Prov. 11. 31 ; al. 

28. n\5Dl] '£0 turn Thou'; so njWI z>. 30. Cf. note on npTfTI 
ch. 2. 2. 

ironn i>N1 yiny rtan ^K] LXX, Luc. «ri ny*» d^o-Lv /uov appear 
to have passed, through oversight, from n7Sn to ironn, and then 
not unnaturally to have read s the suffix of 1st pers. instead of 1. 

\T>n] LXX, Luc. 6 Oeos 'lapatjX. The more personal reference 
of MT. agrees better with the preceding "pny. Possibly LXX 
'lo-parjk arose from a mistaken repetition of the last letter of \"6k 
and the first of yD^, ?* being regarded as a contraction of i>fcOE>\ 

n?snn ?K1] LXX omits. The words are, however, found in Luc. 
and the other Verss., and are demanded by the following ^SDD 
which cannot refer merely to nfllj. 

29. nhns ^/y nv>r6] || 2 Chr. 6. 20; ^.52; 2 Chr. 6.40; 7.15; 
Neh. 1. 6. 

DV1 nW] So Vulg., Targ. ; but LXX, Luc, Pesh., || 2 Chr. 6. 20 
fvvl DDV, probably an arbitrary alteration to the more usual order. 
At the close of the verse LXX, Luc. add fjpepas kcu mktos. 

30. DWH i?K ~[KM DIpD bx] 'At Thy dwelling-place, even at 
heaven/ Cf. ch. 6. 18 note. 

3o b . njWl] LXX, Luc. km nomads, i.e. ^b^. This, though 
adopted by Klo., appears to be merely a correction of the translator, 
who took offence at the repetition of the verb yDfcJ>, and so made 
the alteration in order to produce an outward harmony with 
vv. 32, 43. But these two cases are different from our passage. 
It is only appropriate that JVK>yi should be used of punishing the 
wicked and vindicating the righteous {v. 32), or of bringing about 

1 18 The First Book of Kings 

the request of the stranger (v. 43), but here, where the question 
is simply of forgiveness which would not need to be manifested 
in any outward action, IWJfi would be less apposite. On the other 
hand, nyft^l , as a resumption from the commencement of the verse 
after the lengthy intervening sentence, is quite in accordance with 
Hebrew usage. Cf. ch. 2. 4 note. 

31. NDPP "IBW ns] Rather difficult, "ibw HN seems to be used 
in the same way as IBW alone, which occurs here and there in the 
sense ' in case' or when; cf. v. 33 J? IXttrV "1BW; Lev. 4. 22 "IK'K 
r n HOT KBPP &WW; Deut. 11. 27 ; 18. 22 ; Josh. 4. 21 ; Isa. 31. 4. 
Just possibly "IBW riN was intended in the first instance for a kind 
of accusativus pendens which should have owed subordination to 
yoWft nnxi v. 32, 'That which &c. ... do thou hear/ but owing 
to the length of the intervening sentence the connexion was 
imperfectly effected. LXX, Luc. 00-a av afxapTij, Vulg. Si pec caver it, 
Pesh. \^*** \l paraphrase slightly to overcome the difficulty ; Targ. 
niHH )V literal. II 2 Chr. 6. 22 Nttrv DN. So Lev. 4. 3, 13, 27 
compared with v. 22 above cited. 

IHjn^] 'Against/ or strictly, ' with reference to his neighbour.' 
So most commonly ; Gen. 20. 6 ; 40. 1 ; 1 Sam. 7. 6 ; at. 

rbtt D XBW] The phrase only here and || 2 Chr. 6. 22. NBO 
'take up/ i.e. nsr^y Ps. 50. 16, or mnfifr^g p s# iq. 4. 

i"6s Wi] Scarcely correct. If the sense intended w r ere ' and the 
oath come/ we should expect rpNn rwa&. LXX, Luc. ko\ e^ayopevarj, 
Pesh. |j*4jo, Targ. iTOWl all presuppose n ^], and Vulg. et venerit 
propter jur amentum seems to be a slightly paraphrastic rendering 
of the same text. Thus, with Klo., Kamp., Benz., we may emend 
fPNtt Nlto ' and he come and swear/ in preference to the suggestion 
of Bo., followed by Th., ri?K N^ 1 i and he come swearing/ and the 
alternative of Kamp., adopted by Kit., n ??? N2* 'and he enter 
into an oath' (cf. Neh. 10. 30). 

32. IWjn] ' And shalt do/ An absolute use of n^jj, the implied 
object being ' that which is meet to be done/ as is shown by the 
following 'y\ riBS^I . Such a pregnant use of this verb with mrp 
as subject is not infrequent in lofty or poetic style; Ps. 119. 126 

VIII. 31-14 TI 9 

'"•!> rwj& ny ; 22.32; 37.5; 52. n; Isa. 44. 23; 64.3; Jer. 14. 7; 
Ezek. 20. 9, 14, 22 ; Dan. 9. 19. With another subject cf. 1 Sam. 
26.25; Isa. 10. 13; Dan. 8. 12, 24; II.28, 30, 32; 2 Chr. 31. 21. 

y^nn?] ' In respect </" condemning,' or, ' so as to condemn.' 7 of 
reference explains the action described by flDBtyi. 

1BWO 1D1T nn^] || 2 Chr. 6. 23. Elsewhere only in Ezek. 9. 10 ; 
11. 21; 16. 43; 22. 3it. Cf. 17. 19, and the kindred phrase 

"I^n-q injn n« '* ypm ch. 2. 44. 

33. ^"IS ^D/ ♦ . ♦ 5p3J"Q] Luc. kuI iv rw TTTala-ai top Xaov o~ov 
'laparjk ivoairiov crov Kai iTfaelu ivcomov ixBpiov avrcov, i. e. ^J^V ^HP??? 

yfc »asb &SJJ ^jab 5*n^. Very probably correct, the scribe's 
eye passing from yizb to *3S7. The idea that Yahwe smites Israel 
by the hand of a foreign nation is found in 1 Sam. 4. 3 UBM n£>7 
DW^S 9&S> DVH '*; cf. Judg. 20. 35. So Deut. 28. 25 *||3 ^ ~prv 

1? INDIT "^n] ' In case they shall sin against thee ' ; scarcely 
as RV. here and in v. 35, ' because they have sinned against thee.' 
Cf. ^.31 note. 

mm ybx Wl] LXX, Luc. agree with || 2 Chr. 6. 24 in omitting 
"p!?N, the meaning then being, 'and shall once more confess'; 
cf. v. 47 UJnnm DPI. But the phrase '* S>N 21P is very frequent ; 
cf. z>. 48; Deut. 30. 10; Hos. 5. 4; 7. 10; 14. 3; 1 Sam. 7. 3; 
Isa. 44. 22; at.; and ought not here to be rejected. A kindred 
phrase is '^y =MP; Deut. 4. 30; 30. 2 ; Hos. 14. 2 ; al. 

ybtt l^nnni] Here also ibn is omitted by LXX, Luc. General 
usage favours MT.; v. 47 (LXX, Luc. derjOaaiv aov) ; Deut. 3. 23 ; 
Job 8. 5 ; Ps. 30. 9 ; 142. 2 ; Gen. 42. 21 ; II. 1. 13. || 2 Chr. 6. 24 
yitb ; cf. v. 59 ; ch. 9. 3. pnnn is elsewhere followed by ?, but 
appears to be never used absolutely. 

34. "py] So Luc, Vulg., Targ. ; but LXX tov dovXov aov, i.e. 
^Jl^y, Pesh. .jvi.^jo u**iLkt either a doublet or in conformity 
with z;. 36. MT., which is agreeable to the phrase in v. 33, is to 
be retained. 

nnn^ nnj "ik>k] So w. 40, 48; cf. ch. 14. 15; II. 21. 8 (R D ); 

Deut. 26. 15 and the common phrase of Deut. WnS>K HliT "I6PK 

120 The First Book of Kings 

(1?) 13? jrf3 ; referring to the land or to portions of it; Deut. 1. 20, 
25; 2. 29; 3. 20; 4. 40; 5. 16; al. 

35. p3*B^] The form of the 3rd and 2nd pers. pi. of the imperf. 
with the so-called NUn paragogicum is not uncommon in Hebrew. 
Cf. this same verb, Isa. 35. 10; 51. 11; Jer. 44. 28; al.; pHDri 
Gen. 3. 3, 4; pwpj Deut. 33. 11 ; 2 Sam. 22. 39; al. This form 
is usual in Aram, and in class. Ar. ; fvt?l£, ycfNfca! neqt e lun, 
JjdJLcJ yaqtulUna. See Wright, Compar. Sem. Gramm. pp. 184, 
145, for the origin of the termination. In Hebrew the form is 
rather an affected than a real archaism, and is most common in 
elevated poetical style, or in pause as being heavier and more 

Dpyn VD] According to vocalization the only possible rendering 
is 'when thou shalt answer them,' Pesh. yaj/ Jjj^L ♦a, Targ. n« 
primes i^2pn ; but this is unsuitable. Hence it is better to follow 
LXX, Luc. oTav Taneu>(i)(rT]s avrovs, Vulg. propter afflictionem suam, 
and to vocalize E?.yn \D « when thou shalt humble them/ So Th., 
Kamp., Benz., Kit. Klo/s emendation DJttan *3, after 2 Chr. 7. 14, 
is unnecessary. 

36. H3 13^ l^s] ' In which they are to walk' or 'should walk.' 
For this nuance of the imperf. cf. Ex. 10. 26 '* DN my: no yiJ n5> 
HOP 13X1 IV ' We do not know how we are to serve Yahwe until 
we come thither.' Dri. Tenses, § 39 a. 

\hv\i> ♦ . . nnro] 'Gavest . . .for an inheritance '; so || 2 Chr. 6. 27; 
Deut. 29. 7; Josh. 11.23(D 2 ); 14. 13 (E recast by D 2 ) ; Ps. 136. 21; 
Num. 18. 21, 24 (P; in these verses the reference is to tithe, not to 
the land)\. So xbxxb .TH Josh. 14. 9, 14 (E recast by D 2 ); 24. 32 
(E); Ezek. 36. 12 ; 44. 28?. The usual phrase of Deuteronomy is 
r6m frtf; Deut. 4. 21 ; 15. 4; 19. 10; 20. 16; 21. 23; 24. 4; 25. 19; 
26. 1; Ps. 135. 12T. r6n:3 fJU occurs Num. 36. 2 (P)f; ni>ro3 phn 
Num. 26. 53 (P); Josh. 13. 7 (D 2 ); rbnil b*ti (^Sn) Josh. 13. 6; 
23. 4 (D 2 ); Num. 34. 2 (P); Judg. 18. 1; Ezek. 45. 1; 47. 

14, 22t. 

37. n\T *3 3y*»] This order — subject, conjunction, verb — serving 
to give slight emphasis to the subject, is common in P ; Lev. 1. 2 ; 

VIII. jj-j8 121 

2. i; 4.2; 5.1,4,15,21; 7.21; ah; Num. 5. 12; cf. Ezek. 3. 19; 
H.9,13; 18.5,18,21; 33.6. SoIsa.28.i8; Mic.5.4; Ps.62.n. 

i»Dn] A kind of locust; || 2 Chr. 6. 28; Ps. 78. 46; Joel 1. 4; 
2. 25 ; Isa. 33. 4t. This and the other words used to denote the 
locust, Sjri, Qva^ DTJ, pjj } and the ordinary H3"]K j cannot with any 
degree of certainty be distinguished as describing different species 
or stages of growth. A verb l?Dn occurs once ; n ?"1^7 13 Jtpn^ ' the 
locusts shall consume it/ Deut. 28. 38. In Aram. ?Dn means 'bring 
to an end'; so Targ., Jer. KDD3 ^Dm = Heb. *)D3n dFW; but most 
frequently, as in Syr., has gained the more special secondary sense 
'wean/ LXX, Luc, connecting S^Dn rQ"lK as one expression, 
render ipwri&n 'red blight.' 

V~W P^2] So || 2 Chr. 6. 28. The expression is very forced 
and unnatural, even if it can be regarded as giving any sense at all. 

LXX, Luc. iv fiia tcov iroh€<ov avrov, Pesh. « O 01 1^..U «Jso *jsD )+j+2> 

furnish the correct text, V}lj& ^#3, * in any of his gates/ a regular 
phrase of D; Deut. 15. 7; 16. 5; 17. 2; 23.17; cf.18. 6f. So Klo., 
Kamp., Benz., Kit., Oort. Th. emends l^y T\X\8Z ; but this is not 
the usual phrase, nor is it postulated by the renderings of LXX, 
Luc, Pesh. which very commonly represent D*Hy£> by noXcis, \+'j oo ; 
cf. Deut. 12. 17, 18, 21; 15. 7; 17. 2; al. 

'ft y« 5tt] Cf. '31 *b b ch. 6. 7 note. 

38. 'jn n^an ^3] The construction is somewhat involved, since 
n:nn 72 npan i>3 can scarcely be regarded as part of the category 
formed by the plagues mentioned in v. 37. Thus #.37 must be 
regarded as breaking off with an aposiopesis, and the apodosis 
'ft yDBTl nrifcO as answering to the protasis formed by the second 
and different category 'ai i"6sn ?2 ; ' Whatsoever prayer, &c, there 
be, or, If there be any prayer, &c . . . , then hear thou/ &c 

5>fcOB* "py W] LXX, Luc. omit correctly. The words are 
a gloss upon D^NH ?2?, to explain that this refers to Israel in 
contrast to ^"iDJn of v. 41. So Klo., Kamp., Benz., Kit. 

PJJT] So v. 43. Cf. v. 35 note. 

S2*h yjj] A rather obscure expression. The idea seems to be 
that each man will recognize in the case of his particular plague, 

122 The First Book of Kings 

be it famine, pestilence, or some other above enumerated, that it is 
sent by God as a punishment for his sin. So || 2 Chr. 6. 29 iy:j 
13N3D1. Klo., however, interprets yw, not as 'plague,' but as 
' Beriihrung,' 'the touching of his heart '; — ' Because God will through 
the misfortune awaken the humiliating consciousness of sin.' So 
apparently LXX, Luc. dcprjv Knpbias avrov. Cf. 1 Sam. 10. 26. 

39. vm btt Wt6 nnn] || 2 Chr. 6. 30; Jer. 17. 10; 32. 19; 
Ezek. 7. 9. 

40. <imm , , , D^n *?a] || 2 Chr. 6. 31 ; Deut. 4. 10; 12. 1 ; 
31. i3t. Cf. note on wn bl ch. 9. 3. 

'y\ nru new] i^<?/<? on ». 34. 

41. "niDJn •«] Dependent upon yfttrn nnN, z>. 43, as is noticed 
by Th. So apparently LXX, Luc. *<u t<o dWorpla . . . ko.\ ai> 


Vulg. et alienigena, Targ. pEOy ~Q je> seem to take the expression 
as a kind of casus pendens, ' as for the stranger/ a use of btf scarcely 
to be justified. Pesh. )u;j>cu ^o*. seems to mean ' on behalf of the 
stranger/ and supposes the ellipse of some such expression as 
\jS.2> ' I pray/ 

LXX, Luc. in | 2 Chr. 6. 32 read nds aAXorpio?, and Klo. 
accordingly emends ' r ]3:)rrp3 'jeder Fremdling/ 

'ft K3l] Deut. 29. 21 npim p«» K3* iew nMn. 

41. 42. mtwn ♦ ♦ . Nil] These fifteen words have fallen out 
in LXX, Luc. through homoioteleuton. For the second Nil 
reinforcing the first after the intervening words cf. ch. 2. 4 note. 

42. PPlBaa ijnn nptnn "IT n«] The two phrases occur in 
combination || 2 Chr. 6. 32 ; Deut. 4. 34 ; 5. 15 ; 7. 19 ; 11. 2; 26. 8 ; 
Jer. 21. 5 (different order); 32. 21 (^|K); Ezek. 20. 33, 34; Ps. 
136. I2f. nprn T alone, Deut. 3. 24 ; 6. 21 ; 7. 8 ; 9. 26 ; 34. 12 ; 
Ex. 3. 19; 6. 1; 32. 11 (all JE) ; 13. 9 (E) ; Num. 20. 20 (JE ; 
referring to Edom) ; Neh. 1. 10 ; Dan. 9. i5t. Cf. Josh. 4. 24 (D 2 ). 
iTUM yr»? alone, Deut. 9. 29; II. 17. 36; Jer. 27. 5; 32. 17; 
Ex. 6. 6 (P)f. 

43. y-\Kn voy 5>a] || 2 Chr. 6.33; vv. 53, 60; Deut. 28. 10; Josh. 

VIII. 39-46 I2 3 

4. 24 (D 2 ); Ezek. 31. 12; Zeph. 3. 20 are the only occurrences 
of the exact phrase. LXX, Luc. omit pNil. 

n ¥"!«: ] II 2 Chr. G. 33. A common phrase in Deut.; 4. 10 ; 5. 26 ; 
6. 24; 8. 6; 10. 12; 14. 23; 17. 19; 28.58; 31. 13 J Jer. 32. 39; 
Neh. 1. 11; Ps. 86. lit. 

Pirn n^n by topi *pGJ> 'O] ' That thy name is called over this 
house/ i. e. in token of ownership. The phrase is most clearly 
elucidated by 2 Sam. 12. 27, 28, where Joab, having taken Rab- 
bath-Ammon, sends to David that he may come and complete the 
capture, rvbv W NlpJl "Vyn nx *3K llbx |S ' lest / take the city, 
and my name be called over it,' as having the credit of its conquest. 

The phrase occurs besides : — as here, of the Temple || 2 Chr. 
6- 33 ; Jer. 7. 10, 11, 14, 30; 32. 34; 34. 15 ; of the chosen people 
Deut. 28. 10; Jer. 14. 9; Isa. 63. 19; 2 Chr. 7. 14; of Jerusalem 
Jer. 25. 29; of Jerusalem and the chosen people Dan. 9. 18, 19 ; 
of Jeremiah Jer. 15. 16; of the nations Am. 9. 12-f*. 

44. m;T b$] So Targ. niiT Dip. The other Verss. are different ; 
LXX, Luc. iv ovofxan Kvplov, Vulg. te, Pesh. U^ ua^ow) ; || 2 Chr. 
6. 34 (MT. and Verss.) y<$. Probably *pjK is original, and the 
MT. reading due to this having been read 'iT i?K. LXX seems 
to have had the reading of MT., and to have paraphrased in order 
to explain the transition from the second to the third person. 

"Vyn *]"n] ' In the direction of the city.' So #.48; || 2 Chr. 
6. 34. 38 ; ch. 18. 43 Qi "pi D2n 'look toward the sea/ Ezek. 8. 5 ; 
41. 12 ; #/. 

m mra "wt ~\ s yr\] Note on 0. 16. 
'ai rrani] C/i 3. 2 »a/*. 

45. DES^E rPB>yi] 'And wilt execute their right/ The exact 
phrase ('S DS^D nwy, with PlirP as subject) occurs only besides 
in v. 49 ; || 2 Chr. 6. 35,39; v. 59 ; Deut. 1 0. 1 8 ; Mic. 7. 9 ; Ps. 9. 5+. 

46. '31 pK 'O] Cf. Eccl. 7. 20 HW n^N ptO p^¥ pK DHK *3 
KBIT *6l 310. 

D3 nDJNl] LXX rather Curiously icai ena&is avrovs, Luc. kcu iav 
iirayayy? in avrovs. This latter may perhaps be explained by 
supposing an ellipse of opyfy. Cf. Ps. 7. 12, where DJff is rendered 

124 The First Book of Kings 

opyrjv (7rdya>v, Isa. 26. 21 eVayet ttjv opyrjv for \)]} *lpS/. Similarly 

LXX may be a corruption of endgeis avroh, the alteration being due 
to some one who supposed the sense intended by the Greek to be 
' lead them away and deliver them up/ &c. In LXX of || 2 Chr. 
6. 36 there is a further alteration — <a\ nard^is avrovs. Luc., however, 

renders Ka\ edv BvpcoOfjs eV avrovs. 

n^lN Vtb DnriJl] ' And thou set them before the foe,' i. e. deliver 
them over to his power and disposal. The other occurrences of 
the phrase in this sense are || 2 Chr. 6. 36; Deut. 1. 8, 21 ; 2. 31, 
33, 36; 7. 2, 23; 23. 15; 28. 7, 25; 31. 5; Josh. 10. 12; 11. 6 
(both D 2 ); Judg. 11. 9; Isa. 41. 2 f. 

47. nJ? bn 13 Wl] 'And shall bring back to their heart/ or as 
we should say, ' their mind/ So RV. ' shall bethink themselves.' 
|| 2 Chr. 6. 37; Deut. 4. 39; 30. 1 ; Isa. 44. 19; 46. 8 p!H>g); 
Lam. 3. 2 it. The verse is a reminiscence of Deut. 30. iff. 

DiTQC JHfcOJ LXX iv yfj fxerotKias avriov, Luc. tv rfj yrj rrjs 
neroiKeo-ias avriov agree with || 2 Chr. 6. 37 in reading B£$ T1??j 
which is probably correct. Cf. Jer. 30. io; 46. 27. 

'31 UNDn] Cf. Ps. 106. 6 ; Dan. 9. 15, both reminiscences of this 

ttiyrn IJNBn] Weak 1 co-ordinating two synonymous ideas. 
Cf. Isa.'l. 2 WDBfrl) tflha D^n ; i Sam. 12. 2; Deut. 2. 30; «/.; 
Dri. Tenses, §§ 131, 132. NDI"l, like dfiaprduav, means literally to 
miss the mark ; so Job 5. 24 Nttnn k5>1 70 mpDI 'And thou shalt 
visit thy pasture and shalt miss nothing'; and in Hiph'il, Judg. 
20. 16. my = Ar. c5^c bend; so Hiph. niyn »?a^ crooked (with obj. 
^"H Jer. 3. 21), i.e. ar/ perversely. yt5H, a more general word, 
# f / wickedly, perhaps has its origin in the notion of raising a tumult; 
Job 34. 29 WV '•Dl tDpB^ Kin; cf. Job 3. 17. 1W> asyndetos after 
the two previous verbs connected by 1 is a little harsh, and, following 
the suggestion of Ps. 106. 6, it seems preferable to reject the 1 before 
WW, and to read IWi Wiyn IJKBn. So LXX, Vulg., Targ. 
Pesh., on the other hand, inserts o before the last verb, **£*» 

^. ^ -Mo ^N^nojo. Luc, omitting inym, 'Hp-dpropev, r)vop,rjaap.ev. 

|| 2 Chr. 6. 37 uytni inyn HKttn. 

VIII. 41~5 2 I2 5 

48. o^sa baai . . ♦ ybx lien] Deut. 30. 10; II. 23. 25; cf. Jer. 

3. 10. On *» i>K ai^ cf. z>. 33 wA?y on 'jl DmS> &33 cf. r^. 2. 
3, 4 »<?/*. 

Dnx X2& ^BW] LXX, Luc. ov fjLerrjyayes avrovs possibly read nt^K 
Bn ,, 3^ ) but more probably render somewhat freely, as is the case 
with Vulg. ad quam captivi duett fuer int. 

XSrvt y\i] Note on v. 44. 

nnnj ib>k] Note on z>. 34. 
mm iew T»yn] iVo/* on p. 16. 
'ai n*am] iVJ?/<? on ^. 3. 2. 

49. DDSK>D , ♦ ♦ Dn^an n«] LXX, Luc. omit. The words are 
very probably a gloss from v. 45. In this former verse the phrase 
DDQ^D IWJrt, of vindicating Israel's right against the encroach- 
ments of their foes, is highly appropriate ; but in ». 49, where the 
captivity is regarded as a just penalty for sins committed, the force 
of the expression is scarcely so immediately apparent, the idea 

of a right and of concession granted through forgiveness (nn?D1 
v. 50) being somewhat incompatible. 

50. i •£ , , , l^vh] LXX, Luc. omit. The following words blbl 
DrPyt^S down to the close of v. 51 are not found in || 2 Chr. 6. 39. 

Wftrrb Dnmi] Neh. 1. n ; Ps. 106. 46 ; the latter being probably 
a reminiscence of our passage : cf. #.47 note on 'ai IJNDn. 

51. Dnvoo . . ♦ TH^PUI "]»y ^] Deut. 9. 26, 29. In application 
to the chosen people D5? and r6n3 appear as parallel terms; — Deut. 
32. 9; Isa. 47. 6; Joel 2.17; 4.2; Ps. 28. 9 ; 78.62,71; 94. 5, 14; 
106. 4, 5, 40. Cf. Mic. 7. 14. 

bnn "113] Deut. 4. 20; Jer. 11. 4t. The meaning of the phrase 
may be illustrated by Isa. 48. 10, yy "\m TTnnn 'I have tested 
thee in the furnace of affliction.' 

52. 'n nvr6] iW<? on z>. 29. II 2 Chr. 6. 40 jo w *h!>k nny 
nm Dip»n n^£>n5> nntrp tow ninna yyy . Similarly LXX, Luc. 

in our passage insert Ka\ ra Zrd <rov, i. e. TJtyi , after y^y. This 
is probably a gloss due to the idea of the unsuitability of eyes only 
being open to a supplication. The words of 2 Chr. are probably 
no older than the Chronicler, if we may judge by the use of 3$i2 

126 The First Book of Kings 

which appears to be a late form; 2 Chr. 7. 15; Ps. 130. 2f; n?$3 
Neh. 1. 6, nt. 

t!>K &N">P bn] Deut. 4. 7t 1^« fciO^aa. For the constr. cf. 
Gen. 30. 41 |*fcn drjrfcga; 1 Chr. 23. 31 rrtffc ni%t bb}. 

53. 'ai randan nnx *a] Cf. Lev. 20. 24, 26 (H) aaviiw mrr *:k 
D^Dyn p DanK Tihnn "w; ^ ni\"6 d^yn p nans ^iaw. 

nbna^] Cf. Deut. 4. 20 n^TO byb )b tWrb. Israel is styled Yahwe's 
r6m also in II. 21. 14 (R D2 ); Jer. 12.7,8,9; Mic. 7. 18; Isa. 19. 25: 
see further the cases given on v. 51. in^rti ^3PI Deut. 3.2. 9; Bas? 
ir6m Jer. 10. 16; 51. 19; Ps. 74. 2 ("]r6ro V); Isa. 63. 17 
("JD^rti s t?a$). The /#«</ of Israel is named the rbr\3 of Yahwe 
in Jer. 2. 7; 16. 18; 50. 11 ; Ps. 68. 10; 79. 1; cf. 2 Sam. 20. 19; 
21. 3; Ex. 15. 17 (-\rbru in; E). 

pxn *>vy ba»] iY 7 ^ on 0. 43. 

mai l^xa] C/$. 5. 26 note. 

n^D Ta] ' By the hand of Moses,' i. e. by his agency. The 
idiom is very frequent of a word of Yahwe delivered through 
the agency of a prophet; — ch. 12. 15 ; 14. 18; 15. 29; 16. 7, 12, 34; 
17.i6; II. 9. 36; IO.10; 14.25; 17.13,23;; 24.2; 
i Sam. 28. 15, 17 ; al. 

54. 'y\ VB31] 'With his hands spread forth &c.'; a circumstantial 
clause, giving further detail as to Solomon's attitude whilst kneeling. 
Cf. v. 22. 

55. ?na b)\>] Accus. of closer specification, defining the manner 
of the action described by *p:n. Cf. Ps. 3. 5 NipK '< b\t *fyp; 
142. 2. Ew. § 279^. 

56. myb nnuo fro "»pn] Cf. Deut. 12. 9 b$ nny ny ansa vb 
nnwDn; Ps. 95. n *nnu» ^n paa 11 dn. 

nan "ibw i>aa] C^. 5. 26 w/*. 

nn« -»ai ^Di n5>] So Josh. 21. 43 ; 23. 14 (both D 2 ); cf. II. 10. 10. 
The use of the Hiph'il is similar: 'suffer to falV (though not of 
Yahwe's words) 1 Sam. 3. 19; Est. 6. 10. 

57. IJVrPK m.T] So vv. 59, 61, 65; II. 18. 22 ; 19. 19; *]\"li>K '" 
ch. 1. 17; 2. 3 (R D ); 10. 9; 13. 6, 21; 17. 12; 18. 10; Dav6tf '* 
II. 17. 39 ; 23. 21 (both R D ). The phrases UV&M '*» T n ^ '' ( most 

VIIL j)-6o 127 

frequent), BpTCK '"■ are very characteristic of Deuteronomy, occurring 
more than three hundred times. In D 2 of Joshua there are four 
occurrences of yrb$ \ twenty-seven occurrences of D3T17K '* 
Elsewhere in Hexateuch : — J, E, JE IJVPN '* nine times, viz. Ex 
3.i8; 5.3; 8.22,23; 10.25,26; Josh. 18. 6; 24.17,24; yrb» /{ 
twelve times, viz. Gen. 27. 20; Ex. 15. 26 (D?); 20. 2, 5, 7, 10, 12 
23. 19; 32. 4, 8; 34. 24, 26; D3v6k '* six times, viz. Ex. 8. 24 
10. 8, 16, 17; 23. 25; Josh. 4. 5 : P OT^K '1 three times, viz 
Ex. 8. 6; Josh. 22. 19, 29; M\17K '* seven times, viz. Num. 10. 9 
and in the phrase Mv6k '* 'JN Ex. 6. 7; 16. 12; Lev. 11. 44 
Num. 10. 10 ; 15. 41 (twice): H DDv6n "» twice, viz. Lev. 23. 28, 40 
D3\"6n '* *0K twenty-one times, viz. Lev. 18. 2, 4, 30; 19. 2, 3, 4 
10, 25, 31, 34, 36; 20.7, 24; 23. 22,43; 24. 22; 25. 17,38,55 
26. 1, 13. In other books the phrases occur here and there, but 
not 120 times in all. Cf. Dri. Deut. lxxix. 

58. vS>K 13nn^ ltt&r&] Cf. Josh. 24. 23 b (perhaps added to E 
by D 2 ). 

'ai -t»u6i vo-n bn n^S>] C& 2. 3, 4 »<?&. 

VBBtPDl] LXX, Luc. omit, probably through oversight. With 
MT. cf. Deut. 26. 17 ; 30. 16, where precisely the same enumeration 
is made. 

59. M"ip . . ♦ nm ViW] Contrast Ps. 22. 2 nil TWB pim 

ItDJ? DDWi] So Luc, Vulg., Pesh., Targ. LXX omits through 

1EV2 DV "Q*l] Lit. ' matter of a day in its day '; so RV. ' as every 
day shall require.' The idiom is not infrequent, being used e. g. 
of the daily allowance of Jehoiachin at the court of the king of 
Babylon, II. 25. 30 (|| Jer. 52. 34); and of that of Daniel and his 
friends, Dan. 1. 5 ; of the manna gathered by the people, Ex. 16. 4 ; 
or again of the daily burden imposed by the Egyptian task-masters, 
Ex. 5. 13, 19. 

60. ';i njn \nxk\ Cf. Josh. 4. 24 (D 2 ). On y\xn W b cf. 
v. 43 note. 

my pK DV&Kil Kin '•» "O] Deut. 4. 35, 39. Cf. also the exclamation 

128 The First Book of Kings 

of the populace upon the issue of the trial between Elijah and the 
false prophets, ch. 18. 39. 

61. 'ai d$>b> Dm:£ nvn] Cf.^.11.4; 15.3, 14 (all R D ). LXX, 

Luc., Vulg. suggest W33p for D3237 ; probably an alteration sug- 
gested by the following IJV17N. 
UV^K '*] iW<? on 0. 57. 

'ai roW>] CA 2. 3, 4 /w/<?. 
nrn ova] CA 3. 6 «<?/*. 

62. HIPP *0D,>] Luc. hoimov Kvplov tov Qeov, perhaps under the 
influence of W\"6k '* v. 57. 

63. *£«♦.. |N¥l] LXX omits. 

64. DWtPn "Qpn ns] ' The fat or choice portions of the peace- 
offerings.' So Lev. 6. 5 ; 2 Chr. 29. 35 ; cf. Gen. 4. 4 UN*¥ nrD30 
fiWnEI ' of the firstlings of his flock and of their fat pieces! The 
slight variations of LXX, Luc. in the enumeration of the sacrifices 
are due to error in transmission of the Greek text. 

65. wrm nyi] The phrase is that of R D . Cf. ch. 14. 1 note. In 
Deuteronomy W?}r\ DV2 is of frequent occurrence in the retrospects, 
when events more or less contemporaneous are co-ordinated by 
the writer; 1.9,16,18; 2.34; 3.4,8,12,18,21,23; 4.14; 5.5; 
9. 20 ; 10. 1, 8. Possibly also Sinn DV2 v. 64* may mark the hand 
of R D , though this phrase is not so characteristic. Inch. 13. 3; 
16. 16 ; 22. 35; II. 3. 6 the expression is quite as likely to be part 
of the old narrative. On nr\n nwi R D cf. II. 10. 32. 

3nrf| 'The Feast'; i. e. probably the Feast of Tabernacles as the 
most important festival of the year; cf. Neh. 8. 14; v. 2 note. 

f V\ nEn N1X>E>] The whole kingdom from extreme north to 
extreme south. Jeroboam II is said to have restored the kingdom 
of Israel nmyn d* ly nron anta II. 14. 25; cf. Am. 6. 14. k\J? 
lit. l at the entry of; HDH web Num. 13. 21 ; 34. 8; Josh. 13. 5; 
Judg. 3. 3 ; 1 Chr. 13. 5 ; Ezek. 47. 20 ; 48. 1 ; .TJirtt? X)J? 1 Chr. 
5. 9; &n*D nu!> 2 Chr. 26. 8; HtlS Kn5> Ezek. 47. 15. On 
DHVO bn:, the Wady el-Arish, cf. ch. 5. 1 note. 

OTlta '"»] Note on v. 57. After this LXX, Luc. have the words 
iv t<£ oiKco a) cpKodofiTjaev, icrdicov Ka\ nlvav /cat cvcppaiv6fj.cvos (Luc. adds 

vm: 6i—ix. 1 129 

ml alva>v) ivamou Kvplov 6cov rjn&v, i.e. according to Klo. "Wto T\)22 
^*n$g ? ^zb ^ntt nofcn TtiQW) b& HJ|; so substantially Th., Benz., 
Oort. These words have the ring of genuineness, and may easily 
have been omitted in MT. through homoioteleuton. 

DV ♦ . . njDE>] LXX has here simply inra wcpas, i. e. tW T\V2U, 
the remaining words DP « » « ny3Pl being omitted. The manner 
in which the next verse continues, 'jl VDB71 DV3, LXX, Luc. 
Ka\ iv rfi fjfiepa k.t.X., establishes the genuineness of the shorter 
D*D 1 njn£>, and points to the conclusion that the remainder of the 
sentence is an insertion in accordance with 2 Chr. 7. 9, probably 
due to R p . So Th., Klo., Kamp., Benz., Kit., Oort. 

66. DV3] LXX, Luc, Pesh., Vulg. correctly presuppose Di*? 5 !. 
The omission of the 1 was made when the gloss was added at the 
end of the previous verse. 

■"ji>Dn n« 13"Q^] LXX kg\ (vXdy^o-ev airov, l and they blessed him,' 
i. e. the king, as in MT. The plural verb with Dyn as subj. is 
rendered in LXX by sing., as e.g. in ch. 1. 39, 40; 12. 30; al. 
Luc, however, taking ko\ elXoyrjarev airov in the sense ' and he 
blessed z'// i. e. the people, makes the addition <a\ euXoyrjaav teal avroi 
top fiao-tXea, and thus exhibits a double rendering. 

3^> *31tt! D^nDtr] So Est. 5. 9. J? *y\l2 has the meaning cheerful 
or merry; Prov. 15. 15 TEH nnBPD 3? nitO 'the merry-hearted has 
a continual feast.' Cf. Judg. 16. 25 Q're D3^ 3iD3 \T1 ; Eccl. 9. 7 
"p" 3113 J?2 «W; and the verbal phrase 'a 3^> 3t^ 'one's heart 
is cheerful/ ch. 21. 7; Judg. 18. 20; 19. 6, 9; Ruth 3. 7. IttD 
(3^) 33!? 'cheerfulness of heart/ Deut. 28. 47; Isa. 65. 14. 

9. 1-9. Solomon s Second Vision. 

Ch. 9. 1-9 = 2 Chr. 7. 12-22. 

1-9. This account is coloured throughout by the spirit of 
Deuteronomy, and, owing to the terms in which it speaks of the 
exile of Israel and the destruction of the Temple (vv. 7-9 ; cf. 
emendation in v. 8), is regarded by Kue., Wellh., Sta., Kamp., Benz., 
Kit. as the work of R D2 in exilic times. 

Such a conclusion, however, is by no means inevitable. The 


130 The First Book of Kings 

expression of v. 3 '31 DPiy IV DC "W D1C? goes quite as far to 
prove a pre-exilic position, as do the words of vv. 6-9 to argue 
a post-exilic point of view ; nor are the terms of these latter verses 
so definite as to forbid the opinion that they were penned by R D in 
the reign of Josiah; cf. note on ch. 8. 46-49 under vv. 14-66 note. 
If vv. 7-9 do imply an exilic standpoint, vv. 6-9 (and not the whole 
section) will belong to R D2 , vv. 1-5 to R D . 

1. f y\ pan 1CN 'C pen bl nx] 'All the pleasure of Solomon 
which he wished to do/ The substantive pen only occurs again 
Isa. 21. 4 '•jpt^n f)C3 'the twilight of my pleasure/ and in v. 19, 
|| 2 Chr. 8. 6, with the cognate verb, 'jl Di:ai? pen ^CN 'C pen n«. 
Pesh., Targ., which render in v. 1 l-^i? ^p-w^M oU "* r> i °^° 
.1 NviN, "Xiyxh *jnnw HE^e myi b m, and similarly in 0. 19, 
appear therefore in the former verse, as in the latter, to have read 
pen for }*sn 5 probably correctly. LXX, Luc. *at naa-au rfjif npay- 
parciav 2. 6aa rjOeXrjo-ev noirja-ai ; Vulg. paraphrastically, £/ 0#/?Z£ quod 
optaverat et voluerat facere. 

3. 'ai in^nn nw in^Dn nx] The expressions of R D in cfc 8 ; 

cf. VV. 33, 38, 54 j 0^« LXX r^f (fxiivrjs rr/s irpoaev^s aov k.t.A., 

i. e. '31 "jn^sn HpTlK ; but Luc, Vulg., Pesh., Targ. as MT. 
After issb nn^nnn LXX, Luc. add (Luc. Ibov) ire-noi^Ka (LXX 

(Tol\ Kara naa-av rf)V 7rpoa(v\T]v aov, i. e. ^f •?^''9? ^"^V *"'-'•' » so 

Th., Klo., Oort. The words are probably genuine; cf. ch. 3. 12 

ynani vw nan. 

Tl^lpn] 'I have hallowed,' referring to the previous manifestation 
of Yahwe's glory in the house, ch. 8. 10 ; or else a perfect of 
certitude referring to time really future, as in English we might 
say ' I hallow/ For this latter explanation cf. Dri. Tenses, § 13. 

DC W Qwb] So ch. 11. 36; 14. 21 ; II. 21. 4, 7 (referring to 
I. 9. 3) all R D . Cf. DC W nvr6 ^. 8. 16 w/*. In Deuteronomy 
the ordinary phrase is DC IDC J3cS> 'to cause his name to dwell 
there'; 12. 11 ; 14. 23 ; 16. 2, 6, 11 ; 26. 2. DC IDC DIC^ only 
in 12. 5, 21 ; 14. 24. 

DC *nh wy 1\T)] In response to ch. 8. 29, 52. 

DW1 ^3] c All the days/ i.e. 'continually/ as a parallel to 

IX. i-6 131 

thy iy. So ch. 11. 36, 39; II. 8. 19; 17. 37 (all R D ). The 
phrase is very characteristic of Deut., occurring 4. 40 ; 5. 26 ; 6. 24 ; 
11. 1 ; 14.23; 18 -5; 19. 9; 28. 29, 33; cf. also Josh. 4. 24 (D 2 ); 

1 Sam. 2. 32, 35 (Deut. redactor); Jer. 31. 35 ; 32. 39; 33. 18; 
35. 19. Thus the expression used absolutely appears to be purely 
Deuteronomic. In Deut. 4. 10 ; 12. 1 ; 31. 13 ; ch. 8. 40 it is defined 
and to some extent limited by the added words D"n (on) DHN "1BW 
niDTNii by. Upon D^DM fes used in a strictly limited sense of the 
lifetime of an individual (non-Deut.) cf. ch. 5. 15 note. 

4. vsb i?n n«] CA. 2. 4 «<?/«?. 
in ^n two] CA. 3. 14 «<?#. 

3n^ Dm] Gen. 20. 5, 6 (E); Ps. 78. 72; 101. at. 

TTPItf] LXX, Luc. (V€T€iKd[jLr}v avrS, referring the clause to David. 
Probably a later correction. 

ipn] LXX, Luc, Vulg., Pesh., || 2 Chr. 7. 17 read *gffi correctly. 
So Th., Klo., Kamp., Benz., Kit. 

"i»B>n "de^ei "pn] £>&• 2. 3. 4 «<>/<?. 

5. ^ro^DD KDa] Deut. 17. 18; 2 Sam. 7. 13 (Deut. redactor); 

2 Chr. 23. 2ot; cf. Hag. 2. 22. Elsewhere rD*5np HDD (once; 
ch. 1. 46), (D'oSt?) D^BTj ND3, niD^p KDD. 

in i>y "mm TWO] ' As I spake concerning David/ So <r^. 2. 4 
*6y "im TW«. Several Codd., however, read T1T 5>K ' *«/0 David/ 
and this is also suggested by LXX, Luc, Vulg., Pesh., Targ. 

'ai my fc6] C£. 2. 4 «<?/*. 

6. nrWD . . . fttBT) 3W OK] Cf. Num. 14. 43 ; 32. 15 (both JE); 
Josh. 22. 16, 18, 23, 29 (P.?); 1 Sam. 15. n ; Jer. 3. 19. 

'31 ttmo rwn «h] C£. 2. 3, 4 »<?/<?. 

DD^ai' Tin: TW<] Cf. Jer. 9. 12 ; 26. 4 (referring to THin); 44. 10 

(^nprai wwo). 

tsh . . ♦ Dna^m] So exactly || 2 Chr. 7. 19 ; Josh. 23. 16 (D 2 ); 
cf. Deut. 11. 16; 17. 3. The phrase nnpiN DTl^K 13V occurs also 
Deut. 7. 4; 13. 7, 14; 28. 36, 64; Jer. 16. 13; Judg. 10. 13 (Deut. 
compiler) ; Josh. 24. 2, 16 (E) ; 1 Sam. 8. 8 ; 26. 19 ; cf. Jer. 44. 3. 
D"nnN DwM with lay, not preceding as governing verb, but closely 
following with suffix in reference, is found v. 9 (|| 2 Chr. 7. 22); 

k 2 

132 The First Book of Kings 

II. 17.35; Deut. 8. 19; 13. 3; 28. 14; 30. 17; 31. 20; Jer. 11. 10; 
13. 10; 16. 11 ; 22. 9; 25. 6; 35. 15; Judg. 2. 19 (Deut. compiler). 
DnnN D\T^>K without Tiy :— 0$. 11. 4, 10; 14. 9; II. 17. 7, 37, 38; 
22. 17 (|| 2 Chr. 34. 25)allR D ; II. 5. 17; Deut. 5. 7 ; 6. 14; 11. 28; 
18. 20; 31. 18; Jer. 1. 16; 7. 6, 9, 18; 19. 4, 13; 32. 29; 44. 5, 
8,15; Judg. 2. 12, 17 (Deut. compiler); Ex. 20. 3 (E) ; 23. 13 (J); 
Hos. 3. 1; 2 Chr. 28. 25-h 

7. nnb Tin: TBW] Cf. note on ch. 8. 34. 

»3B i?yD r£jW] Cf. Jer. 15. 1 *«£] VSrhyQ nW (reference to 

m dyn). 

nawh 5wi>] So || 2 Chr. 7. 20; Deut. 28. 37 ; Jer. 24. 9, these 
being all the occurrences of nj W. ?CO thus used denotes a proverb 
or byword used in mockery, n:"0£> a pointed, witty, or spiteful 
saying, the speech and its object being in both cases identified. 
hv-D alone in this sense Ps. 44. 15; 69. 12 ; Ezek. 14. 8 (D^fD?). 

8. \vbv n\T Htn rvam] This can only mean 'And this house 
shall be most high/ and we cannot, with RV., force the language 
and render ' And though this house be so high.' || 2 Chr, 7. 2 1 
\xbv HTI TEW Din ryani is an obvious correction. LXX supports 
MT. <a\ 6 oIkos ovtos eorai 6 ux/^Xoy, and this in Luc, for the sake 
of gaining some sort of sense, has been altered into kq\ 6 oikos ovtos 

6 v\^r)\6s, earai k.t.X. 

Pesh., however, in reading o^* 'desolate' in place of Jlvy, 
suggests an original D^y DTP nm num ( And this house shall 
be ruinous heaps! This, as giving excellent sense and supposing 
merely a small corruption in the MT., may reasonably be regarded 
as the true text: cf. Mic. 3. 12 .Tnn py D^ITT (]»y for assonance 

with JVtf), II J er - 2G - l8 (°"y); Ps - 79 - I (D^)- Targ. pT.T NrV21 
:mn 'if "b^y nim appears to embody a double rendering ; but 
Th.. Klo., Kamp. suppose that it represents the original text : — 
P$£ n .>7' P\^ n ;? "f*$ nj.T n^ni. Such a text, however, would 
imply that the Chronicler copied \vhv n\T T£>k from Kings before 
textual corruption set in; and in this case, why did he not also 
transcribe pyp n\T which must have existed in his MS. of Kings ? 
Or are we to suppose that he did copy these words, and that 

IX. 7-io i33 

subsequently through coincidence this reference to ]")} disappeared 
both from Kings and Chronicles ? 

Vulg. Et domus haec erit in exemplum is a paraphrase of which 
it is impossible to determine the precise original. 

'31 vbv "Hy 5>3] Cf. Jer. 18. 16 (reference to the land of Israel); 
19. 8 (Jerusalem); 49. 17 (Edom); 50. 13 (Babylon); Zeph. 2. 15 
(Nineveh). Similar also is Lam. 2. 15. 

'y\ riDMl] For this question put by the heathen from outside, 
together with its answer in v. 9, cf. Deut. 29. 23-27; Jer. 22. 8f. 

9. D^inN D\"6n3 IpWl] The phrase occurs only here and in 
|| 2 Chr. 7. 22. Deut. above quoted has DnriK fi\"6tf rayi ttW 
or6 unn^i; Jer. Dram Dnrw &nbvh unncn. 

9. 10 — 10. 29. Further details of Solomon's magnifice?ice and 

wisdom. :• 

Chh. 9. 10— 10. 29 = 2 Chr. 8. 1 — 9. 24,27, 28. 2 Chr. 1. 14-17. 

Mainly a series of short notices drawn from the same sources 
as chh. 4 — 5. 14. The originals appear to have been cut up and 
pieced together with no great skill ; but whether the arrangement 
throughout is due to R D , or later hands have employed themselves 
in altering the sequence of the account, it is impossible to determine. 
In LXX, Luc. the arrangement is somewhat different, but scarcely 
superior, to that of MT. ; v. 2 4 a (W for *j« ; add Dnn D?Oja after 
rb), vv. 10-14 (om. nspD \T1 v. io a ), vv. 26-28 (v. 26 a being con- 
nected on to v. 14 by addition of the words \m*p ov after km vavv—± 
a later device), ch. 10. 1-22 ; ch. 9. 15, 17^-22 ; ch. 10. 23-25 ; v. 26 
combined with ch. 5. 6 ; ch. 5. i a ; ch. 10. 27-29. 

One single original document appears to be represented by 
ch. 9. 10, 17, 18, 19, 15. 20, 21, 22, 23, and these verses may very 
well have originally taken this order, the completion of Solomon's 
building operations being first narrated, and then followed by ah 
account of the forced levy raised to carry out these works. After 
v. 23 there probably followed in the original a list of the names of 
the D'QMfl HB\ The statement of v. 24 b , connected by R D to 
v. 2 4 a by TN (ch. 3. 16 note), is probably from the same document. 

134 The First Book of Kings 

Next to the account of the king's building activity — his most 
important work, there would naturally follow mention of his 
achievement next in importance — the provision of an efficient 
shipping for the increase of his wealth from external sources. 
This succeeds in ch. 9. 26-28; ch. 10. 11. But reference to the 
ships naturally leads up to mention of the imports introduced 
by their means, as we see in ch. 9. 28; ch. 10. 11, and the use 
to which these rare and valuable materials were put. Thus there 
follows ch. 10. 12, 14-22. The general subject of imports suggests 
allusion to a specially important item — horses from Egypt (or 
Musri), apparently first introduced into the kingdom of Solomon 
in any considerable numbers: — ch. 10. 26 (with ch. 5. 6; see note 
on 4. 20 — 5. 14), 28, 29. 

Thus the disturbing factors introduced into this main account 
are seen to be ch. 9. 11-13, 14, 16, 24*, 25; ch. 10. 1-10, 13, 23-25, 
27. Notice in ch. 9. 11, 16, 24 the awkward pluperfects pointed 
by the order — subj., verb, obj., V nx N^J "i¥ "]S>D D1TI, "]ta 7i)n2 
'ai nhy D^SD, 'n nnby njna m >*, and marking the passages 
as mere excerpts from sources which in describing a regular 
sequence of events must have read XrPT\ $&?], njDD 7V1)., T)2 7yni 
7iy\%. In v. u b '31 \W TN cannot represent the apodosis of v. 10, 
since TS used in this connexion in place of 1 consec. would be quite 
without analogy (cf. ch. 8. 1 note). Moreover, even if v. 1 1^ could 
form the apodosis, the parenthesis v. n a would come in with very 
great awkwardness. Verse 16 has already been discussed [note on 
4. 20 — 5. 14), and together with ch. 3. 1 has been seen to fall into 
its proper position after #.14 of ch. 5. From the same source 
would seem to be derived v. 24 a , while v. 25, though clearly alien 
to its immediate context, cannot definitely be assigned to any 
special source. Ch. 10. 1-10, 13 is an ancient narrative introduced 
at this point to illustrate Solomon's wealth and wisdom, much in 
the same way as ch. 3. 16-28 serves to depict his discernment 
in judgement; and the two stories may very possibly be derived 
from the same source. Finally, vv. 23-25, 27 of ch. 10, couched 
in vague and generalizing statement, are probably relatively late 

IX. ii-ij 135 

in origin, and are here introduced to give the finishing touch 
to the picture of Solomon's prosperity. 

11. NBO] For NtW 2 Sam. 5. 12. On the confusion of verbs 
K"i> and n"b cf. note on ch. 17. 14. 

'Jl |IV T«] On the use of TK as employed by R D cf. ch. 3. 16 
«0/<?. In place of this notice we find in the parallel account 
2 Chr. 8. 1, 2 the statement that Hiram gave Solomon certain 
cities, and that Solomon built these and settled Israelite inhabitants 
in them ; an explanation of the transaction probably grounded 
upon objection to the idea that Solomon parted with any portion 
of his territory. Jos. {Ant. viii. 5, § 3) states that when Hiram had 
inspected the cities and found them displeasing, he sent word 
to Solomon that he did not need them. 

•vjn px] ' Land of the circuit ' or ' district] the title applied 
to a region in Naphtali on the north border of the kingdom of 
Israel, and adjoining Hiram's dominions. Cf. Josh. 20. 7 ; 21. 32 ; 
1 Chr. 6. 61, where B^iJ is mentioned as belonging to this district. 
In Isa. 8. 23 the phrase E^l 1 **?| ' district of the nations ' is applied 
to the land of Zebulon and Naphtali, and would seem to imply that 
the population was for the most part non-Israelitish. njv|n Ezek. 
47. 8t; Tfbfy Josh. 13. 2 (DTtt^an ':); 18. 17; 22. 10, n (pTn ':); 
Joel 4. 4t, are used more generally as geographical terms. 

13. ?133 px] The name is obviously regarded as employed 
to express Hiram's dissatisfaction with the cities. Thus Ew.'s 
explanation is probably correct, that the name is connected with 
?3 + 3 ' like nothing] so 'good for nothing/ 'worthless/ This does 
not embody a true etymology, but is intended for a witty play 
of words suggested by similarity of sound; cf. Gen. 11. 9 b33 
connected with bbl as if for 5^3 ; Mic. 1. 10-15 Vrafi-^K DS3 

play upon na — n:i 3 Ti^snn -icy nns^ n-33, wzb — v^b, 

3J3K — 3>t3K, nunn — Bh*n ; a L Jos. {Ant. viii. 5, § 3) explains 

liedfpfirjvfvofxevov yap to XafiaXcw Kara Qoivacw y\£>TTav } l ovk apeaKov ' 

o-rjpaivei, a statement which seems to have no further foundation 
than the inference to be drawn from v. i2 b . LXX, Luc. in 
interpreting "opiov, must have read ^133. Talm., Shabbath, 54 b , 

136 The First Book of Kings 

gives the fanciful derivation SflDI spM j^llilDP CT1K *33 H3 1W 

1 (A land) in which men dwelt who were bound with silver and 
gold (fetters)/ No modern interpretation commends itself. 

7133 is mentioned, Josh. 19. 37, as one of the towns assigned 
to Asher; and Jos. {Vit. 42-44) speaks of Xa/3o)X<o in the district 
of Ptolemais forty stadia west of Jotaparta. The town is identified 
by Rob. {BR. iii. 88) with the modern Kabtil. Thus it may be 
supposed that the name of one of the twenty cities was given 
by Hiram to the whole district. 

nrn nvn ny] Cf. ch. 8. 8 ?wte. 

15. r6yn n^N DDn] Ch. 5. 27 note. 

tffen] Part of the fortifications of the city of David, existing 
in the old Jebusite city (2 Sam. 5. 9 ; || 1 Chr. 11.8), and mentioned, 
as here, in connexion with the walling up of the breaches of the 
city {ch. 11. 27), and the repair of the wall and towers by Hezekiah 
(2 Chr. 32. 5). Joash is said to have been murdered at N?E> JV3 
(II. 12. 21), but it is not clear whether this was at Jerusalem; 
and in Judg. 9. 6, 20 a &07D h % 3 is mentioned in connexion with 
the city of Shechem. 

The word is usually connected with the root N?D be filled, and 
interpreted as meaning something which fills or banks up (a Pi'el 
form causat. of Qal), and thus an earthwork. So Targ. renders 
NJVT'ft, this word being elsewhere used to translate Hebrew 7O?0 ; 

2 Sam. 20. 15 xmp by Nn^D ravi = vyn iw nbbo 13BEW ; II. 19. 32; 
Jer. 32. 24; at. Cf. also Talm. N^lft ' filled-up ground or mound,' 
Baba bathra, 54 a N^'U3 *W\ wh^O b*\>& 'If one takes earth from 
the mound and throws it on the low ground/ This derivation 
cannot, however, be regarded as certain. The word may, as 
Moore {fudg.9.6) suggests, be Canaanite in origin; and it seems 
reasonable to suppose that the Millo was not a simple earthwork, 
but rather a massive fortress or tower built into that part of the 
city wall where such a protection was specially needed. So LXX, 
Luc. render f] aicpa. &3^ ?TI1D, Judg. 9. 46, may thus perhaps be 
identical with Nli?» JV3 of 9. 6, 20. 

"&n] A chief city of North Canaan belonging to King Jabin, and 

IX. ij-i7 137 

captured and burnt by Joshua (Josh. 11. i, 10; al.). The city was 
not far from the waters of Merom, the modern lake of Huleh 
(Josh. 11. 5), and was afterwards assigned to the tribe of Naphtali 
(Josh. 19. 36). In Judg. 4 a second Jabin king of Hazor is 
mentioned as oppressing Israel, and as conquered by Deborah and 
Barak. The site is not well ascertained. Buhl {Geogr. 236) 
finds the name preserved in the modern name of the valley 
Merj-el-Hadire, S.S.W. of Kedes (Bh|J Josh. 19. 37), on the N. side 
of the Wadi 'Auba which runs into the lake of Huleh. Cf. also 
Baed. 297. 

rUO] Ch. 4. 12 note. 

"IW] A town on the border of Ephraim assigned by Joshua as 
a Levitical city (Josh. 16. 3 ; 21. 21). Horam king of Gezer came 
to the assistance of Lachish against Joshua, but was defeated and 
his army utterly destroyed by the Israelites (Josh. 10. 33). The 
city of Gezer, however, held out against the invader, and seems 
to have remained in the hands of its Canaanite (and Perizzite, LXX) 
inhabitants until the days of Solomon (Josh. 16. 10). The site 
of Gezer has been discovered by M. Clermont-Ganneau in the 
modern Tell-Jezer about eighteen miles W.N.W. of Jerusalem. On 
this and on the inscription "ittDnn, i. e. probably ' the boundary of 
Gezer/ which confirms the authenticity of the site, cf. PEF. 1873, 
78/!/ 1875,74/"./ Hastings, BD. s. v. ; Smith, Hist. Geogr. 215 ff. 

16. E^n?^] 'A dowry' given when the wife is 'sent away' from 
the home of her parents; cf. Mic. 1. 14, and the use of the verb 
nk> Gen. 24. 59. 

17. pnnn pn n^] Also ftonnn jmn rvn || 2 Chr. 8. 5 ; so called 

in distinction from (\xhv) fl\!>JJn |TOn JV2 1 Chr. 7. 24; al. pin TV3 
without closer specification also occurs : Josh. 10. 10, n ; 18. 14 ; al. 
In Josh. 10. 10, 11, LXX reads 'Sipoavdv i.e. D?pn * the two Horons * ; 
so 2 Sam. 13. 34 i< rrjs obov rrjs 'Qpwpfjv stands in place of the corrupt 
•mriN THO, and is adopted by Wellh., Dri., Budde. Elsewhere 
(Isa. 15. 5 ; al.) DTin is a Moabite city. The two Beth-horons 
were upon the boundary line of Ephraim (Josh. 16. 3, 5), and the 
pass running between them was the scene of Joshua's pursuit of 

138 The First Book of Kings 

the five Amorite kings who made a combined attack upon Gibeon 
(Josh. 10. 10, 11). In modern times they have been with certainty 
identified, the lower with Beit ur et-tahta, the upper with Beit ur 
el-foqa, the former being about one mile north-west of the latter, 
which is some three or four miles north-west of Gibeon, — el-Jib. 
See Rob. BR. iii. 250/, PEF. Mem. iii. 86. 

18. n^Vl] || 2 Chr. 8. 6. Mentioned Josh. 19. 44t as a city 
assigned to Dan. The conjectural site is BeVain about two and 
a-half miles north of Beit'Ur et-tahta. PEF. Mem. ii. 296. 

"fo.ri] Q're "to*]??, i.e. Palmyra the modern Tudmur, is supported 
by all Verss. *, and by || 2 Chr. 8. 4 (so all Verss.). The other 
towns, however, mentioned vv. 17, 18 are all in South Palestine, 
and in Ezek. 47. 19; 48. 28 we have a lOW cited as being in the 
extreme south of the land — njo^n 333 ntfB. Thus in spite of 
|| 2 Chr., which connects Solomon's building of Tadmor with 
a successful campaign against Hamath-zobah, Kt. in our passage 
seems to deserve the preference. So Bo., Th., Kamp., Benz., 
Kit.; Smith, Hist. Geogr. 270 note 2, 580 note 2. 

pX3 13TD3] 'In the wilderness in the land'; a vague and 
pointless statement. pN3 cannot be intended to distinguish the 
city from another of the s.ime name outside the land, for in such 
a case a closer definition of the locality would be expected. Vulg. 
in terra solitudinis, Pesh. Ji^^j )^»)o? suggest "^"IDn p.K3 
' in the desert country.' The phrase "Q*1E> pN3 occurs only in the 
poetical passage Deut. 32. 10 and in Prov. 21. 19, but might reason- 
ably be used in plain prose. Targ. follows MT., while LXX, Luc. 
(ch. 10. 23) omit. Very probably pN3 is the corruption of some 
place-name. So Bo. H x ? n ?1P? ; plausible, but rather far towards 
the south. Kit HW fJKip "lflB3. Perles (Analekten zur Textkritik 
des A.T., 22), following Eichhorn, regards pX3 as a contraction 
'X '"W3 of nrrii? D*1N3 5 upon the view that Q're imn is correct, 
and comparing 2 Chr. 8. 3, 4. 

19. '31 pBTl nw] Cf. v. 1 note. 

1 LXX 'Ie0(pnd9, i.e. "rain n«, 1 being misread i. The passage in LXX 
occurs ch. 10. 23. 

IX. l8-22 I39 

20. 21. DH^l , ♦ ♦ Dyn 73] This form of rajw.r pendens, where 
a substantive is reinforced by the pronominal suffix of a following 
substantive, is idiomatic and frequent. 1 Sam. 2. 10 te'HO ^0]! IWfl ; 
Gen. 17. 15 bob? n« . ♦ . -jn^K *ntf; 34. 8 IK'S: . . ♦ D3B>. Cf. other 
instances in Dri. Tenses, § 197, 2. 

21. D/]M . . . r»rtt "1BW DiT03] The predicate introduced by 
1 consecutive after the preceding accusativus pendens DJT03 ; a rather 
uncommon construction. 12. 17 iTW ^JQ B»atS»n bmw *J3l 

pyam nn^y ■jiw; <r/£. 15. 13 rrrcuo men iok roy» n« wr; 

II. 16. 14; Dri. Tenses, § 127 #. 

^DJrDp] <A forced levy of bondmen.' 12V is sing, collective. 
So Gen. 49. 15; Josh. 16. iot. 

nrn nvn *iy] Cf. ^. 8. 8 »<?/<?. 

22. 'jl btinW *33D»] But cf. the statement of r^. 5. 27, and see 
r/j. 4. 6 #0/.?. 

VB*?B>] A word of unknown meaning and derivation. LXX 
which here omits (Cod. A, Luc. rpia-aoi) elsewhere usually renders 
TpicrTdTT]s, a term to which Origen on Ex. 14. 7 gives as one 
explanation among others the meaning, one of three warriors in 

a chariot / E/p ras \peias tccv wokejuav appara inoiovv pcyd\a } a>s kcu 

rpcls x a) P f lv ' ** ° P* p € * s h vll> xfii °* ^ ^° no\tfi&<nv. So Greg. Nyss. ; 
cf. the more precise rendering of LXX in Ex. 15. 4 dpafidras 
TpiaTaTas. This explanation, which appears to depend upon the 
context of Ex. 14. 7, has been adopted by some moderns, but is 
purely conjectural, and is rightly opposed by Dillmann, who points 
out that the ancient chariot as figured on the monuments has 
usually but two occupants — the driver and the fighting man, and 
that only kings and the highest officers would have had in addition 
a third man as shield-bearer. It may be added that in accordance 
with Ex. 14. 7 1?3"?8 &By$^ third man could not describe a spare 
man acting as armour-bearer, but would denote the most important 
occupant of the chariot, viz. the combatant. This meaning, how- 
ever, is opposed to the use of the word of an officer immediately 
attendant upon a king, whether in a chariot (II. 9. 25) or elsewhere 
(II. 7. 2, 17, 19; 15. 25). 

140 The First Book of Kings 

Derivation thus failing, the most that can be said is that, judging 
from the context of our passage ('# next to DD"i ^">E>) II. 9. 25 ; 10. 25 
(D^vE^ coupled with D s ¥l ' foot-runners ' as though in contra- 
distinction) ; Ex. 14. 7, D^w may have been a class of warriors 
usually connected with chariots ; but it is with wisdom that AV., 
RV. ' captains ' agree with Vulg. duces, Pesh. woto^i^, Targ. 
WQy in rendering by a very general term. 

23. niND fclDITI DWWl] LXX (section following ch. 2. 35) gives 
the number as rp^Is yCkiahzs ko\ (%o.k6<tioi, Luc. rpets ^tXtaSts nai 
(nraKoatoi — probably an arbitrary alteration of the translator with 
the view of bringing the number into correspondence with that of 
ch. 5. 30 with which our verse is closely parallel in wording. The 
other Verss. support MT. 550. 

Possibly after the completion of the Temple and Palace the 
number of the D'OVJil *nt? may have been greatly diminished, and 
in any case it is easier to believe that the exact parallelism of the 
Greek translator is a change for the sake of conformity, than that 
vice versa the alteration was made in MT. for no apparent reason. 
|| 2 Chr. 8. 10 gives the number as D^nKEI D'OTn, a variation 
explained by Kennicott as a misreading T\ for T\ ; but such 
a method of notation in early OT. MSS. is highly improbable. 
CL ch. 6. 1 note. 

24. *]S] Very difficult. Th. explains 'As soon as . . . then he 
built, &c.' *]N has here a restrictive sense only or scarcely, and the 
meaning as soon as is determined by the following TN which marks 
the point of time immediately following that denoted by nnpy *}N . 
But the case is scarcely parallel to the only two examples which can 
be compared, Gen. 27. 30 N3 vnK WW . . . 3pW NV Ktf 1«, and 

Judg. 7. 19 nnawa iypm fanoiwi n« wpn npr\ ^n, for in both 

these passages great stress is laid upon the very immediate sequence 
in time of the two events described, and to suppose the existence 
of a similar stress in our passage would be absurd. Moreover, the 
back reference of TN to *JN is opposed to the characteristic usage 
of this former particle in Kings — its employment with merely vague 
reference to the period which is being described, and without 

IX. 2)-2J I4I 

distinct attachment to any definite point of time (ch. 3. 16 note), 
And further, the change of subject implied in run, without mention 
of the new subject tlv?®, is very strange. Thus some slight 
corruption of the text may reasonably be supposed. 

Vulg., Pesh., Targ. seem to agree with MT., except for the 
addition of TVcbw after H33 in Vulg., Pesh. — probably a translator's 
addition made for the sake of lucidity. LXX, Luc. offer two 
renderings — the first in the insertion following ch. 2.35, the second 
in immediate sequence to ch. 9. 9. The former translation exactly 
follows MT., except for reading outoh, i. e. probably |3, in place 
of *]X. The latter rendering is somewhat different : — Tore dvrjyayev 

2uX(Ofioiu ttjv Bvyarepa Qapaco e/c noXcas Aavud els qikov avrov bu 

oJ/coSo/x^o-fi/ avT<io iv rals rjfxepais £k€ivms. This agrees closely with 
the MT. of II 2 Chr. 8. 11; and supposing the LXX translator 
to have inserted tot* upon his own responsibility or through 
a misreading TK for JIM, and also to have read nrP3, TO for H^PS, r\b, 
we may believe the original text of our passage to have been 

Dnn D'W r)b run -\m nfi«H>K w -vyo rii&v nbvn njna na-nKi. 

•• x • t- t tt v -: t •• v »t • •• : if:v :~ V: 

This emendation removes all difficulties above noticed. The "JN 
of MT. will thus be a scribe's error for Htfl due to the occurrence of 
the same two letters in rDK?D3 the word immediately preceding ; 
and further, it is possible that n?ynjPQ may have been copied by 
mistake for rpynnjPS, and that later on a second scribe, perceiving 
that rby must thus refer to njps na, may have altered it into the 
feminine nivy. 

25. n^yni] l Used to offer ; ' frequentative. 

'i i)Eb "KPN in« "Wpffl] Scarcely original. The curious fr)K 
cannot be used in place of 1yV and refer to the altar (Pesh., Targ., 
Ges.), nor can we believe (Ew., Th.) that it refers to Solomon ; — 
' He would offer incense by himself (without the intervention of 
another) 1 . LXX, Luc. (after ch. 2. 35) altogether omit the words 
■WN in«, and seem simply to have read m.T *)sb -VDprV). So Oort. 

1 Th. cites Gen. 39. 6; Isa. 44. 24 for this use of ifn, and regards "lirtf as 
a mistaken insertion. 

142 The First Book of Kings 

Klo. ingeniously suggests * ^D? tefeTTlK "PDpm ' and would burn 
his fire- offering before Yahwe ' — a very plausible emendation. 

iron DK vbwi] RV. 'So he finished the house/ and so all 
Verss. ; — LXX, Luc. km. o-vi/em'Aeo-ei/ t6v oucov, Vulg. perfectumque est 
temphwi, Pesh. )1^=^ cnsaN^o, Targ. Wl % 3 n" 1 D^l . It is impossible, 
however, to explain why the perfect with 1 consecutive should be thus 
used, as though the fact narrated were in due sequence to the 
preceding frequentatives TDpm « . ♦ rpyin ; and moreover such 
a statement is out of place in this connexion, where events are being 
recorded which must have taken place only after the completion 
and consecration of the building. Hence Ew. renders ' and he 
would take leave of {say farewell to) the house '; Th. ' and he would 
completely furnish the house,' i. e. provide upon each occasion of 
his visits that all the requirements of the Temple and its services 
should be fully met. Neither of these translations can be justified 
by analogy ; and it seems not improbable that the letters 13?Wi are 
a mistaken repetition of DTOCi in the earlier part of the verse, and 
nun DK a later addition to form a complete sentence intended 
to convey the meaning given by the Verss. 

26. m?N ns new] 'Which is near Eloth'; an idiomatic use of 
the preposition in definition of locality. Cf. II. 9. 27 ma il7]ftD3 
iflhy DS n^N; Judg. 3. 19; 4. 11; Ezek. 43. 8. For the similar 
use of By see ch. 1 . 9 note. 

28. nn^yi niXD 5Dn«] LXX Uarbv elWi is unsupported by 
Luc. and the other Verss., all of which agree with MT. 

10. 1. rttiT DB^] 'Through the name of Yahwe'; lit. l at the 
name/ The meaning is that the fame of Yahwe's name led to 
the diffusion of a report concerning the wise and prosperous king 
who enjoyed His favour and protection ; and this is in full accordance 
with the prominence which the queen in this story assigns to Yahwe 
as the chooser and supporter of Solomon (v. 9). The phrase '* DBv 
occurs elsewhere Josh. 9. 9; Isa. 60. 9; Jer. 3. 17-r, and the 
nuance of the preposition is closely similar to that in the expression 
bpb ' at the sound of ; Jer. 10. 13 DW2 D s » ptDH inn b)pb ; 1 1. 16 ; 
51.i6; Ezek. 27. 28; Hab. 3. 16; Ps. 42. 8; Job 21. 12. Cf. also 

IX. 26— X. j 143 

Ps. 18. 45 ^ 1JW }TN ywb 'At the hearing of the ear they shall 
obey me ' ; Job 42. 5. 

There is thus no need to have recourse to the emendation of 
Klo:, Kamp., Benz., Kit., mr?" D^ W| "VfK Wan S^TTW 'and 
the report of the house which he had built to the name of Yahwe.' 
LXX, Luc. Ka\ to wofia Kvpiuv, Pesh. Ujja? o»_ , so.a,o are probably 
merely loose renderings, and do not presuppose &x\, in place of 
which, as Th. points out, we should rightly expect WTHKI. 

DITTl] RV. ' hard questions ' is perhaps the best rendering ; 
cf. Prov. 1. 6 DrTPITl D*oan ^Tf. The word here denotes something 
less trivial than the mere riddle of Samson, Judg. 14. 12 ff., but, 
on the other hand, has not advanced to the later sense of a perplex- 
ing question of ethics or morals, Ps. 49. 5; 78. 2. 

2. i"Q3i> Dy] Ch. 8. 17 note. 

5. 1TWD *ivyi2) VH39 3P1D] ' The «V/«>^ of his servants and 
the attendance of his ministers.' For lioyo in this sense cf. the 
phrase "0D? 1EJJ used of service; ch. 1. 2 tw/!?. This explanation 
alone suits the context. The whole of v. 5 down to VpOTi refers 
to Solomon's magnificent display at his banquets. VUy are his 
courtiers and ITD^D his waiters, and naturally in this connexion 
DTCQ7D their gorgeous robes call for special notice. On the other 
hand, Th/s explanation of 2W)D, 1DJ7D as substantives of place, 
denoting the dwellings or quarters of Solomon's servants, is quite 
alien to the context. It is impossible to think that the mere 
dwellings of the king's servants should be singled out either for 
their magnificence or number as exciting the queen's admiration, 
while no special mention is made of the impression left upon her 
by the sight of the Palace, the Temple, and the Lebanon house. 
The mention also of the garments and the cup-bearers is upon 
this interpretation deprived of significance. 

There is no difficulty in assigning to these substantives with 10 
preformative a signification other than that of place. The Arabic 
nouns of this form (nomina vasts) are used of place or time, and 
e. g. (jlls:* ' the place where, or time when, several persons sit, room, 
assembly, party 1 (Wright, i. 221) may aptly be quoted in this special 

144 The First Book of Kings 

connexion. So in Hebrew we may cf. e. g. ttB^'O, ^p®, where, as 
with 3B>1B, IJOyD, the idea of lime or //tfff 0/" a <r/z'0« seems to have 
passed further into definition of the action itself, 

Vp&TDl] Pesh. adds .o^oAo i. e. a repetition of the previous 
DiW37D1 ; an unnecessary redundancy. 

mrp ]V3 thy* "1BW in^jn] ' And his burnt-offering which he used 
to offer at the house of Yahwe.' Here it is still the large scale of 
the king's doings, rather than his buildings, which forms the writer's 
theme. So all Verss. both here and in || 2 Chr. 9. 4, RV. marg., 
Th., Klo., Kamp., Kit. || 2 Chr. reads i^lvV, doubtless intending to 
convey the sense 'the ascent by which he used to go up to the 
house of Yahwe ' ; and this rendering is adopted by RV., 
Ke., Ew. 

nn 1)V H3 HVl N?] ' There was no more spirit in her ' ; i. e. 
Solomon's display of wisdom and magnificence deprived her of all 
courage to attempt further to compete with him. The nuance of 
ITD is like that in the English expression ' a woman of spirit' and 
may be partly paralleled by the use of the term in ch. 21. 5; 
Gen. 45. 27 and the phrases nn rattXj Isa. 54. 6, DTI Kft Ps. 34. 19. 
The common explanation following LXX, Luc. <a\. e£ eavrrjs cyevero, 
1 she was beside herself (with astonishfnent),' misses the precise 

6. "inn iffll DDK] * Truth was the saying/ The abstract 
substantive used in place of an adjective; cf. ch. 2. 13 note, and 
Dri. Tenses, § 189, 2. The order of words is highly emphatic; 
Tenses, § 208. 

7. ^nn V Tin iO~\ LXX ovk elo~\v (Luc. can Kara) to rjfxicrv Ka6ws 

dnrjyyeiKdv jxoi, merely a somewhat paraphrastic rendering of the 
same text. In place of "OTl ||2 Chr. 9. 6 has ^jQ??*? JV2n» *Jtn t 

/ i) J12Din] LXX, Luc. izpoareOeiKas ayaBa npos (LXX avTa em) 
•nacrav rr\v aKorjv tjv rJK0V0~a iv rfj yfj fiov, i. e. njftC^n"v3~?K 31D flDDld 

>r)K2t <nyw f«. Probably correct. 

riD3n seems to be the addition of a later precisionist, and is 
really covered by 31D which includes everything which makes for 
prosperity. The repetition of '•¥"1X3 (from v. 6) is not out of place. 

X. 6-i2 145 

LXX irpbs avTa eVi iraaav k. t. X. probably arises from repetition 
of iw read first as Bn\?K. || 2 Chr. TlJW "IBW PIWBBM i?N nSD\ 

8. *p^K] LXX, Luc, Pesh. presuppose ^BO ' thy zwzw V so in 
|| 2 Chr. 9. 7 Luc. (Pesh. omits). Adopted by Bo., Klo., Kamp., 
Benz., Kit., Oort. correctly. T»^K by the side of yxX9 is 
redundant, and, as Klo. suggests, may be a later alteration in view 
of the facts of ch. 11. 1-3. 

9. Dxyb] LXX (TTrjaai els top ala>va, Luc. rov o-Trjaai avrbv €is rbv 

alS>va agree with || 2 Chr. 9. 8 cbSvb iTDgnb. This addition, 
which is almost indispensable, may be adopted. Klo.'s emendation 
D^yrrpStt is not to be preferred. 

11. D*a»S>N •>¥$;] So v. 12 1. CDU^K ^y 2 Chr. 2. 7 ; 9. 10, nf. 
The tree is usually thought to be the red sandal-wood (Plerocarpus 
santalinus) which is very heavy, fine grained, and of a brilliant red 
colour, and is said still to be highly esteemed in the east for the 
construction of lyres and other musical instruments. The meaning 
and derivation of the word are, however, quite uncertain : Hastings, 

BD. i. 63; Tristram, 332 \ LXX gv\a 7reXeK77T-a (Luc. aTrcXeKrjra), 
Vulg. ligna thyina, Pesh. Jlam^j ko&Io (explained by lexx. as 
a scented and variegated wood, sandal-wood), Targ. K'WDpX W. 

12. lyoti] 'A support' or 'supports,' i.e. upon the easiest 
interpretation, pilasters or light buttresses ; so LXX, Luc. vTrocmipiy- 
nara, Vulg. fulcra. The substantive only occurs here, and || 2 Chr. 
9. 1 1 reads fiwi?, perhaps ' terraces ' or ' verandahs,' an explanation 
which Th. seeks to fit also to IJJDE. This rendering, however, 
like that of Pesh. Jkw^l 'ornamentation,' Ke., Ew. 'balusters' or 
'balustrade,' Bo., Klo. 'furniture,' depends merely upon conjecture. 

'31 p N2 iO] ' There came not thus (i. e. in such quantity and of 
such excellence) almug trees,' and so, by accommodation to Eng. 
idiom, 'there came not such almug trees.' Cf. Ex. 10. 14 K? I^fi/ 
lniED raiN p n*n ' before them there were no such locusts as they.' 

1 The latest discussion is that by Cheyne (Expository Times, July, 1898, 
pp. 470 ff.) } who cites Assyr. elamm&ku, a tree used by Sennacherib in build- 
ing his palaces. 


146 The First Book of Kings 

After D'OD^K in v. i2 b LXX, Luc. add eVt t?js y9js, i.e. H¥0 *^» 
perhaps correctly. Cf. || 2 Chr. 9. 11 .Tll.T pK3 D^ Dro ifcro «h. 

nrn dim iv] Ch. 8. 8 ;^a?. 

13. frti i"ift7£> *]tani] Upon the emphatic position of the subject, 
in antithesis to v. io a \ cf. <r/z. 5. 25 note. 

"pftH T3] 'According to the king's hand,' i.e. his 'bounty! 
So Est. 1. 7; 2. i8t. || 2 Chr. 9. 12 reads ^N rwnn "»K>K nn^D 
ntan for which Ber. emends itan p6 wan nc>K lata. 

T • " 

15. Dnnn nMKD iai>] Very difficult. Supposing Dnnn ^N 
to denote ' men of the merchants ' (though Tin spy out, investigate 
has nowhere else the sense of trading, and the phrase 'nn HWM 
is peculiar), we still seek allusion, not to the traders themselves, 
but to the revenue which they produced. Thus RV., going further 
than MT. warrants, renders ' Beside that which the chapmen 

brought' J LXX, LuC. \a>p\s twv (popcov tcov vnoTeraypevov, Targ. "Q 

K^DW "OKD suggest ? . . « tfjVB *!?!> « beside the </#//« &c. 2 ' ; cf. 
II. 23. 33 where fc?3'y is rendered $6pov by Luc; 2 Chr. 36. 3 ^Vl\ 
LXX, Luc. Koi air@a\ev $6 P ov. So Bo. D^nn #}Jtt nab, Th. *13*> 
P^Tjn HSbgg; but DWn 'the subject people' is not to be 
paralleled. The best and easiest emendation, though independent 
of any Vers., is that suggested by Kamp. for the whole half-verse 
D^rin nnDD N3 nBtaD laj) ' beside that which came from the 
traffic of the merchants.' 

niyn "ota S>a] RV. 'all the kings ot the mingled people! LXX, 
Luc. TravT&v twv l3a<Ti\€cov rov (Luc ra>v iv t&>) nepav, i. e. ^^pD ?3 
^V.^}', Vulg. omnes reges Arabiae ; Pesh. ^-^^? |oN.>o ,00^,00, 
so || 2 Chr. 9. 14 n-Ji? *ajfflr^ai; Targ. Knil3E1D >J?to bll 'and all 
the kings of the allied peoples.' These aTyn *app are mentioned 
Jer. 25. 24 as "ifltaa tMatfn, and in connexion with l"}g ^^? 
'all the kings of Arabia/ In Jer. 25. 20 anjfiTva are cited together 
with fWn jn« ^Erba, and in Ezek. 30. 5 a»] an^rrbai *vb] WW SFS3. 

1 Verse 12 must have originally followed immediately upon z\ 10; cf. note 
on ^A. 9. 10 — ch. 10. 29. 

2 Perhaps Vulg. is a paraphrase of the same : Excepto eo, quod afferebant 
viri, qui super vectigalia crant. 

X. ij-ij 147 

In Jer. 50. 37 they appear as the mercenaries of the king of Babylon. 
Hence it may be inferred that these were kings or sheiks of the 
mixed nomad tribes of SE. Arabia who came more or less under 
Solomon's power and so were subject to tribute. 

In Ex. 12. 38 21 21$ <a great mixed multitude* is mentioned as 
coming up out of Egypt with Israel, and in Neh. 1 3. 3 2"}$T? 3 ' all 
the mixed multitude' is separated from the returned exiles by 
Nehemiah ; but the connexion of these with 2?.^rt is not clear. 

pKH mnai] mns 'viceroys' or 'governors.' The view that 
these are identical with the D'aVJ of ch. 4. 7-19 (Th. ; Ber. on 
|| 2 Chr. 9. 14) is opposed by the close connexion with the foreign 
Siyn "ota. More probably the reference is to petty vassal-princes 
who were allowed to retain a nominal suzerainty at the price of 
an annual tribute: cf. the inscription (1. 12) in which Panammu 
is termed "HN^ TIKI TlQ 'viceroy and neighbour-king of Ya'di,' 
appointed by ' his lord the king of Asshur ' (Lidzbarski, Nordsemit. 
Epigr. 443). Elsewhere in OT. the title is used of military 
commanders under the Aramaean Hadadezer ch. 20. 24 note, and 
the Assyrian Sennacherib II. 18. 24 note, ||Isa. 36. 9, of governors 
under the Babylonian king, Jer. 51. 23, 57, the king of Media, 
Jer. 51. 28, and the Assyrian (and Chaldean) Ezek. 23. 6, 12, 23 ; 
but with far the greatest frequency of governors of provinces 
appointed by the Persian monarchs, e.g. of Zerubbabel, Hag. 1. 
1, 14; 2. 2, 21; Nehemiah, Neh. 5. 14, 18; 12. 26; the governors 
generally ' beyond the River,' Neh. 2. 7, 9, &c. 

Many critics, regarding nnD as a Persian word connected with 
Sanskrit paksha or pakkha, friend or ally, are obliged therefore 
to consider the occurrences in Kings as late interpolations (cf. 
especially Giesebrecht, ZATW. i. 233). Against this Schrader 
argues with force, citing the use of the term in Assyr. pahal, 
pi. pahdti, viceroy, and abstract pihat, satrapy in the Khorsabad 
inscription of the time of Sargon (b. c. 722-705), two centuries 
before the Persian era, and maintaining the purely Semitic character 
of the word: COT. i. 175/ 

The feminine termination of nna pi, rrinQ is perhaps to be 

L 2 

148 The First Book of Kings 

explained as used with a term denoting office, as in Ar. dJLlb. 
'viceroy/ liLii. ' creator/ al.; cf. G-K. § 122 r 1 . 

16. BW inr T\Ti DTlXD] 'Two hundred targets— beaten gold/ 
2HT standing in explanatory apposition to nj¥, and defining the 
class to which it belongs. So in v. 17 Bint? 2nr D"0:» niND cfel, 
3HT D^D n^. Cf. Dri. Tenses, §§ 186-188. 

D1!"ID* nnt] Only in this connexion; v. 17 || 2 Chr. 9. 15, i6t 2 . 
' Beaten gold/ RV., Bo., Ke., Th., Ber., Klo., Kamp., Dn^ meaning 
strike or <foz/ down. So LXX, Luc. ^p^ "" «Xara. The other Verss. 
.give the sense 'fine or pure gold ' ; — Vulg. de auro purissi'mo, Pesh. 
kuixo Joc»?j, Targ. N2B K3rm. The explanation 'alloyed gold/ 
Ges., Winer, obtained from Ar. k^ </;/#/£ zc/>z<? zw'//$ water, cannot 
be maintained. 

by n^y] Lit. 'went up upon,' describing the laying of the gold 
plating upon the (wooden) framework or foundation. The Imperf. 
describes the norm which characterized each shield of the class. 

18. TS1E nnr] Probably, as RV., al. 'finest or purest gold.' 
So LXX, Luc. xP v(r ' L( ? SoKifjLco, Targ. N3U K31TT, || 2 Chr. 9.17 
"nriD 3HT. The verb occurs only here, but the substantive TQ nine 
times. Identification with Ar. ^iJ break, separate, on the view that 
this may be used of separating the gold from the ore (Ges.), seems 
to be precarious. Pesh., Arab, presuppose "VSiKD 2HT 'gold from 
Ophir'; so Pesh., Targ. in Jer. 10. 9 T31X)0 SPIT, and many moderns 
in Dan. 10. 5 TS^K DDD. Vulg. aurofulvo nimis. 

21. npVft] 'Drink'; so Lev. 11. 34. 

"MD] Ch. 6. 20 note. 

3BT0 N7 f|D3 px] Scarcely, as the accents suggest, and as 
rendered by LXX, Luc, Vulg. ' There was no silver, it was not 
accounted of; but rather a negation strengthened by duplication 
of the negative, ' silver was not accounted of at all! Such a 
duplication is found in Zeph. 2. 2 D3^y NU" 1 vh D1D2 ' before there 

1 The meaning and use of the term nVnp is too uncertain to permit of its being 
cited as a parallel. 

2 In Jer. 9. 7 Kt. TDPrittJ yn 'a destroying arrow' is to be preferred; see 
Graf, ad loc. 

X. l6-22 I49 

come upon you/ and in the phrase pN y|Pl|, II. 1. 3, 6, 16 hlXX\ 
5>iWa &rbx pK; Ex. 14. 11. Cf. Ew. § 323. Pesh. J) J^xxxso 
loot amu* omits one negative, thus agreeing with || 2 Chr. 9. 20 
which is without to. 

22. 5Wtfl ^H] 'A fleet of Tarshish'; i.e. a fleet consisting of ships 
such as were used by the Phoenicians for communication with their 
distant colony at Tartessus in Spain. || 2 Chr. 9. 2 1 makes Tarshish 

the destination of the ships, n-nn nny tiV swin nia^PI itai> nv:« *3 

(so 2 Chr. 20. 36, 37), but that this is incorrect is shown by mention 
of the cargo of the ships — products of the East, and by the reference 
in ch. 22. 49 to Jehoshaphat's fleet or ship (see note ad loc.) of 
Tarshish which was stationed at Ezion Geber on the Aelanitic gulf 
in order to go to Ophir. Cf. ch. 9. 26-28 where the allusion is 
doubtless to one and the same fleet of Solomon 1 . 

MTW] Cod. A 2 , Vulg., Targ., and in || 2 Chr. 9. 21, LXX, 
Luc. render ' elephants' teeth '; Pesh. in both places Jils ' elephants ' ; 
Vulg. in Chr. ebur. Elsewhere ' ivory ' is always \W alone, or with 
the generic art. ftfn ; and it is generally thought that some foreign 
word meaning 'elephants' is here represented by B 1 ??. So Ges., 
Ben regard the word as a contraction of D*3ftCn, and compare 
Sanskrit ibha = ' elephant/ Or Mfl is thought to be a corruption 
of T&\}, pit being the Persian name for the elephant which has 
thence passed into Ar. and Aram. Assyr. sin-ni pi-ri denotes 
' teeth of elephants/ In Ezek. 27. 15 there is mention of \& mnp 
D'OUn'l 'horns of ivory and ebony* (O^in = Egypt, heben, Gk. tftevos, 
Lat. hebenum), and Bo., Th., following Rodiger and reading in our 
passage Q*3H \W as two words, explain ' ivory {and) ebony,' regarding 
Mil as a contraction or corruption of D*X3ft. 

Cap] Pesh., Targ. transliterate ; Cod. A, and in 2 Qhr. LXX, 
Luc. ttiOtikcov, Vulg. simias. The word is doubtless foreign, and 
the rendering ' apes' is generally adopted, upon comparison of 

1 Sayce {Expository Times, Jan. 1902, p. 179) argues for identification of 
umnn with Tarsus in Cilicia. 

2 The rendering of LXX, LucAtflcui' Topevrwv ml neXaerjTwv (Luc.aTrekcrcfjTcw), 
for the whole D^m D'Epi DUM3W, is obscure. 

150 The First Book of Kings 

Sanskrit and Malabar kapi, from whence comes the Greek ktj(3os, 
Kelpos, ktjttos, a species of long-tailed monkey. 

D^an] Cod. A racoj/coi/, Vulg. pavos, Pesh. Ux>&£, Targ. pDVlB, 
i. e. 'peacocks '; \\ 2 Chr. Luc. tcx^h, LXX omits. Another foreign 
word. The Tamil or Malabar name for the peacock is togai or 
thogai, and ^n may represent this, with interchange of the back- 
palatals g, k. So most moderns. 

23. )>-\K7\ ^D] LXX omits yixn. With MT. cf. ch. 5. 14. 

24. pNH 5>3l] LXX, Luc, Pesh. presuppose pNH *J?D by\; so 
j| 2 Chr. 9. 23 probably rightly. 

25. P|D3 v3] LXX, Luc. omit, perhaps in view of v. 2i b . 

pEO] Elsewhere (eight times) the word always denotes 'arms' 
or ' armour I and this is the meaning here given by Vulg., Pesh., 
Targ. So RV., Bo., Th., Klo., Kamp., Kit. The mention of armour 
follows not inappropriately after T\\rhw 'raiment.' LXX, Luc. 
render o-ra/cr^, ' oil of myrrh or cinnamon/ and this is favoured by 
Ew., Ber. who compare Ar. J-Jio 'breathe in an odour through the 
nostrils.' For this, however, regular interchange of consonants 
would require p'W2. Possibly LXX was influenced in its rendering 
by the following D'Wa fjddcruaTa. 

26. 231 ♦ ♦ ♦ v W] In place of this statement LXX reads kcu 

rjaav tco 2a\a>fxoiv Tecrcrapes )(tXui8(s Br'jXfiai ittttol els apuara^ Luc. 
kcu rjaav tu> 2o\ouu>vti rcaaapaKovra ^tXtaSes imrcov BrjXeiwv els uppara 

tov tUtuv, i. e. ch. 5. 6 a with mistaken rendering of the rare word 
niiS. The following words of ch. 10. 26 and ch. 5. 6 b are identical ; 
tfBHB *)ta "TO DW1. 2 Chr. 9. 25* = ch. 5.6; 2 Chr. 1. I4 a = 
<7/. 10. 36 a ; 2 Chr. 9. 25 b =2 Chr. 1. i4 h =ch. 10. 26K Thus 
(as is testified by the partial combination of the two Kings' passages 
in LXX, Luc, and 2 Chr. 9. 25) the original account, which was pro- 
perly incorporated in ch. 10 (see note on ch. 9. \o-ch. 10. 2 9), probably 
ran as follows :— D^N T$S% nrf«3$ W D^*)D1 ID"! nbStf ^bjM 

• v v t t ••: v v •• - :~ : 'v v • ;- t ::• : 

ttAtfrWl *fen Djn nnn "nyn nrw D^shs. Here the smaller 

. t t • 'v v - • : v v t "t : •• • — • TT 

number 4,000 is adopted in accordance with LXX and ||2 Chr. 9. 25. 
The mention of the number of chariots is not found in LXX, Luc, 

X. 23-28 151 

but is agreeable to the reference to the 23"in 'HJJ which follows. 
fcC 1 ^-! of || 2 Chr. in place of Bro*n has the support of all Verss. 

27. PJD2H ns] Before these words LXX, Luc. insert to xpvviov 
Kal — a later and unwarranted insertion. 

tbwi\ Always (except Josh. 11. 16 tirbzf with suff.) with 
def. art. •' the Lowland,' i. e. the tract of low hills or e downs ' lying 
between the maritime plain of Philistia and the mountain-country 
of Judah, and separated from the latter ' by a series of valleys, both 
wide and narrow, which run all the way from Ajalon to Beer-sheba.' 
Cf. Smith, Geogr. ch. x. 

28. 'y\ K¥1El] It may be regarded as certain that a place- 
name underlies the obscure rnpD. So LXX, Luc. i< eenode, for 
which Field cites a variant £k K«a. Eusebius (Onom.) Ka>5, 
7tXt}o-Iov Alyvnrov is rendered by Jerome Coa, quae est juxia 
Aegyptum, and so Vulg. translates mpD de Coa. Lenormant 
{Les origines de Vhistoire, iii. 9) was the first to make identification 
with Kue, i.e. the plain of Cilicia. The same discovery was inde- 
pendently arrived at by Winckler (Alt test. Uniersuchungen, i6Sff.; 
cf. Altoriental. Forschungen, i. 28) together with its complement, 
viz. that D"HSD does not in our passage denote Egypt, but the 
North Syrian land of Musri, south of the Taurus, which often 
figures in Assyrian inscriptions. The horse, which was unknown 
in Egypt before B.C. 1 700-1500, can scarcely ever have been 
bred in sufficient numbers for wholesale exportation, while the 
pastures of N. Syria and Cilicia must have been eminently suited 
for breeding upon a large scale. With this agrees the statement 
of Ezek. 27. 14 that Israel derived horses, chargers, and mules not 
from Egypt but from Togarmah, i.e. N. Syria and Asia Minor. 
We may therefore render : ' And Solomon's import of horses was 
from Musri (perhaps ^*&» or -tffetD) and from Kue (™|^) ; the 
king's traders received them from Kue at a price/ So Hommel 
(Gesc/i. BabyL 610), Benz., Kit. On Musri see further, II. 7. 6. 
Konig [Fiinf neue arab. Lands chaftsnam en im A.T. 25) agrees as 
to Kue, but thinks that the fact that Solomon supplied horses for 
the Hittites and Aramaeans is inexplicable if they were obtained 

152 The First Book of Kings 

from North Syria, but natural if they came from Egypt. It must 
be noticed also that Deut. 17. 16 connects the supply of horses 
with Egypt. Cf. Isa. 31. 1. 

|| 2 Chr. 9. 28 nirwn h^ty\ nvbvb Dnsc» d^did d^^oi. 2 Chr. 

1. 16 as in Kings, but with NIpD (i.e. perhaps tfj3D) for mpD. 

29. hndi Dwra . , ♦ hind wn] LXX, Luc. fa\ Uarbv . . . 

avri irevTrjKovTa. In || 2 Chr. 1 . 1 7 LXX, Luc. agree with MT. 
DTinn •ota W] Cf. II. 7. 6 /w/*. 

«*tf DT3] LXX, Luc. Kara BaXaaaap e&nopetovTO, i. e. WJ£ M f 
inferior to M. T. 

11. 1-13. Solomons foreign wives, and his idolatry. 

This section in its present form is coloured by the hand of R D . 
His phrases are as follow : — 

2. 'y\ 1DK "IPN] The reference is to Deut. 7. 1-4 ; Ex. 34. 
12-16 (J). Cf. Josh. 23. 7 (D 2 ). 

pHT DH3] The same phrase is used with reference to the 
DJDT msun II. 3. 3 (R D ). With reference to Yahwe it 
occurs in Deut. 4.4 (adj. D*j?OTl); 10. 20; 11. 22; 13. 5; 
30. 20; Josh. 22. 5; 23. 8 (both D 2 ) ; II. 18. 6 (R D ). 

4. anna wrbx] Cf. ch. 9. 6 «^. 

'SI D^ 133^ flVl «h] Cf. r//. 8. 61 w/*. 

V3K TVl 33^3] Cf. f£. 3. 14 ;/0/<? on TO "jS>n n^S3. 

5. "nriK V 1^1] So, of following a false god, v. 10; ci, 21.26; 
11.17. 15 (allR D ); f& 18. 18, 21; Deut. 4. 3 ; 6. 14; 8. 19; 
II.28; I3.3; 28.14; Judg. 2. 12, 19 (Deut. compiler); Jer. 
2. 5, 23; 7. 9; 11. 10; 13. 10; 16. ij; 25. 6; 35. 15; Ezek. 
20. 16 ; cf. Hos. 2. 7, 15-r. Of following Yahwe ch. 14. 8 
(R D ); 18. 21 ; Deut. 13. 5; 2 Chr. 34. 31; Hos. 11. iof. 

6. '* ^jn SPH 'P W»] So r//. 14. 22; 15. 26, 34; 16. 19, 

25,30; 21. 20, 25; 22.53; II. 3. 2; 8.18, 27; 13.2, n ; 
14. 24 ; 15. 9, 18, 24, 28; 17. 2, 17 ; 21. 2, 6, 15, 16, 20; 
23. 32, 37 ; 24. 9, 19 (all R D or R D2 ); 2 Chr. 21.6; 22. 
4; 29.6; 33.2,6,22; 36. 5, 9, 12; Num. 32. 13 (JE); 
Deut. 4.25; 9. 18; 17. 2; 31. 29; Judg. 2. 11; 3. 7, 12; 
4. 1 ; 6. 1 ; 10. 6; 13. 1 (all Deut. compiler); 1 Sam. 15. 
1 9 ; Jer. 52. 2t. Cf. 2 Sam. 1 2. 9 ; Isa. 65. 1 2 ; 66.4; Jer. 
32. 30; Ps. 51. 6. 

X. 2g- XL i 153 

'* nnN nV» fc6l] Deut. 1. 36 ; Josh. 14. 8, 9, 14 (JE recast 
by D 2 ); Num. 32. 11, 12 (JE)t. 
9. spam] II. 17. 18 (R D ); Deut. 1. 37; 4. 21; 9. 8, 2ot. 
!>tOB* t6n '*] Cf. ch. 8. 15 »<?/<?. 

11. Tipn . . ♦ n*W N^] Cf. <r/z. 2. 3 ;«>/<?. 

12. tok m jyDi>] Cf. v. 13 nny in ]vzh-, so «w. 32, 34; 

15. 4; II. 8. 19 ; 19. 34; 20. 6 (all R D )t. 

13. Tnra n^N cAkTV |VD^] Cf. *£. 8. 16 note. 

The view that the latter portion of this section is not earlier than 
the exile (R D2 ; so Kue. vv. 9-13, Kamp., Benz., Kit. vv. 9, 10) is 
based upon the words of v. 9 D^Dya VvX n&Oin, and presupposes that 
the narrative of the second vision, ch. 9. 1-9, comes from the hand 
of R D 2 ; but upon this opinion see note ad loc. On the other hand, 
the fact that vv. 11-13 speak of a division of the kingdom but 
make no mention of an exile, favours their pre-exilic authorship. 

1-8. LXX, Luc. arrange differently. After the first four 
words of v. 1 Wi 2nN V itam there follows v. 3 a ; then the 
remainder of v. 1 in the form 'ai WD3 Mfl ngl, and with 
the addition 2vpar n 5 E"JN after riVJIEy, *ai 'Anoppaias H^lbK] after 
JVnn, and omission of JVJIV; z>. 2; z>. 4 a<x 'P Dipt nyb ffl followed 
by z>. 4^ 'jn inn^ iiM &6l ; vv. 3* 4 a ^ represented by WJ 1^1 
J5*d5>j{ rinw frnirng rrinr>3n ; ?. 7 with ei'd&x©, i.e. vjig, for j*p^ 

in both cases and omitting D^BTV *Jfi 5>y 1BW IfO, followed by z;. 5 a 
in the form DtflX rDjrtfl nnhiBtyifl; p. 8 where for 'ai HIT'OpD, 

LXX i$vfiia» kcu %6vov k.t. A., Luc. reads idvftia ml e#ve k.t.A., i.e. 
'31 PianM "l^tppip ; p. 6. 

This arrangement is, in the main, correct. The general allusion 
to Solomon's love of women leads on to the fact that many of 
his wives belonged to the neighbouring nations with whom 
intercourse was strictly forbidden, and that these wives turned away 
his heart after their strange gods. After mention in some detail of 
the concessions which the king made to their religious rites, the 
writer sums up by saying that Solomon did evil in the sight of 
Yahwe, and did not walk after Yahwe like David his father. 
This forms a natural and appropriate transition to v. 9 'ai PpKJVl. 

154 The First Book of Kings 

The following points call for special notice : — 

The mention of the number of wives and concubines v. 3 a is no 
part of the original, account, but is an addition from the margin 
which has come into MT. and LXX in a different position, and 
thus to some extent accounts for their variation in arrangement. 

The words D^3 npl of v. i have been omitted in MT. through 

njna rD W>\ ( and the daughter of Pharaoh/ i. e. ' and also? 
or, as RV. marg., 'beside.' Pharaoh's daughter is introduced not 
as a crowning instance, but rather as not falling under the count 
which is brought against Solomon, since she was not 1BW DW \D 
'31 iftK, i. e. the neighbouring nations whose territory fell within 
Solomon's dominions. Probably, however, the words are a later 
interpolation suggested by the mention of foreign wives and 
referring back to ch. 3. i. 

In the category of foreign wives v. i } \ LXX Si'pny JVID^K is 
merely a doublet of HWX. Kal *Afioppaias nYHCNI may be original, 
since there is no special reason for its insertion unless it be a third 
representation of JVD*1X. rW¥ is omitted through oversight. 
Vv. 3 b , 4 a ^ are a repetition of the same fact accounted for by the 
insertion at this point in MT. of v. 3 :l from the margin. 

LXX is correct in making the apodosis of the sentence 'y\ n\"l tib) 
after the time-determination ':n r\y? Wi, and in then continuing 
with 1t3 s 1. The reading {iTTvK (from v. 2 a ) is, however, inferior to 

bnrra ttnta of MT. 

tbvw "JS by "«PX inn v. 7 is a detail added by a later hand. 
LXX in reading TvK for )'pw in this verse is more original, but the 
opposite change in v. 5, rnyin (PP^) for V17N, is probably a later 
alteration ; cf. note on v. 33. 

In v. 8 b Luc. supplies the original text. Solomon himself burnt 
incense and offered sacrifice to the strange gods, but this fact has 
been toned down by some later hand into the statement of MT. 
Syntax, however, has suffered in the process (we should expect at 
least niTOTBrn nrWDpen). On the other hand, the original 'l\ TBpD', 

XL 7, 2 155 

determining the subject of ntyy, is perfectly regular in construction ; 
cf. e.g. Jer. 2. 26, 27; 17. 25. 

Accordingly, the original narrative of R D probably ran as 
follows : — 

ntotey ntoxto rri:n nMaa D*tfj np s i bmfc ank rfcfe sAbpii 

- . -; — • . T . T >-.- . T .. . I.. .. - . 

h*nb) *23"^k * "^P? ">^« tFfelT!? ,[rri>-]bKi] n*nn rfahx ntohfe* 

v t v •• v: •— : ~ v : - : v ~ • •• t v t t •• : v t t 

"•-ny nbv izni* wm/bi nbW n:pt ny!> *rm .ran«f> nbbtf pm 

• •• t t; tt : : -':• ••; • •- t-: _ : : ' - t 

tk .cnna d^k nn« toirnK vm to*i i'qk in nn!>3 i*rii>K 

T • .. -. . .... .—. - T . ... T T _- . T . T -. . T v: 

mrraifl fifty «on ip6k ostein nato t6k Bto!> n&a nb'ta' ni^ 

: -. 1 _ ... •••.•: s • : t •• v: : • t t ; v : • 

: * ' v •• •• -■••- . • ': - t t t : t t. ' •• : • • •• v: 

• t • t : •— : ~ •• • : •• •• : ~t 

' Now King Solomon was a lover of women ; and he took many 
strange wives, Moabites, Ammonites, Edomites, Zidonians, Hittites 
[and Amorites] ; of the nations whereof Yahwe said unto the 
children of Israel, Ye shall not go among them, neither shall they 
come among you ; for surely they will turn away your heart after 
their gods : Solomon clave unto these in love. And it came to 
pass, when Solomon was old, that his heart was not perfect with 
Yahwe his God like the heart of David his father ; but his wives 
turned away his heart after other gods. Then did Solomon build 
a high place for Chemosh the god of Moab, and for Milcom the 
god of the children of Ammon, and for Ashtoreth the goddess of 
the Zidonians. And so did he for all his wives, burning incense 
and offering sacrifice to their gods. And Solomon did that which 
was evil in the sight of Yahwe, and went not fully after Yahwe, 
as did David his father.' 

1. ri*r]V] From masc. sing, ^m Ezek. 32. 30; Judg. 3. 3, 
pi. D'OVlV v. 5; al., would naturally be formed fern. sing. n^HV, 
pi. nWlX ; and doubtless this last was the original pronunciation 
in our passage. For the Massoretic punctuation cf. Q're in 

Neh. 13. 2 q ntosy rfoTiBta, where Kt. is ntotoy nini^x. 

2. px] A strong asseveration, 'Surely.' LXX, Luc. firj, Pesh. 
)j«.^t, Targ. KD^H suggest "JS (so Klo.), but this rendering is 

156 The First Book of Kings 

merely an accommodation to the context, and weakens the force 
of the statement. 

ranN?] b of reference denning the manner of the verb p21. 
POrlN is the substantive, not the Infinitive construct. 

3. D^J 1/ \"M] The verb coming at the beginning of the 
sentence takes the 3rd masc. sing, as the simplest form, although 
really predicate to the pi. fern. subj. tWJ. This constr. is not 
infrequent; cf. Gen. 1. 14 rn'ttft V»J } but following the subj. once 
named '31 Wjl. So in v. 3 b V5M 1B^ masc. pi. predicate precedes 
fern. pi. subj. Cf. Ew. § 3i6 a ; Da. § ii3 b . 

5. tfrre Nliw mnpy] So v. 33. For this application of the 
term D\"l/K to a goddess cf. Phoen. n"Wy *bvb ' deo suo Astartae ' 
CIS. I. i. 4; Baethgen, Semit. Relig. p. 71. 

7. n:y tn] Cf. ^. 3. 16 «<?/*. 

9. n N"i3n] Intended by the punctuators to represent a 3rd sing. 
perfect Niph. with the article used with relatival force ; cf. Isa. 56. 3 
njp|n. This construction of art. with perf. is well known in late 
Hebrew; e.g. 1 Chr. 26. 28 t^i?nn ; 29. 17 W»Mn ; al; but it is 
very noticeable that in classical Hebrew the only occurrences depend 
upon the vocalization or accentuation, and if this be altered we obtain 
the common construction of the participle with the article. So here 
n*n?n (as in Gen. 12. 7; 35. 1), Isa. 56. 3 njj)inj and with forms 
of Y'y verbs accented as 3rd fern, perf., Gen. 18. 21; 46. 27 
n ?,?^j I sa « 51. 10 n?J?«?, al., where change of accentuation gives 
nX3n ; njjfefy 3rd fern, participle with article. We never meet with 
pi. forms 1N"]3l i , W3H, where the constr. depends upon the consonants, 
except in the single instance Josh. 10. 24 N^rn which may well 
be a corruption of Mph?}. Hence it is reasonable to think that 
this construction of perf. with art. was unknown to early Hebrew, 
and that all supposed occurrences rest merely upon a theory of 
the punctuators. 

The solitary instance of the article used as relative with a 
preposition, »JfV0 <tnat which was on it/ 1 Sam. 9. 24, is probably 
a textual error. See Da. § 22 Rem. 4 ; Ew. § 33 i b , 1; and especially 
Dri. Sam. I. 9. 24. 

XL 3-14 157 

10. msi] The use of the perfect with waw simplex is an 
irregularity which can«ot here be justified. In view of the 
vocalization of nN")3n the participle in the previous verse as a perfect 
(see note), it seems possible that here also a change to the perfect 
may have been effected later, and that we should restore HJSD* in 
continuation of nK"]3n. So Klo. 

""Iftfc^ fcOl] LXX Kai cf)v\d£a<r6ai noirjaai, Luc. Kai (f)v\dgai Ka\ iroirja-ai, 

i.e. rrib>j£ "foK^— correct; cf. II. 17. 37 ; 21. 8. MT. is an easy 
alteration under the influence of ffW vb\ v. n. 

mv] LXX, Luc, Vulg., Pesh. appear to presuppose W}5? 'had com- 
manded &>«/ but the addition of the suffix pronoun is not really 
necessary, and may be regarded as a natural translator's addition. 

LXX, Luc. add to the end of the verse ovS' (Luc. ovk) rjv f) KapBla 

avrov reXeia pera. Kvpiov Kara rrjv Kapdiav Aaveld rov Ttarpbs avrov, a gloss 

from v, 4. 

11. *py] 'With thee,' i.e. 'in thy thought' or, more fully, as 
referring to an action carried into effect, ' to be taken into reckoning 
in estimating thy character! Cf. Job 10. 13 "py nw *3 TlJ?T parallel 
to "p^Zl rUBV rtatt; 23. 14; 27. 11 ; cf. Num. 14. 24. 

TlplTl TVDj LXX, Luc. ras evroXds pov Ka\ to, 7rpoaTaypaTa pov, 
i. e. Tlp^l Nl^I? ', Cod. A. ra trpoo-rdypaTa pov Ka\ ras tvroXds pov, 

Pesh. wuZisaso v*u?o w^-sala, i.e., supposing >.*-v>'.'o to be an error 
for fcOaAjj, T11VD1 Tlpm WU. These variations in order seem to 
indicate that Tll^D is a later addition made first upon the margin 
as being a word often coupled with Tlpn. 

12. rujnptf] LXX, Luc. Xrjpyj/opai axiTijv, i.e. n|rtj5N: - so v. 13 
JTipX LXX, Luc. Xd/3co, Vulg. auferam, i.e. nj3N. This reading, 
as agreeing better with the phrase *p2 TD v, 12 (z^. 11 yip 
ybyn ♦ . ♦ y"ipN), and according with vv. 34, 35, is to be adopted. 

11. 14-25. Solomon's adversaries ; Hadad the Edomite and 

Rezon the Syrian. 

14-22. The narrative in its present form seems to be somewhat 
confused. Hadad, though but 'a little lad' at the time of his 


The First Book of Kings 

flight into Egypt, at once finds favour with Pharaoh, and receives 
from him a house, an allowance, and land* He then, in spite of 
his extreme youth, marries the sister of Pharaoh's queen Tahpenes, 
and his son Genubath is brought up in the palace together with 
Pharaoh's sons. The form YIN v. 17, as a variation of Tin, creates 
further suspicion as to the integrity of the narrative. 

Winckler (Alttest. Untersuchunge?i, iff.) believes that two accounts 
have here been interwoven, and attempts the task of unravelling 
the skein by the aid of a discriminating use of LXX. Winckler's 
two narratives run as follows : — 

14 nxbvh \ow mrv np^i 

xn?» wsn Yin nx 

15 a a , W vm .misa na^on 

dtin riN 111 rnanH 

17 b Yl.TI D11Xa-D? b ti 

[nnx innpi] .fttpnxw 

17 a? lntwi] va« nayo 

[.njna ^ nonvo 

1 9 nyna wya |n inn nv^i 

20^ in^ni rrvaan vwk 
20 ^ Tina njna rva T»nn 

21 Yin $wi .njna "oa 

ny in aa^ *a onvoa 
njna b« "lEfrOi vnax 

22 n& >a njna £ no^i 
n^ni *ey non nn« 
Ytik 5>k nai£ ppao 
^n^n rbv s a "6 n»&oi 

ip asv n^ya m 15 ^ 
D^nn nx napi? xavn 
&# ae* own ntr^ ^3 i6a 
im] ^k"h^ i?ui axv 
[♦n^-iy DttN b DK 
n^w Kin nx ma*i 17^ 
t Dn»o Niai> ma d»dik i 7 a* 

pMD ISa-l piD» ttDP*1 18 

njna i>N anso ixa^i 
iek nrta rpa ^ |ni 
jm »ii> ;n: pw *6 193 
ninx fn3S ns nsra £ 
nx ii> ni>™ .o^ann 20 a a 
rva naj: vri ua najj 20 l a 
♦ njna 

«ir>N ^k Yin at^i 

XL 14 

T 59 

'And Yahwe raised up an 

adversary unto Solomon, 

Hadad the Edomite, of the 

royal seed in Edom. And 

it came to pass, when David 

cut off Edom, and smote 

every male in Edom, that 

Hadad was a little lad. [And 

one] of his father's servants 

[took him, and brought him 

into Egypt unto Pharaoh]. 

And Hadad found great favour 

in the sight of Pharaoh, and 

he gave him to Tahpenes 

his chief wife, and she brought 

him up in Pharaoh's house 

among the sons of Pharaoh. 

And Hadad heard in Egypt 

that David slept with his 

fathers, and he said to 

Pharaoh, Let me depart, that 

I may go to my own country. 

And Pharaoh said to him, 

What hast thou lacked with 

me, that, behold, thou seekest 

to go to thine own country ? 

And he said to him, Let me 

in any wise depart. So Hadad 

returned to his own land/ 

In the first narrative the Edomite Hadad is carried into Egypt 
by his father's servant, and brought up by Pharaoh's queen. The 
second account seems to make Adad a Midianite prince, who flees 
with his adherents into Egypt, taking with him certain Edomites 1 

' And it came to pass, when 
Joab the captain of the host 
was gone up to bury the slain, 
that he remained there six 
months, even Joab and all 
Israel, [and they smote all 
Edom until they had utterly 
destroyed them]. And Adad 
fled, he and certain Edomites 
with him, to go into Egypt. 
And they arose out of Midian, 
and came to Paran ; and they 
took men with them out of 
Paran, and they came to 
Egypt, unto Pharaoh. And 
he gave him a house, and 
appointed him victuals, and 
gave him land. And he 
gave him to wife Anoth the 
sister of Tahpenes. And she 
bare him Genubath his son ; 
and Genubath lived in the 
house of Pharaoh.' 

1 D"ma trirw. Had Adad and his followers been Edomites, such a 
specification would here have been unnecessary. 

160 The First Book of Kings 

from Paran, and is well received by Pharaoh, who gives him for 
wife Anoth the sister of his queen. A son, Genubath, is born to 
him, but of his fate we are not informed. Winckler conjectures 
that just as the two accounts exhibit similarity in their commence- 
ment with David's campaign against Edom and in the allied names 
Hadad, Adad, so the conclusion of the second may have resembled 
that of the first in relating the journeying of Genubath from Egypt 
into Midian the land of his father, and his there establishing himself 
as an adversary to Solomon. 

In the two accounts the following portions of MT. are rejected 
as glosses : — 

(i.) v. 2O a D^ann, v. 2i a Nnvn ~W nKV n» "Ol (introduced in 
accordance with v. 15 by the welder of the two narratives), 

v. 2i b mn. 

(ii.) v. i8 b DnVD ^». 

The sentences enclosed in square brackets are supplied by 

Words overlined are emendations dependent upon LXX, as 
follow : — 

v. 14. Kin i?6] LXX ttjs /3ao-tXW« = nj^tpn. So Klo., Benz. 

v. 15. nvm] LXX (p rw €^o\o0pe(>eiv=T\^r\2. So Klo., Kamp. 
Pesh. om* t o = ni3n3 adopted by Bo., Th., Benz., Oort. 

v. 2o a . in^ni] LXX ml f&epeyjfw auroy=^np , nani. So Kb., Benz. 

V. 2 2 end] LXX adds kol dpea-rpe^ep *A$€p ds rrjv yrjp o.vtovz=. 

.- .. T -. T T-' 

v. 1 9 b . 'jl )b JrVl] Here D'OSnn? irtfrVl is restored by conjecture 
in (i.). The name nUN in (ii.) is derived from LXX, Luc. 

ch. 12. 2 4 e kcu 7£ov(raKe\p, eScoKfj/ r<u 'lepofioap, ttjp 'Ai/oj d$e\(pr)P 
QeKepeipas rf]P npeafivTcpap (Luc. adds dbe\(pr]p) rrjs yvpaucbs avrov els 
yvpaiica' (LUC. Kai) avrrj rjp peyahr) tp pzaco roov Ovyarepup tov fiacr tAfW, 

icai eTfKep ra> 'Upofioap. top *A/3ta v16p avrov, a statement which occurs 
in the midst of the account of Jeroboam. Winckler considers the 
question whether this passage (obviously correspondent to MT. 

XL 14-19 161 

ch. 11.' 19b 20^ l ) belongs properly to the Hadad or to the 
Jeroboam narrative, and concludes that the recurrence of the name 
*Aw» in ch. 12. 24 e, K 1 ( = MT. ch. 14. 2, 8, 9) makes for the latter 
view, but may be due to interpolation in accordance with ch. 12. 
24 e ; while, on the other hand, the obviously incorrect position 2 of 
the account in LXX, and the supposition that Pharaoh would more 
reasonably have given his queen's sister as wife to a Midianite prince 
than to an Israelite rebel, are conclusively in favour of the former. 

14. p&] Cf. ch. 5. 18 note. 

16. nnan IV] Cf. II. 3. 25 note on TOWl IV. 

18. ii> 1DK Dnh] 'Assigned or appointed him an allowance.' 
So exactly 2 Chr. 29. 24 nNBnm nhyn "]tan nDK ^1^ W *3 
* because for all Israel had the king appointed the burnt-offering 
and the sin-offering/ The same construction is common in Ar., 
where, however, the object is always connected with i__>, which 
is said to strengthen the government of the verb, acting as an 
emphatic representation of the accusative ; e. g. J^Jo *J "y\ i He 
assigned him a dirhem (piece of money).' Pesh., mistaking this 
nuance of "i£K, connects X$h\ closely with the previous rVa v frV1, 
and supplies after 17 HDK the words which Pharaoh is supposed to 
have spoken: — ~io.X ol .0^. +2&\o .l-sa^^o Jl^o o^ oo^o 
' and he gave him a house and an allowance, and said to him, 
Dwell with me ! ' 

19. rrvan] Here 'the queen} In ch. 15. 13; || 2 Chr. 15. 16 
rwaa is used of the queen-mother. The other occurrences of the 
word are II. 10. 13; Jer. 13. 18; 29. 2-t, where it is not clear 
whether the reference is to the queen or to the queen-mother. 
n"WH properly denotes the ' chief lady ' of the harem, and Bo. is 

1 avTr] jjv fxeyd\rj k.t.X. answers to v. 20 a read as ^pn rvm Tjira wn Vroni 

2 Jeroboam hears of Solomon's death, and asks leave to return to Ephraim 
(v. 34 or 24 d ) ; but Pharaoh, instead of granting his request, marries him to 
Anoth, by whom he has a son {vv. 35-37 or 24 d > e ). After this Jeroboam 
makes a fresh effort to depart, and, in spite of the delay, returns in time to be 
created king of Israel at the rebellion upon Rehoboam's accession. 


1 62 The First Book of Kings 

probably correct in assuming that this position would be usually 
occupied by the queen-mother, but, in the event of her death or 
removal, by the chief wife or queen. Cf. also Benz. There 
is no reason for thinking, with Klo., Kamp., Kit., that ITV33 
must always mean 'queen-mother/ and therefore emending ^T?^ 1 
after LXX, Luc. ch. 12. 24 e ttjv npeo-^vrepav. In ch. 11. 19, LXX 
ttjs peLfa, Luc. tt)v /uet^, i. e. npiljin, is also inferior to MT. 

20. rnjj] On the form of the name cf. note on DSD ch. 4. 11. 

21. '?\ iy& *a] So Gen. 47. 30; 2 Sam. 7. 12. Elsewhere 
(23 times in Kings and 10 times in || 2 Chr.) the phrase forms 
part of the formula of R D in concluding his notice of a reign. 

22. 'ai iWK HO *a] Not as RV. l But what hast thou lacked,' &c. 
*3, as in the second half of the verse *ar6s5Tl rvB> *3, simply 
introduces the direct oration. See ch. 1. 13 note. 

tO] Read Q're V. tib cannot mean ' nothing/ RV., and 
i Nay but,' &c, is inappropriate as an answer to the question. 
23-25. LXX, Luc. omit vv. 23-25^ (down to \\xhv?\ and then, 

in place of the impossible MT., continue avrrj fj Kaicia rjv (nolt]aev 
AoVp* Ka\ e(3apv6vpr)aev (Luc. i{$apvv6i} eVt) 'laparjX, koi e^aaiXevaev 

iv t?i (Luc. yfi) y Eda>p, i. e. !jiw bvrjp^ fljp Tin nfc>y neta ny-jn ntfl 
D'" 1 .^"^ ' This is the evil which Hadad did; and he abhorred Israel, 
and reigned over Edom V This is correct both in reading and 
position, referring as it does the latter part of v. 25 to Hadad, 
and adding the necessary summary as to his relationship to 
Solomon. So Klo., Benz., Kit., Oort. The definiteness of the 
statement njnn J")NT suggests that in the original narrative some 
explicit account of Hadad's aggressions must have intervened 
after v. 22. 

The short reference to Rezon, thus omitted by LXX, Luc, 
has been inserted between vv. 14* and i4 b , but clearly by a later 
hand. So placed, it breaks the connexion of the Hadad story, 
and necessitates the resumption ml *A8cp 6 'ibovpaios i4 b , repeated 

1 Vulg. agrees with LXX in reading et hoc est malum A dad, but with MT. 
in the position of the notice concerning Rezon, and in reading C"W for DTK. 

XL 20-26 163 

from i4 a . The notice is ancient and genuine 1 , but its original 
position cannot now be accurately determined. 

23. pn] See note on |tyn ch. 15. 18. 

24. *VT\i\ Generally a marauding band; II. 5. 2 ; 6. 23 ; 13. 
20, 21 ; 24. 2 ; 1 Sam. 30. 8, 15, 23 ; al. So, of the foray made 
by such a band, 2 Sam. 3. 22. The word is perhaps used of more 
regular detachments of an army 2 Sam. 4. 2 ; but this use seems 
generally to be late— 1 Chr. 7. 4 ; 2 Chr. 25. 9, 10, 13; 26. n. 

DHN in aim] LXX, Luc. omit. The statement is probably 
a gloss from the margin, referring to v. 23k. So Klo., Winckler 
(A/ttest. Untersuchungen, p. 60), Benz. In place of DHK read 
EPK with Klo., Benz. 

2 5- PP^] So, of racial hostility, Ex. 1. 12 ; Num. 22. 3, followed 
in both places by MEB, expressing dislike. 

11. 26 — 14. 20. History of Jeroboam. 
Ch. 11. 26-43 properly belongs to the section of 1 Kings, 
chh. 3. 1 — 11. 43, which deals with the reign of Solomon. 
See summary at head of ch. 3. Since, however, the history of 
Jeroboam commences with v. 26, it is convenient at this point 
to consider the structure of the narrative. The arrangement of 
events in LXX, Luc. presents a striking variation from that of MT., 
as may be best seen by a parallel summary of the two accounts. 


11. 26. Jeroboam, an Ephraimite of Zeredah, 
son of a widow, comes into prominence 
in connexion with Solomon's building 
operations at Jerusalem. 

11. 29. He is marked out as future king of the 
ten tribes by the prophet Ahijah. 

11. 40. Solomon seeks to kill Jeroboam, who 
takes flight into Egypt, where he stays 
until the death of Solomon. 

11. 41. Death arid burial of Solomon. 

1 A notice so straightforward and unembellished can scarcely be thought 
(Kit. Hist. Heb. ii. 53) merely to have grown up out of the lapsus calami 
D"W for EiN. 

t~ • v; 

M 2 

164 The First Book of Kings 


11. 43. Jeroboam returns so soon as 

he hears of Solomon's death, and 
settles in Zeredah. 
Repeated notice of Solomon's death. 
Rehoboam succeeds him. 
12. 1. Rehoboam goes to Shechem to be 
crowned by all Israel. 
12. 2. Jeroboam returns from Egypt 
upon the news of Rehoboam's 
12. 3. The people of Israel summon 12. 3. The people (without Jeroboam) 
him, and he and all Israel come come and lay their grievances 

and lay their grievances before before Rehoboam. 


12. 5. Rehoboam, after asking a delay of three 
days, decides to answer the people harshly 
and to add to their burdens. 
12. 12. Jeroboam and all the people 12. 12. All Israel (without Jeroboam) 
come to Rehoboam upon the come to Rehoboam upon the third 

third day to receive his answer. day to receive his answer. 

12. 13. Rehoboam's answer results in the 
revolt of all Israel except the tribe 
of Judah 

and Benjamin. 
12. 20. All Israel, when they hear of Jero- 
boam's return, send for him and make 
him their king. 
12. 21. Rehoboam goes to Jerusalem, and 
assembles all Judah and Benjamin to 
fight against Jeroboam, but is restrained 
by the word of God through the prophet 

12. 24 . Repeated notice of Solomon's 

death and of Rehoboam's accession. 
His age at accession, length of his 
reign, and his mother's name. Ver- 
dict as to his character. 
12. 24 b . Repeated introduction to Jero- 
boam; — an Ephraimite, son of a 
harlot. Solomon advances him. 

XL 26- XIV. 20 165 


12. 24 b . Notice of Solomon's building 
operations, and of his chariots. 

12. 24°. Solomon seeks to kill Jeroboam, 
who flees into Egypt, where he re- 
mains until the death of Solomon. 

12. 24 d . Jeroboam hears of Solomon's 
death, and asks leave of Pharaoh 
to return to his own country. 
Pharaoh, instead of granting the 
request, gives him his daughter 
Anoth as wife. She bears him 
12. 24'. Jeroboam renews his request to 
return to Ephraim, and leaving 
Egypt arrives at Zeredah, where 
he gathers all the tribes of Ephraim, 
and builds a fort. 
12. 248. Jeroboam's son falls sick at 
Zeredah. He sends his wife to 
inquire as to the issue of the sick- 
ness. Ahijah prophecies the death 
of the child and the utter extirpa- 
tion of Jeroboam's posterity (but 
without assigning any cause). 

12. 24". Jeroboam goes to Shechem, and 
gathers the tribes of Israel against 
the arrival of Rehoboam. 

12. 24 . Shemaiah the prophet marks out 
Jeroboam as future king of the ten 

12. 24P. The people lay their grievances 
before Rehoboam, who, after asking 
a delay of three days, decides to 
answer the people roughly and 
to add to their burdens. 

12. 24*. Revolt of all Israel except the 
tribes of Judah and Benjamin. 

12. 24*. Rehoboam assembles all Judah 
and Benjamin to fight against 
Jeroboam, but is restrained by the 

1 66 The First Book of Kings 


word of Yahwe through the pro- 
phet Shemaiah. 
12. 25. Jeroboam builds Shechem and Penuel. 

12. 26. His calf-worship at Bethel and Dan 

a measure to prevent the return of Israel 
to the house of David. 

13. I. The narrative concerning the prophet 

who came from Judah to rebuke Jeroboam. 
13. 33. In spite of this Jeroboam maintains 
his worship, and thus seals the doom of 
his house. 
14. 1. Jeroboam's son falls sick at 
Tirzah. He causes his wife to 
disguise herself, and sends her 
to inquire of Ahijah as to the 
issue of the sickness. She is at 
once recognized by Ahijah, who 
prophecies the death of the child 
and the utter extirpation of 
Jeroboam's posterity, because of 
' the sins of Jeroboam,' i. e. his 
idolatrous calf-worship. 
14.19. Death of Jeroboam; record 
of the length of his reign, and 
mention of his successor. 

Here the following points are to be noticed : 

1. The superiority of LXX to MT. in 11. 43 — 12. 24. Jeroboam 
would naturally return from Egypt upon the news of the death 
of Solomon (LXX), and would scarcely delay until he had received 
information of Rehoboam's accession (MT.; read in 12. 2 b 2£>»1 
DnvtSD DJ^nj with || 2 Chr. 10. 2). This point, however, cannot 
be pressed, since MT. may not be intended to represent the logical 
order of events. The variations in vv. 3 a , 1 2 a are more important. 
From v. 20 in both MT. and LXX it is certainly to be gathered 
that Jeroboam had taken no part in the previous negotiations, but 
that news of his return first reached the people when they were 
looking around for a new leader after their rejection of the house 

XL 26-XIV. 20 167 

of David. This agrees with the previous narrative in LXX, but 
conflicts with the statements of MT. in vv. 3 a , 12*. LXX is 
therefore to be preferred. 

2. The inconsistency of LXX 12. 24 a_z with LXX 11. 43 — 
12. 24, and its inferiority to MT. 

(a) The section is inconsistent with the previous section in LXX. 
Many of its notices are mere duplications of what has been pre- 
viously recorded in 11. 43 — 12. 24. Thus the notice of Solomon's 
death and Rehoboam's accession, 12. 24*, repeats 11. 41, 43; the 
introduction to Jeroboam, 12. 24k, is superfluous after 11. 26; 
Solomon's attempt to kill Jeroboam is a repetition of 11. 40, and 
comes in very awkwardly without any narrative preceding to 
explain the king's action; 12. 24 is merely a variation of the 
story of 11. 29^"., and cannot exist side by side with it ; 12. 24P" 51 
answers to 12. 3-24, while the whole account in its second form 
is inconsistent with the first account, in representing Jeroboam 
as having gathered the tribes to Shechem to meet Rehoboam 
12. 24 11 , and so presumably as present during the negotiations, and 
taking part in them. 

(6) The section is inferior to the narrative of MT. On LXX 
12. 24 d " f as compared with MT. 11. 19b ff. see note on ch. 11. 14- 
22. The relative value of the two forms of the story of the sickness 
of Jeroboam's son admits of some difference of opinion. See, for 
LXX, Winckler, Alttest. Untersuchungen, 12 ff.; for MT. Kit. Hist. 
ii. 206 f. The variation between the two narratives is clearly too 
considerable to admit of the supposition that the one was derived 
from the other ; and it seems necessary to suppose that each was 
drawn independently from some earlier source. Thus regarded, 
LXX may represent the more original form of the story, since 
it is easier to believe that w. 7-9, 14-16 MT. 1 are a later addition 
than that in LXX they were purposely cut out in order to place 
the story at the commencement of Jeroboam's career (Kit.). It is 

1 The work of R D . His hand, however, is also to be traced in v. 10, which 
appears in LXX. See notes ad loc. 

1 68 The First Book of Kings 

certain, however, \haXfrom the point of view qfR® the story in MT. 
occupies the right position, and, as intended to exemplify God's 
visitation upon Jeroboam on account of the idolatry of his calf- 
worship, aptly closes the history of his life, and is followed, vv.ig, 20, 
by the short notice as to his death. In LXX all reference to the 
death of Jeroboam is lacking, a point which further argues the 
inferiority of the section. 

The inference to be drawn from the foregoing points is that the 
history of Jeroboam, as it left the hand of R u , is represented, 
as nearly as can be determined, by MT., LXX 11. 26-42; 
LXX 11. 43—12. 24; MT. 12. 25— 14. 20. LXX 12. 24*-*, as 
both inconsistent with the previous section in LXX and inferior 
to MT., must be considered to be a history of Jeroboam which 
came independently into the hands of some copyist of the LXX, 
and was inserted after ch. 12. 24 at the expense of the omission 
of the original text. 

The origin of the section LXX 12. 24 a_z is not clear. It 
may have been, and probably was, drawn in part from our 
Book of Kings (the recension of R D ). But, as has been noticed 
above, the story 12. 24s -11 appears to come from some independent 
source; and 12. 24 a ~ f , composed, like the LXX insertions in 
ch. 2 after vv. 35, 46, of fragments which in the main can be 
paralleled in MT., contains a few independent statements. Thus 

V. 24^ Ka\ (OKobofirja-fv SaXwpow (Luc. 'lepoftoap. ra> 2o\opa>vTi) rfjv 
~2apeipa rrjv iv opti *E<ppaip, kcu rjaav avrco appara rpiaKocria Zinrcov, and 
kol rjv inuipoptvos iirl rrjv fiaaikeiav, V. 24^ Kai i£r)\dev 'lepoftoap c£ 
AlyviTTOv, Kai fjXdev els yr}v lapeipa ttjv iv opei 'Ecppdip.' Kai (oKobopija-fi/ 

'Upofioap. €ku x<*P aKa ' Further, the narrative of vv. 2 4 d " f , though 
ultimately identical with MT. 11. ig ff. (see note), must certainly 
have been derived from some other source than Kings. 

The view of Kue. (Ond. § 26. 10) is that we have in this section 
a version of the history of Jeroboam undertaken in his interest, 
and thus representing him as marrying the daughter of Pharaoh, 
and purposely omitting a large portion of Ahijah's prophecy against 
him. But, as Kit. points out, the fact that his mother is represented 

XL 26-28 169 

as a harlot, and the revolt laid at his door, is entirely alien to such 
a purpose \ 

11. 26-43. J^oboams early career. 

11. 26. nTttfn] Only here in MT. LXX, Luc. Zapetpa, here and 
in z/. 43; 12. 24 b , f , k , 1, n . In 11. 43; 12. 24b 2apeipa is said to 
be iv t<3 opei 'Ecfrpdtn, perhaps an inference from v. 26. The 
view that rm¥ is the same as jnitf (ch.4. 12 note; 7. 46, where 
|| 2 Chr. 4. 17 has fip'p.?) is by no means certain. 

In Judg. 7. 22 HTPny (with n loc.) mentioned as the scene of the 
flight of the Midianites, is usually thought to be miswritten for 
n 0? T "?.?j but nothing definite as to locality can be gathered from 
this passage, which seems to embody a confusion of sources (see 
Moore, ad loc). Conder suggests as the site of rmv Surda, a small 
village four kilometres north-west of Bethel; Memoirs, ii. 295. 

n]J1"W 1DX DSPi] LXX, Luc. omit, probably owing to the translator's 
eye passing from nYWl to nynv. 

D"» 1 l] The 1 consec. is here employed to introduce the predicate 
with some little emphasis after the words intervening between it 
and the subject: 'And Jeroboam, &c, he lifted up &c/ Cf. 
Gen. 30. 30 yf? ps^l >:zb *\b iTn "WN DVD "O; 1 Sam. 14. 19; 
Dri. Tenses, § 127 #. These words are omitted in LXX, Luc. 
through confusion with v. 2 7 a . 

27. n^x nmn nn] 'And this is the reason why &c/ So Josh. 

5. 4 'in y&w ta n^x inn nn. 

N^Dil] C^. 9. 15 note. 

nn "»"»y] C& 2. 10 »<?/*. 

28. PTl 1133] 'A mighty man of skill I i.e. 'a man of great 
ability/ So 1 Chr. 9. 13; cf. 1 Chr. 26. 8. So in Ruth 2. 1 (and 
perhaps 1 Sam. 9. 1) the phrase is used not in the special sense 
of great valour in battle, but of marked moral or material worth. 
Cf. note on tT\ ch. 1. 42. 

1 Ranke takes the view that LXX 12. 24 s " 2 is of superior historical value 
to the previous section in LXX, and to MT. ; see Weltgeschichte, iii. 2, 
pp. 4-12. 

170 The First Book of Kings 

29. TTO . . . WN KW)] LXX, Luc. add ko\ dnecrTTjafv avrov 

€< ttjs 6dov, i. e. "n^nn-ftp WycW. The words, which are necessary 
in view of the following statement niBQ U12? DTJP1, have fallen 
out of MT. through homoioteleuton. The motive of the action, 
to insure privacy, may be compared with 1 Sam. 9. 27, where 
Samuel causes Saul's servant to pass on before, and with II. 9. 2, 
where the young prophet is directed to take Jehu into Tins Tin. 

T&W] Cf. ch. 14. 1 note. 

Nini] LXX, Luc, Pesh. HjriKl, probably original. In any case 
the reference is to Ahijah (Th., Klo.) and not to Jeroboam (Ew.), 
the garment being assumed for the special purpose described 
in v. 30; cf. Jer. 13. iff*; Isa. 20. 2. 

.Tica nilb Drwi] LXX omits mib ; Luc. reads iv rfj 65<S for 
iTl^n. MT. correct. 

3 1 --39. Ahijah's speech has taken its present form at the hands 
of R D . Notice the following phrases : — 

31. niK3tf \T;N '■>] Cf. ch. 8. 15 note. 

32. "H3y Til ]V®b~\ So v. 34; cf. v. 12 note. 

Vnn2 T^K Tyn ohsTP] So v. 36; cf. ch. 8. 16 note. 

33. \DTQ xhr\ *b\\ So v. 38 ; cf. ch. 2. 3 note. 

W2 "Wi niryi>] So v. 38 ; 14. 8 ; 15. 5, 11 ; 22. 43 (|| 2 Chr. 

20. 32); II. 10. 30; 12. 3 (|| 2 Chr. 24. 2); 14. 3 (|| 2 Chr. 

25. 2); 15. 3, 34 (|| 2 Chr. 26. 4; 27. 2); 16. 2 (|| 2 Chr. 28. 1); 

18. 3 (|| 2 Chr. 29. 2) ; 22. 2 (|| 2 Chr. 34. 2). Deut. 12. 25 ; 

13. 19; 21. 9 ; and, with addition of nittii, 6. 18; 12. 28. 

Elsewhere only Ex. 15. 26 (JE or D?); Jer. 34. 15. For 

the contrary phrase of R D '"■ ^jn JQPI n^y cf. v. 6 /w/*. 
V3K TiYj] Cf. ch. 3. 14 note on Tfl ^n "tt?K3. 

34. in** wnn ibw] Cf. Deut. 17. 15 nn:r t^x ibo yby dwi dip 
36. ^nny T-n^ to nvn jy»!>] So 15. 4 ; II. 8. 19 (|| 2 Chr. 21.7); 

cf. Ps. 132. 17. The figure of the unquenched lamp represents 
a lasting posterity; cf. Prov. 13. 9; Job 18. 6. 

D^EM bs] So 0. 39 ; cf. ch. 9. 3 note, 

DP W D1B&] Cf. ch. 9. 3 »0/*. 

XI. 29-tf 171 

38. yDttTl DN iTHl] So Deut. 28. 1, 15; with pi. II.13; cf. 15. 5; 
11. 28. In the same way (obedience the condition of 
a promise) yixn ^ Deut. 13. 19; 28. 2, 13; 30. 10; n&W 
tyDKTl 11. 27. 
'V\ 10^] Cf. flS. 2. 3 «0&. 

in npy -«mo] Cf. oi 3. 14 note. 

f y\ i? Tl'om] Cf. the promise in 2 Sam. 7. n, 16, 27 Nathans 
prophecy referred to elsewhere by R D ; — ch. 2.4; 5. 16-19. 
For the phrase cf. 1 Sam. 2. 35 and (T\vy for im) 25. 28. 
Not improbably the speech has received some few later additions. 
In v. 33 ^DD^DI Tlpm is wanting in LXX, and the use of these 
terms after TW&y? rather than ~\wb being characteristic of P or H 
(see ch. 6.12 note), the two words may reasonably be suspected 
as an insertion due to R p . LXX also omits Tlpm TllSD *W "«?« 
at the end of v. 34, and though the phrase is Deuteronomic, yet 
the repeated 1K>N has something of the awkward ring of an insertion, 
and the words may be due to the same interpolator. The omission 
of the close of the speech by LXX HK njy&O : bvnw* HK *]b ^nriJl 
DWI b* tib IN TIN? \$rb W mt, taken in connexion with the 
reference of v. 39 — the affliction of the seed of David, but not for 
ever — suggests that this also may be an addition of exilic or post- 
exilic times; though, as Kue. points out, the statement of v. 39 
need not imply an exilic standpoint: cf. 2 Sam. 7. i4 b . The use 
of the imperf. with weak ), ntyM, for the perf. with 1 consec, seems 
to be another mark of the late hand : cf. ch. 6. 32 note on $2$). 

32. inNn DXm] LXX, Luc. Koi dvo aKrjnTpa, an alteration in 
view of v. 30 b ; ch. 12. 23. So v. 36. Cf. the addition koI Beviapctv 
in ch. 12. 20. The inconsistency in MT. between the ' 12 pieces' 
of v. 30 and the 10+ 1 of vv. 31, 32 perhaps points to a modification 
of the original narrative only partially effected. 

33. W3Ty itW \V\ LXX, Luc, Vulg., Pesh. presuppose the 
sing, verb throughout the verse; ^fj &\ • • • ^f!! "^jy. This, 
as agreeing with the sing, niy?® of vv. 31, 32, and the sing, iljB 
of v. 34, is to be adopted. 

'31 pm V6« rnnwfc] LXX, Luc. tt; 'AorapTff /3SeXvy/xart 2ida)iaW 

172 The First Book of Kings 

Kai rip Xafxibs Kai iv rots eldaXois (LllC. eiSa>Xa>) Mcoa/3 Ka\ ra /SacriXei 
avroiv (LllC. rep MfX^tyz) TrpoaroxOicrpaTi. vlcov 'Appvv, i. e. rnyin mH^S?/ 
JW ^3 yW mS'O^I 3N1» Tlta no^l pmf 1 . MT., in reading 
\17K in each case, is more original. The expressions row, ppB> 
represent alterations to avoid applying the term D^K to heathen 
gods, in accordance with the feeling of a later time. Cf. the 
variations in vv. 5, 7 MT. and LXX. 

JTJ¥] The plural termination f*__, used in Aramaic and upon 
the Moabite stone, occurs in Hebrew some twenty-five times, chiefly 
in late Books. In earlier Books the form, if not dialectical (so 
perhaps Judg. 5. 10), is due to error in transcription under the 
influence of Aramaic. For the occurrences cf. G-K. § 87 e ; 
Sta. § 323a. 

34- ^ri^X fcOtJOJ LXX, Luc. avriTaaaopcvos avTird^opLai avrtp 

appear to have read *3NfeW K6M, or better ft NfeW N550, interpreting 
N£>3 incorrectly in a reflexive sense 'lift myself up against'; cf. 
LXX rendering of Hos. 1. 6 Df$ Xf* Kfcj "3. Given the text 
of LXX, we might render ' for I will surely forgive him during his 
life-time &c.' ; but this is inferior to MT. 

37. l^DJ . ♦ . n^El] So exactly 2 Sam. 3. 21. Cf. Deut. 14. 26; 
1 Sam. 2. 16. fi}K Pi'el and subs. HjK are used almost exclusively 
in connexion with $33. 

40. p&W] LXX 2ovo-aKt/x, Luc. 2ovaaK(ifx. Identified with 
Sheshonk I, first king of the twenty-second dynasty of Manetho. 
Cf. ch. 14. 25 f note. 

41 ff. 'y\ nrvi] For this summarizing formula of R D see In/rod. 

iniMPlV] LXX, Luc. inmri"^], adopted by Th. upon the ground 
that ch. 5. 9-14 merely gives a summary account of this wisdom. 

'V V "D*7 12D b]}~\ Luc. iv /3i/3Xi'o) \6yo3v T]fjLep<ov 2., Vulg. t7i libro 
verborum dierum S., i. e. 'vh D*»\n nm "1BD by, probably a cor- 
rection in accordance with the phrase used in the records of the 

1 In LXX TrpoaoxOiana usually = nnsin, but never = ypir; /35e'At»7/ia often = 
yjraj, fiftd, but more than twice as frequently = rayin. In Deut. 7. 26 we get 
the two words in juxtaposition, «2J?rjPI nrn"! I32j78?n \yti, irpoaoxOio^ari -npoo- 
oxOiti* Kai PSekvynari /35e\v£rj. 

XI. 34-XII. 3 m 

kings of Israel and Judah. 2 Chr. 9. 29 fiWKin 'p n31 "IRB>1 

^frwn ht.x n«i3J i?jn wan jna nai 5>y nmna on &6n D^nnxm 
edj p Dya-i" 1 by mm ny;> rmnai. 

43. The notice with reference to the return of Jeroboam from 
Egypt, inserted correctly (see note on 11. 26 — 14. 20) by LXX, 
Luc. between v. 43 a and v. 43 b , must have run in the original: — 

iv*\ nth® "3bo ma iste on^on salty wrn aarra DyaT yb^a w 

...... . .... - T ... _. .- : . . ... *• . t: »v t : Tr « ; • • : - 

a^sn aaBfci cibk ina -»e>x n-mrrpK vvy-bx ?6*i at^i Dnroa 

I.. ...- - ; .- .-. ... - . ... -; T ... _ ... T V l V ..- T T - .-; . . 

Vna^'Dy nb?B?. LXX KaTtvdvvetv, Luc. more Correctly *ai KarevQivci 

represents a^Jl read as ">^?1 ; cf. 1 Sam. 6. 12 nj"]$*1 K a\ Karevdvuav. 
In LXX rrjv yrjv 2apetpd the word yqv appears to be a corrupt 
repetition of tt)v : cf. LXX ch. 12. 24 f , where LXX yrjv = Luc. tt)v. 

12. 1-24. Rehoboams accession and the defection of the 

ten tribes. 

Ch. 12. 1-24 = 2 Chr. 10. 1— 11. 4. 

In this narrative vv. 15, 17, 21-24 appear to be additions of 
a later hand. v. 15, with its reference to the prediction of Ahijah, 
probably presupposes ch. 11. 31^". in its present form, and must 
in this case be due to R D . vv. 2 1-24, standing in close connexion 
with v. 15 (cf. v. 15 '» DyE mo nrvn *a ; z>. 24 nin nmn hm: *riKD '•a), 
give a Judaic turn to the originally impartial narrative of vv. 1-20, 
and are scarcely consistent with the statement of ch. 14. 30 riDn^DI 
£Wn ba Dy2T pai Dyam pa nnNI, a genuine excerpt from the 
ancient annals. Notice further that, while v. 20 speaks only of 
the tribe of Judah, vv. 21, 23 are careful to make reference also 
to the tribe of Benjamin, v. 17, which stands in an awkward 
position, and is absent from LXX, is probably a later gloss, though 
not by the same hand as vv. 15, 21-24, since it makes no reference 
to Benjamin. 

1. Da^] The Roman Flavia Neapolis and modern Ndbulus, 
lying under the north-east base of Mount Gerizim. See Rob. BR. 
ii. 275, 287 ff.; Baed. 252/*. 

2. 'y\ aW] Vulg., || 2 Chr. 10. 2 DyiJBD Djarj; a^l, correctly. 
Cf. »0/* on r^. 11. 43 LXX. 

3. See, on LXX, Luc, «#/<? on chh. 11. 26 — 14. 20. Pesh. omits bnp. 

174 The First Book of Kings 

4. \&y] *b as a figure of hard bondage is very frequent, though 
always elsewhere of that imposed by a foreign nation : — Gen. 27. 40 
(Israel's subjection of Edom) ; Lev. 26. 13 ; Hos. 11. 4 ; Jer. 2. 20 
(Egypt); Isa. 9. 3; 10. 27; 14. 25 (Assyria); Jer. 27. 8, 11, 12; 
28. 2, 4, 11, 14; 30. 8; Isa. 47. 6; Ezek. 34. 27 (Babylon); 
Deut. 28. 48 (general) ; of the moral restraints of religion Jer. 5. 5, 
cf. Lam. 3. 27; of the bonds of sin (late) Lam. 1. 14. 

5. "IJJ] LXX, Luc., Vulg., Pesh., Targ. presuppose TV * Depart 
until three days (sc. have elapsed)/ i. e. ' until the third day.' This 
is doubtless correct. *l'5J of MT. would rather suggest that a. previous 
postponement had taken place. 

Dyn] LXX, Luc. omit. Pesh. Hai^. 0^0, i.e. Byn*^3. 

6. n?}?!] So with pathah always in this form ( 1 1 times). 
According to Konig, Lehrg. I. i. 419, the emphatic pronunciation 
of the V is better served by the broader ' Pathah gadol in place of 
Pathah qaton' ( = Seghol). 

7. D'OItt D*"Ol] 'Favourable words'; Zech. 1. 13. 
COM J>3] Cf. ch. 5. 15 note. 

8. Vltb D'HDyn 1B>n] ' Who were those who stood before him ' ; 
but this is harsh unless we read '}) DHDyn Dn "HPK. || 2 Chr. 10. 8, 
omitting it?K , gives the simple sense ' who stood before him,' and 
is doubtless correct. 

10. nnNl] LXX, Luc. kcu ay vvv, i.e. nny nnfcO in conformity 
with v. 4. 

*3BjJ] From st. ads. fEp. For vocalization cf. fejj Ezek. 26. 9. 
Doubtless the original and correct form was ^£ij, like YjJK, ^{?f|, 
with half-open syllable, and a later stage of pronunciation first 
raised the hate/ qamec to the position of a full short vowel, and 
then proceeded in consequence to place it in a closed syllable by 
doubling the b. So || 2 Chr. 10. 10 *3&P. 

"0DP, only here and in || 2 Chr., = 'my littleness,' so, no doubt 
rightly, ' my little finger,' Vulg., Pesh. LXX, Luc. fj niKporrjs fiov. 
Targ. paraphrases "niBvn ' my weakness.' 

11. D^nnpy] Explained by Pesh. U^po , Targ. fontD, i.e. pdpayvm, 
1 scourges,' probably so named from being loaded with metal or 

XII. 4-x6 175 

stones to produce keener sting. For the use of the article in 
DTttBfc, ttmpya cf. note on Dn»3 ^. 1. 1. 

12. n*l] Read Q're Ntajl. The sing, verb agrees, as is fre- 
quently the case, with the nearest member of the compound subject. 
Cf. Da. § ii4 b . On this verse in LXX, Luc. cf. note on chh. 
11. 26 — 14. 20. 

13. r v\ fjw] 'And the king returned the people a harsh response! 
For rtB*jJ ' something harsh' cf. || 2 Chr. 10. 13; 1 Sam. 20. 10; 
ch. 14. 6; Ps. 60. 5; plur. TW^ Gen. 42. 7, 3ot. 

15. H2D] A a7ra| Xe-y. ; something turning or bringing about, 



' fate ' or ' providence.' So LXX, Luc. /ierao-rpoc^, Pesh. )Lol» 
'instigation'; Targ. NrTOD, passive, 'fated lot,' so || 2 Chr. 10. 15 
PI3D3 a7ra| Aey. The verb appears to be used with a similar sense 
in 1 Sam. 22. 22 f2H n"a £>£tf bl2 Vto VMK 'I have brought 
about (sc. death) upon every member of thy father's house.' This, 
however, with ellipse of the direct object flJD, is extremely harsh, 
and Th., Wellh., Dri., Budde emend vnn ' / am guilty in respect 
of &c.' In late Rabbinic Hebrew n3D = < cause/ 

iTTIK T3] Cf. f£. 8. 53 w&. 

16. 7N"ity zd] Luc. 7ras 6 Xao'y, Vulg. populus. 

'y\ H0k?] The words of Sheba son of Bichri are nearly identical ; 
2 Sam. 20. 1. 

p?n 1j? flo] ' There is not a portion to us'; practically equivalent 
to pbn \h pK 2 Sam. 20. 1, but no, originally interrogative = #&7«.' :> 
gives more emphatic point to the negation. This use of HD, though 
very usual in Arabic, is rare in Hebrew ; Cant. 8. 4 nft) lT»yn no 
rnn**n n« myn answers to 2. 7 ; 3. 5 'X\ n^yn DX ; cf. also Job 31.i 
n^ina by pUDN HBl 'and how shall I gaze &c.'='and I will not 
gaze'; 9. 2; 16. 6; Prov. 20. 24. Ew. § 325 b . 

Tf •?*??] With full long vowel in the antepenult upon which 
there dwells a counfertone, thus facilitating the due pronunciation 
of the two weak letters n«. So vSjX, D*j5hk. Cf. Sta. § 109. 

*irP2 nan] The point of the taunt appears to be in the suffix 
of "JfTO ' look to thy house ' (so Th.), emphasizing the old division 
(2 Sam. 2. 4, 8-11) and jealous hostility (2 Sam. 2. 16; 19. 42-44) 

1 76 The First Book of Kings 

existing between the tribe of Judah and the northern tribes. For 
the nuance of flN") 'look after' cf. Gen. 39. 23. LXX, Luc. P6<tkc 
top oikov aov, i. e. *]JV3 r\yi • 

I7« ^N"^' 1 "021J Luc. Ka\ ol viol 'lovda kcu 01 viol 'lo-purjX. The 

additional words represent a marginal correction afterwards inserted 
in the text. 

nrtbv 1^1 . . . btnw ^m] Cf. ch. 9. 21 note. 

18. After r "\ "jtan niw Pesh. adds ^U<xu? c*^o La^, i.e. 

•• T; • t V 

Dms] Luc, Pesh. read Vy™. ; cf. ch. 4. 6 note. 

DDH] Cf. ch. 4. 6 note. 

pK 12 ♦ ♦ ♦ lEm] So with 1 of person stoned || 2 Chr. 10. 18; 
Lev. 24. i6f. Elsewhere once with b$ of person Ezek. 23. 47, 
but most generally with accusative Lev. 24. 14; at. (11 times). 
With 2 of instrument pN2, D^2N2 Lev. 20. 2; Num. 14. 10 ; at. 

19. m ovn ny] Cf. r^. 8. 8 «^. 

20. mirf D3t5>] LXX, Luc. add <al Bevianeiv, for conformity 
with v. 23. Cf. r/7. 11. 32, 36. 

21. PJ^K tfJDBI HKD] LXX, Luc. ttcaro* /cat e'Uoat xiXidSej' 
(-Say Luc). 

24. ')) TIND 'O] Cf. 0$. 1. 27. 

12. 26-33. Jeroboam's institution of the calf worship. 

Judging by the stress which R D constantly lays upon Jeroboam's 
cult as the cause of all subsequent deflexion of Israel from the 
pure worship of Yahwe (cf. Introduction), it is probable that this 
narrative has obtained its present casting at his hands, though 
there is no reason hence to infer that any detail of fact is underived 
from the older source. Kue. (Ond. § 25. 4) observes justly, 
' Jeroboam's measures with reference to the worship must already 
have been related in older narratives, but it is only natural that 
the redactor, when dealing with a matter which so specially 
excited his interest, should not fail to set before us his own 

XII zy-ji 177 

construction and his own verdict.' vv. 32, 33 serve to introduce 
the story of ch. 13. No special phrases of R D are to be noticed. 

28. ni^VD D^i? 3"i] Not, as RV. text, ' It is too much for you to 
go up' (this would be D3J? 31; c f. ch. 19. 7), but, as marg., 'Ye 
have gone up long enough" The p before DvJ? is logically redun- 
dant, as in Ezek. 44. 6 D3Vti3#rri>3» &3^"3! ' Enough of all your 
abominations/ and the normal construction is that of Deut. 1. 6 
'31 nif DJ^-ll; 2. 3. Cf. the similar use of JD after ^l] ; Ezek. 

8. 17 'y\ nwyp rnin; rv3i> Sjjmh; butch. 16. 31 ^ 5>&Jl]. 

'31 T'^N ran] Cf. Ex. 32. 4, 8 (E). 

29. jnj TrWl DKl ♦ ♦ . iriKn n« DG^l] For contrasted order of 
words cf. ch. 5. 25 note. 

7K JT3] The modern Beitin, a short distance to the north 
of Michmash (Mukhmas) of Benjamin, and so upon the southern 
frontier of Jeroboam's kingdom. For the substitution of Ar. -in 
for Heb. !>« cf. Zerin=hxynV. See Rob. BR. i. 448/.; Baed. 249. 

30. riNBrp] Luc. adds rw 'io-pa^X, htiTW'b, which, as more 
definite and agreeing with the frequent phrase of R D N s Dnn 1BW 
stiTW* nx, may be deemed correct. 

'31 ID^l] Obviously incomplete in making mention only of the 
worship at Dan. We should probably restore V.?? &¥? ^?1 "3 
fq-ny nnxn "aabl ^TIT^ imn < for the people used to go before 
the one to Bethel and before the other unto Dan.' The words 
supplied may be thought to have fallen out through homoioteleuton, 
and in 13,> v ) for IDP* 1 *3 we have a case of the confusion between 
3 and 1 seen elsewhere in ch. 22. 37 T)W), LXX otl TeOvijKev, 
i.e. rip *3 ; Isa. 39. 1 JW1 for yEP *3; Jer. 37. 16 K3 s 3 for K3*i; 
1 Sam. 2. 21 lp2 \a for *ip3 v ). Luc, which adds Ka\ irpb Tvpoa-oiirov 
rrjs aWrjs ds Bai6r)\ after the reference to Dan, probably exhibits 
a later restoration of the text, since, if this be regarded as the 
original order, it is not clear why the words should have fallen out. 
Vulg. ibat enim populus ad adorandum vitulum usque in Dan 
paraphrases in order to overcome the difficulty of the single lntfn. 
LXX, Pesh., Targ. as MT. 

31. nvon rvn nx Wl] Read, with Luc, niD3 nu D5J3"V B>sn 


178 The First Book of Kings 

' And Jeroboam made houses of high places/ i. e. temples erected 
upon the high places. rV2 is collective, as in II. 17. 29, 32 T)"23, 
nton of the temples of the various cults at Samaria. Ch. 13. 32; 
II. 23. 19, plur. riton W3. The use of DK before the indefinite 
niD2 T) s 2 is anomalous; the case being different to ch. 16. 18 
*]bft JTn DX vby Pp^l ' and he burnt the king's house over him/ 
where ^D n% like ")!?» BHpD, nofeft n*a Am. 7. 13, is really 
definite; cf. Da. § 22, Rem. 3; E\v. § 277°. Cases like 1 Sam. 
24. 6 (cf. LXX) ; 2 Sam. 5. 24 * (cf. || 1 Chr. 14. 15); 18. 18, where 
DK appears to be used before an indefinite object, are probably 
textual errors. 

DJM nitfpio] 'From among the whole of the people '; lit. ' from 
the end of.' So ch. 13. 33 ; II. 17. 32 ; Gen. 19. 4 njgB Dyn ^3 
'all the people, one and all'; Jer. 51. 31 n^JO T^y '"HO?: 'his city 
is taken throughout'; Isa. 56. 11 in*!?*? IVM^ t^N 132 DrnS> nbl 
' all of them have turned to their own way, each to his gain, one 
arid alV; Ezek. 25. 9 3nSj3B "HSJD c from his cities in every quarter' ; 
33. 2 DlTSpD inx tf^K 'one man from a??iong the whole of them.' 
The phrase may be illustrated e.g. by Num. 22. 41 nyp Di^D KT1 
Dyn ' and he saw thence the uttermost part of the people/ and so, 
by implied inclusion, the whole of them. 

32. DV "CT n£*?on:i] Pesh. )|ltY>n^ here and in v. 33, i.e. 'upon 
the full moon'; cf. Heb. HD33 Ps. 81. 4. 

3ns] ' Like the feast/ i.e. the feast of Tabernacles ; cf. ch. 8. 2, 65. 
This, however, was on the fifteenth day of the seventh month, 
Lev. 23. 34 ; hence the statement of v. 33 a/3 . 

nation by ^n] Cf. ch. 1. 53 note. 

7WV nt^S ♦ ♦ ♦ iWy p] There can be little doubt that this latter 
portion of v. 32, together with the first three words of v. 33 7JW 
nOTJOn by repeated from the previous verse, represents a very early 
gloss inserted on account of the omission in v. 30. After the loss of 
the words to be supplied in this latter verse, ) b^n^l bit nnxn *3B?, 
it is clear that the reference to the institution of the priests and the 

1 Da.'s explanation of m?s blp n« as ' a known kind of divine rustling ' is 
inadequate; § 72, Rem. 4. 

XII 32- XIII 179 

festival, vv. 31, 32 aa , might be taken to refer only to the sanctuary 
at Dan, and so give rise to this explanatory insertion. Notice 
the awkwardness of nt^y p asyndetos, and Tioyni perf. with weak 1. 

33. *OWn , , , ^jn] Pesh. omits. 

fata N*n IBW] ' Which he had invented out of his own heart.' 
Nil occurs only once beside in OT.; Neh. 6. 8 D&Hta HAN SJ3&D 
'out of thine own heart art thou inventing them* (for D^nta). 
In Rabbinic Hebrew and Aramaic the verb has the same meaning, 
always with a bad nuance. Q're i3?0 , with the sense ' at his own 
initiative/ is correct; cf. Num. 16. 28; 24. 13; Ezek. 13. 2, 17. 

13. 1—32. The prophecy against the altar at Bethel. 

The style of the language shows traces of decadence : — cf. JflJI 
perf. with weak 1 v. 3, TlK TO, vN "Q*T apparently first written as 
Wjf, ^K "fl"! £Z>. 9, 17, law 1KW N^n^ z>. 23 (but cf. note ad loc), 
and perhaps flDD z>. 7 — and this fact, together with the anachronism 
pot? Hjn ». 32 (cf. II. 17. 24, 26; 23. 19), and the non-mention 
of the names of the principal actors, marks the narrative as being 
of comparatively late origin. It may be thought to have been 
a story previously current in the form of oral tradition, and to have 
assumed a literary form very shortly after the event predicted — the 
destruction of the altar at Bethel — had come about. Notice 
the precision of the statement iw liW&O v. 2. The style is about 
contemporary with that of the annals of Josiah's reformation, 
II. 23. 1-15, 19-24, where the perf. with weak 1 is used with some 
frequency : — vv. 4, 5, 8, 10, 12, 14, 15. It is, however, by no means 
to be hence inferred that the story is of the character of a vaticinium 
post evenlum. Such a view presupposes that it, together with the 
notice of II. 23. 16-18, was inserted into Kings subsequently to 
the redaction of R D (Wellh. C. 280; Kue. Ond. § 25. 4); whereas 
on the contrary ch. 12. 26 ff. appears to have been carefully edited 
by R D so as to lead up to the story, and the resumption of the 
main narrative in ch. 13. 33, 34, forming the link to ch. 14. 1-20, 
constructs of the history a harmonious whole. If the story be 

N 2 

180 The First Book of Kings 

merely a very late Judaean fiction, the point of the details as to 
the disobedience and punishment of the Judaean prophet seems 
to be quite inexplicable. 

i. '* "Q"Q] So vv. 2, 5, 9, 17, 18, 32. Elsewhere in this sense 
ch. 20. 35 ; 1 Sam. 3. 21 ; 2 Chr. 30. i2t. * ^.fl? 2 Chr. 29. 15I*. 

nnron by ivy] Cf. ch. 1. 53 »<?/*. 

2. ion ,13] Pesh. prefixes |u«j»? c*j*l^*9 >*..»*, 'Hear the 
word of the Lord/ 

ysPW\ Impers. ' shall they burn/ so ' shall be burnt.' LXX, 
Luc, Vulg., Pesh. presuppose *fW). 

3. DDIO] 'A wonder' or ' miracle/ as a proof of the divine com- 
mission ; so Ex. 4. 21 ; 7. 9 ; 2 Chr. 32. 24, 31 ; cf. Deut. 13. 2, 3. 

6. '' "OB HN fcU bri] 'Entreat the favour of Yahwe'; lit. 'Make 
sweet the face &c' Ar. ix, C^t Aram. vH, ,*X* = /<? <$£ jm/**/ 
ox pleasant. 

rwaroa] Judg. 20. 32; Isa. 1. 26; Jer. 33.7, II t- More 
loosely rufcta")! Deut. 9. 18 ; Dan. 11. 291-. 

7. rrjjftt] So *pJWn Jer. 22. 20, HJJW II. 7. 18. Elsewhere we 
find hatefpathah with a sibilant after the //-sound : — V?*^ ch. 14. 21, 
ntol II. 9. 17, XJDB^ II. 19. 16% ann Gen. 2. 12, S1PB* 27. 26, 
•Tlb^ Lev. 25. 34, nn^l Judg. 5. 12, Dan. 9. 18. According to 
G-K. (§ 10 g) the hatef-qamec in the former cases arises under the 
influence both of the preceding u and the following guttural ; but 
probably Konig (Lehrg. I. i. 262) is correct in regarding the slightly 
fuller sound of this half-vowel as due to the more emphatic 
sibilants D, V. 

DDD] Ezek. 46. 5. 1 1 ; Prov. 25. 1 4 ; Eccl. 3. 1 3 ; 5. 1 8 f. A bye- 
form of the more usual n^rip f contracted from fljrip . 

8. 'jl fnn DN] Cf. the words of Balaam, Num. 22. 18; 24. 13 (JE). 
On the form of the conditional sentence, expressing the merest 
(hyperbolical) possibility, cf. Dri. Tenses, § 143. 

9. TlK mv p "o] ' For so one commanded me,' the implied subject 
being the voice of Yahwe, or, as in v. 18, the divine messenger. 
For other instances of this semi-impersonal construction, employed 
where the intervention of divine agency (or agencies) is implied, 

XIII. 1-14 i8i 

cf. Zech. 9. 12 TH3 ; and in plur. Job 7. 3 ^310 \ Ezek. 32. 25 un:. 
So in Aramaic Dan. 4. 22 pvita; 4. 28 pnotf ; a/. It seems, how- 
ever, to be not improbable that TlK HIS represents the alteration 
of an original VW ' I was commanded/ Cf. Wellh. C. 280 ; Klo., 
Kamp., Benz., Kit. See on *>b "Dl v. 17. 

11. ]pl inK N*3J] M certain old prophet' For this use of nn«, 
mainly characteristic of northern Palestinian narrative and of the 
later style, cf. instances cited p. 209. The usage is common in 
Rabbinic Hebrew. Luc. irpotfyfjrris aXXos, i. e. iriK N*3J ; * and another 
prophet, an old man, was dwelling in Bethel.' iriN, where the 
name of neither prophet is mentioned, is most apposite, and may 
well be original. 

'a 133 K3<1] LXX, Luc, Vulg., Pesh. presuppose rttDp. V*33 1K3J1 
rightly, in accordance with plur. DV1BD*1 v. n b , driTM ». 12. 

DVfl] ' 7%<z/ day/ So only here. The writer seems to lapse 
into the point of view of the sons, to whom it was DIM ' to-day! 
Luc. iv rrj rjfiepa eKeiurj suggests the more usual Wnn Di s 3, but is 
more likely to be an alteration of LXX iv rfj fjfiepa. 

'X\ DIIBD*!] Resuming the previous ViBDI ; cf. ch. 2. 4 note. LXX, 
Luc. strangely kol inio-Tpetyav to 7rp6(r<o7rop tov irarpos airoov, apparently 
reading through corruption DiTa&O WBIDI, i.e. Dn\3*& D^B TI^DJI; 
inea-Tpeyf/av an alteration of dnea-rpe^/av. 

12. D.T2K nni?N "121^1] LXX, Luc. add Xeyo>i/ ; so Klo. "ȣ*y. 
But the word is similarly absent in MT., and supplied by LXX, 
Luc. in vv. 17, 22. 

1~\in rt? *N] ' Where is the way ?' so ' Which way ?' So II. 3. 8 ; 
2 Chr. 18. 23; Job 38. 19, 24, always, as here, with omission 
of relative "l^K before the following verb. On the enclitic fir, 
strongly pointing the question, cf. note on nt HE? <:& 14. 6. 

'31 WIS] ' Now his sons had seen &c/ LXX, Luc, Vulg., Pesh. 
are greatly superior in presupposing W]S 'and his sons showed 
(him)/ So Benz., Kit. VWTg\ 9 Klo., Kamp. VTjJl; cf. Ex. 15. 25. 

14. n?Ki"l] ' 7/fo terebinth,' which the writer's vivid imagination 
pictures as the tree under which the prophet was sitting. So 
ch. 18. 4 rnjflS? , , , DK'QrVI 'and hid them in the cave,' marked 

1 82 The First Book of Kings 

as having thus afforded an asylum; 2 Sam. 17. 17 nriBBM nD^ni 
' and a wench used to go &c,' pictured by the writer as ' the wench ' 
simply as being the agent thus employed ; 1 Sam. 9. 9 ^xn 11DK i"D 
' thus spake the man] who, as a matter of fact, did so speak ; but 
according to English idiom, 'thus spake a man'; 2 Sam. 15. 13; 
Gen. 14. 13; al. This method of thought may be most clearly 
understood in such a case as 1 Sam. 17. 34 IK! fcOl 'and if a lion 
came/ where the speaker has had active experience of the coming 
of the lions which he thus recalls to his mind. Cf. Da. § 21 e. 
This use of the article is a very idiomatic extension of the usage 
noticed in ch. 1. 1. 

16. *]nK fctnh] LXX, Luc. omit. Pesh. y^?>^ JLjo, i.e. Huh 
^IVS ' and to enter thy house/ is preferable to MT. 

■jriK rWN fc6l] LXX, Luc, Vulg., Pesh. omit "]DK, but Pesh. 
supplies the word after the previous ?3K K7». 

17. b>H 131 ^] LXX, Luc, Pesh., Targ. suggest ^K 121 ^ 
1 for zV z#tf.r said unto me.' So Wellh., Klo., Kamp., Benz., Kit. 
Cf. note on v. 9. 

18. IN/D] As in <r^. 19-5; Zech. 1. 9, 14; a/. nVT "J^D 
^. 19. 7; II. 1. 3, 15; Gen. 16. 7 ; 22. 11 ; Ex. 3. 2 ; al. 

X? BTD] The perfect thus used asyndetos forms a circumstantial 
clause, — '/>%• «w/0 ^'/;/'; cf. f^. 7. 51 fn: ; 18.6 'ji *]iM nans 
' Ahab going one way &c/ Dri. Tenses, § 163. 

19. ins 2V* t \\ LXX, Luc. Km iiri<rrpv\w airdv, i.e. folk ZXM, 

20. 'jil Ml ♦ ♦ ♦ tPW D»l Ml] 'And it came to pass — they were 
sitting at the table — and there came &c/; so, 'And it came to 
pass, as they were sitting at the table, that there came &c.' The 
circumstantial clause \TY?WT\ 7K 0*365* DH, elevated to so striking 
a position in advance of the principal sentence, lays great stress 
upon the moment of time at which the event described by the latter 
took place. Cf. II. 2. n 'J1 E>N ±1 rum 1111 -J^.l m5>.1 nDfl Ml 
' And it came to pass, while they were going o?i and lathing- as they 
went, that behold a chariot of fire &c.'; II. 8. 5. Cf. Dri. Tenses, 
§ 165, who terms the participle thus used the participle absolute. 

\xh®\\ i>K] l At the table'; cf. ch. 6. 18 note for this use of 5>'K. 

XIII. i6- 2 6 183 

In Neh. 5. 17 we have •orpC by, lit. 'above or over my table'; 
1 Sam. 20. 34 Jonathan gets up jrwn Dtfft ''from proximity with 
the table.' When the idea of eating at the table is prominent, it is 
natural and accurate to use by 'upon'; so 2 Sam. 9. 7, 10, 13, 
cf. Ezek. 39. 20. In ch. 2. 7; 18. 19; 2 Sam. 19. 29, however, we 
have the simple st. constr. employed ; — jrw \?3N. 

21. *0 Jjr] So ch. 21. 29; Num. II.20; Isa. 3. 16; 7.5; 8.6; 
29.. 13. The more usual expression is "13?K fjp j ^. 3. 1 1 ; 8. 18 ; «/. 
fy. appears to be originally a substantive = ' response,' contracted 
from njJT from verb rttJJ. So with fyp in the phrase WQ? 'on 
account of/ ■ in order (that).' Cf. 3£}> ' recompense ' used in the 
sense 'in return for/ 'because'; Deut. 7. 12; <z/. 

'* >D mo] So v. 26; 1 Sam. 12. 15; Num. 20. 24; 27. 14; 
Lam. 1. i8f ; and with Hiph'il Deut. 1. 26, 43 ; 9. 23 ; Josh. 1. 18 ; 
1 Sam. 12. i4f. 

22. 'y\ N3n mb] Illustrated by the dying injunction of Jacob, 
Gen. 47. 30, and of Joseph, 50. 25. 

23. ininp] LXX, Luc, Pesh. add D?P in accordance with vv. 8, 
16, 18, 19. 

WBTI ">^N fcOSJ?] Very awkward. The sentence would most 
obviously mean ' for the prophet who had brought him back ' 
(cf. vv. 20, 26), but in accordance with the context can only be 
rendered 'for the prophet whom he had brought back/ the suffix 
of D^n referring back to the antecedent K*a3, as in Aram. ; 
cf. Duval, Gramm. Syr. § 399 b. LXX, Luc, in place of these 

words and the "]? ,| 1 of V. 24 a , read kcli irrearpe^ev Ka\ dnrjXOev, i.e. 
* =12*1 3ft] ' and he once more departed' ; probably the original text. 
Pesh. .^llo ^aeio -.Jo^lf ch^l^, i.e. $5 3ft] EMli* W2)b, 
suggests that MT. arose from the incorporation into the text of the 
words DWK &033?, a marginal note explanatory of the previous )b. 

24. ra^D . . ♦ Vim] Cf. ch. 5. 1 note on bm HM. 
26 b , 27. LXX omits. 

26. 'jl HID] The phrase "m "»BW '* "1113 occurs frequently in 
Kings to call attention to the fulfilment of a prophecy. So ch. 22. 38. 
Most often mention of the prophetic agent is added in the form 

184 The First Book of Kings 

'B V2;—ch. 14. 18; 15. 29; 16. 12, 34; 17. 16; II. 14. 25; 
24. 2. Cf. also II. 10. 17; 4. 44; 7. 16; 9. 26; 1. 17; 23. 16; 
2. 22. 

28 a . rrnxm -nom] Emend nn«ni ntonni . Klo. 'aifatom. 
28^. rv2M nx] LXX to o-eofia mv avBpwnov tov 6(ov, to harmonize 
with v. 29. 

29. nionn ^xj S>X for ^y; cf. <r^. 16. 13; 18. 46; II. 5. 11; 
9. 3, 12; Josh. 5. 14; 1 Sam. 13. 13; al. For the converse 
change, after a verb of motion, cf. ch. 1. 38 note. 

T\2\>b ♦ ♦ ♦ inaw] LXX, Luc. run more smoothly and naturally : — 

kcu inearpfyj/ev avrov (Luc. atro} els ttjv 7ro\iv 6 7rpo(pr)Tr)s, tov 6d\j/ai 

<ivt6v, i.e. V-Dj^ Tprr^J K"3|n ^nyeh. LXX, however, is incorrect 
in omitting infeiJ fix Wl of v. 30 and joining napa on to n^p? 
of v. 29. 

30. nSD^l] Luc, Pesh. presuppose sing. I'SD^l. 
VlK W] Cf. Jer. 22. 18. 

31. inN Pap N in«] LXX, Luc. /xfra to Ko^aaOat avrov, Vulg. 

cumque planxissent eum, presuppose Ivy HSp "HriN . 

TIN* Dmapl Tiim] 'When I die, then bury me.' For the 1 
consec. with perf. after the very terse time determination cf. Ezek. 
24. 24 DnyTI nxiaa 'When it (the sign) come to pass, ye shall 
know &c/ Dri. Tenses, § 123/3, Da. § 56. 

32. m»an Tia] Cf. ch. 12. 31 note. 
|VW nya] Cf. «<?& on vv. 1-32. 

13. 33, 34. A brief resumption by R D of the main thread 
of the history from the end of chapter 12. 

33. run "lain ins] ' After this event! The phrase occurs only 
here, the more usual (and less precise) expression being D'nain "intf 
rbxn ch. 17. 17; 21. 1; Gen. 15. 1; 22. 1 ; 40. 1; Ezr. 7. 1; 
Est. 2. 1; 3. it; rvNH onann nriK Gen. 22. 20; 48. 1; Josh. 
24. 29; 2 Chr. 32. if. 

njnn is-hd . ♦ , a# t6] Jer. 18. n; 25.5; 26.3; 35.15; 

36. 3, 7; Jon. 3. 8, 10; Ezek. 13. 22 (inn 13"Tjp)tj and with pi. 

XIII. 28— XIV i8 5 

II. 17. 13 (R D ); 2 Chr. 7. 14; Zech. 1. 4f. Cf. Jer. 23. 22; 
Ezek. 3. 19; 33. 11. 

nyn mvpo] Cf. ch. 12. 31 00/*. 

IT DK N^»*] ' He used to fill his hand/ i. e. ' he would install 
him' as priest. The expression seems to be derived from the 
ceremony of filling the hands of the person to be consecrated with 
the choice portions of the sacrifice for a waive-offering Ex. 29.2 2-25 ; 
Lev. 8. 25-28, these being called B^P Lev. 8. 28. The phrase 
is used of the consecration of the priest at Micah's sanctuary 
Judg. 17. 5, 12, but is elsewhere characteristic of P and of 
later Books. 

ni»3 "Ofia TO] Impossible. LXX, Luc, Vulg., Pesh. ftp TO 
Dtop ' and he became priest to the high-places ' ; so Kamp. Klo. 
prefers to follow Targ. and emend T))D2 ^nb V»ni. 

34. '31 murb] Read, with LXX, Luc, Pesh. '"V wJ> riKBnf\ 
Cf. ch. 12. 30 a . 

nEHK.l ^2 bw vnwrb] So Deut. 6. 15; Am. 9. 8f; cf. Josh. 
23. 15 (D 2 ). nwn, pass. 105W is very frequent in Deut. (27 times); 
cf. Dri. Deut. 1. 27. 

14. 1-18. The sickness and death of Jeroboam's 
son Abijah. 

Upon the LXX Version of this narrative in its relationship to 
MT. see note on chh. 11. 26 — 14. 20. The story exhibits very clear 
traces of the hand of R D in Ahijah's prophecy vv. 7-16, with which 
should be compared the prophecies of Jehu son of Hanani against 
Ba'asha ch. 16. 1-4, of Elijah against Ahab ch. 21. 20-24, an d of 
the young prophet against the house of Ahab II. 9. 6-10. The 
following phrases are to be noticed : — 

7. \v?\W v6k '*] So v. 13. Cf. ch. 8. 15 note. 
'y\ |V] So exactly ch. 16. 2 a . 

8. nn nays rv\n b6\] Cf. ch. 3. 14 note on 1)1 "]5>n ItPfcO. 
TllVD 1B^ n^K] Cf. ch. 2. 3 tf<?/*. 

•nriN l^n] Cf. ^. 11. 5 note. 
\xh ^n] Cf. *vfc. 2. 4 note. 

1 86 The First Book of Kings 

'i) TWyb] Cf. ch. 11. 33 note. 

9. yisb . . . snni] Cf. ch. 16. 25, 30, 33; II. 17. 2 ; 11.21. u. 

As used of Jeroboam the expression 70a? VH 1BW blD is 
somewhat mechanical. 

DnplK D\"6n] Cf. ^. 9. 6 note. 

•OD^yDiv] Not, as RV., 'to provoke me to anger,' but, ' to vex 
me' by treatment wholly undeserved. So subs. 0V3= C vexa- 
tion' or ' chagrin] the rendering 'grief being too general, 
and ' anger' incorrect ; cf. Ps. 10. 14 ; 1 Sam. 1. 16 ; Job 6. 2. 
The verb (Hiph'il) is very characteristic of R D : — v. 15; 
I5.30; 16.2,7,13,26,33; 21.22; 22.54; II. 17. 11, 17; 
21. 6 (|| 2 Chr. 33. 6), 15; 22. 17 (|| 2 Chr. 34. 25); 23. 19, 
26; cf. 2 Chr. 28. 25; Deut. 4. 25; 9. 18; 31. 29; 32. 
16; Jer.7. 18, 19; 8. 19; 11. 17; 25. 6,7; 32. 29, 30, 32; 
44. 3, 8. Elsewhere, with mrp as obj., only six times. Pi'el, 
Deut. 32. 21. 

10. bx r\y N"a» *}an] Cf. ch. 21. 21; II. 22. 16 (||2 Chr. 

34. 24 by, cf. v. 20 II 2 Chr. 34. 28) both R B ; Jer. 6. 19; 
11. 11 (cf. v. 23); cf. 19. 15; 35. 17. With bv II. 21. 12 
R D ; Jer. 19. 3; 45. 5; cf. Jer. 17. 18; 23. 12; 36. 31; 
49.37; 51.64. 

Tpn pnp»] Ch. 16. 11 ; 21. 21 ; II. 9. 8 R D . Only besides 
1 Sam. 25. 22, 34L 

nwnivy] Ch. 21. 21 ; II. 9. 8 ; 14. 26 (all R D ); Deut. 32. 36T. 
The phrase means 'restrained and let loose' (2fV as in 
Ex. 23. 5 'release'; Job 10. 1), i.e. ( all,' every one being 
supposed to fall under one of the two categories. Cf. the 
expressions of Deut. 29. 18 ntttttn HN nwi; Isa. 2. 9 riB^I 
CN ^SB*1 DIN ' mean man . . . great man ' ; Ps. 49. 3 ; 
Job 12. 16; Eccl. 9. 2; and for examples from Ar. cf. 
Thes. 1008, 1362. The precise application of the phrase 
is obscure. The most plausible explanation is that of Ew. 
Antiquities, 170, 'kept in (by legal defilement) and at large' 
For this sense of 11^ cf. Jer. 36. 5 mib bl)K i6 "W ^N* 
'* rVl ; 1 Sam. 21. 8 '•> vsb "WJH. So R. Sm. Rel. Sem. 2 456 ; 

XIV i, 2 i8 7 

Dri. Deut. 32. 36. Other suggestions are : — i bond and free] 
Ges. ; cf. "isy II. 17. 4; Jer. 33. 1; al. : 'married and 
celibate] De Dieu, Ke. ; Ar. C^'S 'azib = ' celibate,' -,1^1 
'asaru, explained wrongly (cf. Roediger, Thes. Append. 104) 
as ' paterfamilias ' : ' under and over age] Th., Kamp., 
following Schmidt, c puer, qui domi adhuc delinelur, et qui 
emancipates est/ For the alliteration of the phrase Dri. 
{loc. cit.) cites 1J3J P? Isa. 14. 22 ; Gen. 21. 23 ; Job 18. 19; 
n#l -$ Mai. 2. 12 ; "Og>} nb> Isa. 59. 7 ; 60. 18 ; Jer. 48. 3 ; 
Ecclus. 40. 9; W'J TW Isa. 5. 6; «/. (7 times). Add 
1JJ VJ Gen. 4. 12, 14 ; V1J H^n Ezek. 2. 10 ; P7J *P» Ecclus. 
40. 4; afn} inin Deut. 28. 22; Ecclus. 40. 9 1 ; &TJ in^ 
Ezek. 5. 17 ; cf. 38. 22. 

nn« Tnjni] Cf. f^. 21. 21+ ; "nrttCVJODfA. 16. 3t; both R D . 
11. -:i non] C& 16. 4; 21. 24! R D ; cf. 11. 9. 10, 36; ch. 21. 

19, 23; 22.38. 

15. flNtn nilDH JTjDIWI i>}JD] So exactly Josh. 23. 13, 15 (D 2 ) f. 

The usual phrase in Deut. of the land of Canaan is pNH 
rniDn ; cf. Dri. Deut. Ixxxi. 
DrWltt*6 \T\) IBW] Cf. ch. 8. 34 note. 

16. ':1 DINtDn ^1] Cf. ch. 15. 30. Reference to the sins of 

Jeroboam in these terms is very constant in R D . See Introd. 

1. X\"in nja] A phrase employed by R D in synchronizing events 
narrated in different sources; II. 16. 6; 18. 16; 20. 12; 24. 10. 
Cf. ch. 8. 65; 11. 29; II. 8. 22. For similar expressions thus 
used cf. note on TN ch. 3. 16. 

2. rWrrtWll] Hithpdel only here : ' and thou shalt change thyself] 
i.e. 'change thy clothes/ 'disguise thyself.' So in Syr. wJjjJ&a,/ 
for uJl£*7 Ethpe'el of IL^, here and in ch. 22. 30 ; 1 Sam. 
10. 6; al. 

tyT K?l] Impers., ' that (men) may not know,' so RV. ' that 
thou be not known.' 

1 The vocalization yfi 'drought,' in preference to nn, is adopted by most 
moderns. Cf. Dri. Deuteronomy ', ad loc. 

1 88 The First Book of Kings 

TIN] Kt. ViK as in II. 4. 16, 23 ; 8. 1 ; Judg. 17. 2 ; Jer. 4. 30 ; 
Ezek. 36. i3t; Q're always AN. VIS is the more ancient form of the 
pron. 2nd pers. fern, sing., and appears to be a dialectical survival. 
Cf. Ar. c*3l, Eth. XV£: ««/// Assyr. atli-e; Syr. J^>Y att, where w, 
though written, is not pronounced. 

nV] Also written 1^ 1^0 ; probably originally |ft£ and so ^ 
Josh. 15. 51 ; 2 Sam. 15. 12 originally (vf, as forming adjectives 
'&V ch. 11. 29; a/.; ^2 2 Sam. 15. 12; 23. 34. Wright, 
however [Compar. Gramm. 138^), suggests the possibility of an 
original Shailau, Gaild'u with termination like Ar. *!' — . The site 
of Shiloh is described in Judg. 21. 19 as 'N. of Beth-el, E. of 
the highway which goes up from Beth-el to Shechem, S. of 
Lebonah,' and this accurately corresponds to the modern Seilun; 
cf. Rob. BR. ii. 268/*.; Baed. 250. 

i?tb *by 131 Nil] ' He spoke of me as (lit. for) king/ i. e. 
predicted that I should be king ; a use of b common in such phrases 
as b JD2, b D^, b nvy, b 1pB, but somewhat strange after 121. 
Cod. A rov fiaaiXevo-ai, Vulg. quod regfiaiurus essem, Pesh. ^^o|t, 
Targ. Nsta ^Ti^b suggest "pV? 'that I should reign' probably 
correctly. So Th., Klo., Kamp., Benz., Kit. 

3. DHpj] Only elsewhere Josh. 9. 5, 12, where the word denotes 
dry fragments of old bread. Here probably some kind of cakes or 
dry biscuits ; so LXX, Luc. KoWvpia, Vulg. crustuiam, Pesh. Juimo, 
Targ. pjD*3 (cf. Levy s. v.). 

5. "IDK mm] ' Now Yahwe had said ' ; pluperfect. The writer, 
wishing to narrate an event anterior to that described in the previous 
verse 'y\ N13m, cuts the thread of continuous narrative formed by 
the succession of imperfects with 1 consec. by interposing the subject 
between the conjunction and the verb, and thus starts afresh from 
a new standpoint. Cf. ch. 22. 31 HIS DiK ibft) 'had commanded,' 
prior to the commencement of the battle; II. 7. 17; 9. i6 b ; 
Gen. 31. 34 ; at.; Dri. § 76 y Obs. 

121 vr\lb~] 'To seek an oracle.' t Cf. II. 1. 16 11313 VTlb. 
The more usual phrase is mm Htf vnib 'To seek, or inquire of 
Yahwe'; ch. 22. 8; II. 22. 18; Gen. 25. 22; al 

XIV. 3-12 189 

PIJ31 nf3] So Judg. 18. 4 ; 2 Sam. 11. 25. On nf cf. II. 6. 19 note. 

'31 PKWa WQ Read, with Cod. A, Vulg. 01 nam W ' And it 
came to pass that, as she came in, she was dissembling herself/ 
The sentence belongs to the narrator's description, and not, as the 
MT. vocalization is intended to indicate, to the words of Yah we. - 
■TOino lit. ' making herself strange ' here and in v. 6 ; elsewhere in 
this sense only in Gen. 42. 7, of Joseph's conduct to his brethren. 

6. PKO iT^JH 7)p fitf] ' The sound of her feet as she came in.' 
The participle HN2 agrees with the suffix of nvJl. So, if vocalization 
be correct, Ps. 69. 4 '31 ?rnp ^JJ 173 'mine eyes consume as 
I wait &c.' Cf. note ond 1. 41. 

PIT niD^] ' Why, now ? ' or, with emphasis, ' Why? ' The enclitic 
PIT, with something of adverbial force, gives point and colour to the 
query. So often: — Gen. 18. 13 ; 25. 22 ; al. Cf. W~n® ch. 21. 5 ; 
al. ; np© 1 Sam. 17. 55, 56; al. ; P1PK ch. 13. 12 note; with n 
interr. P1J nmr\ c h. 18. 7 note; nrntn ch. 19. 5 note; npTFlJf ch. 17. 24; 
II. 5. 22. In Ar. \& is used in the same way: — liUJ, \i\S, te ^.*; 
cf. Fleischer, Kleiner e Schriflen, i. 355/I 

nE>p T^K H1^ "OiKl] ' Seeing that I am sent unto thee with 
something harsh.' piK'p is direct accusative after nv&>, — ' given in 
commission something harsh,' and with an active verb would form 
the remoter accusative, — HE'iJ ^Dps? <he has commissioned me 
(with) something harsh.' For this use of p6b> with double accusative 
cf. Ex. 4. 28 Srbv) "WK '* ^n bl\ so with ffljr, 1 Sam. 21. 3 
"i:i TO 17DH ; Ex. 34. 32 ; a/. For TW\> cf. <r^. 12. 13 note. 

7. TJJ] Cf. f^. 1. 35 note. 

9. '31 nJ?wn YiNl] So Ezek. 23. 35; Neh. 9. 26. Of Yahwe's 
remission of sins, Isa. 38. i7t. Cf. Ps. 50. 17. 

10. 7 ai HVV] See »0/e on z/z/. 1 Jf. 

^an "W i^so] Cf. ^. 1.6 «^. 

12. HX32] If not an error for N3|, an isolated instance of the 
feminine termination with infin. constr. of a verb i"y. The 
explanation of Ew. § 309°, that the termination is suff. 3 fern. sing, 
(with omission of Mappiq from n as in II. 8. 6; al.), and refers by 
anticipation to HT^n, is very unnatural. 

190 The First Book of Kings 

13. 3113 131] ' Something good/ 

14. DIM nt] ' To-day V or 'this very day!' If the text be correct 
(cf. note following), HT is used beiKTiicus, and adds point to DIM which 
in English can scarcely be brought out but by emphasis in pronun- 
ciation. Occurrences of the pronoun thus preceding the subs, to which 
it is in apposition are rare and in most cases poetical. Cf., however, 

II. 6. 33 rnnn mi ; i sa . 23. 13 Dyn nj ; josh. 9. 12 udt£ m. 

nnv D3 HDl] Most obscure, and probably corrupt. The only 
possible rendering seems to be ' But what ? (sc. do I say ? ' no used 
asyndetos as in Prov. 31. 2), so with emphasis * Nay, even now! 1 
The words thus form a climax to DVH nt, as though this expression 
did not sufficiently depict the instant imminence of the destruction 
of Jeroboam's house. 

15. DiTHPN] ' Their Asherim.' The TF$& was made of wood 
Judg. 6. 26, probably in most cases of a whole tree-trunk, Deut. 
16. 21 (rJn 5 ? n l^ in appos. 'an Ashera — any kind of- tree'), and 
was planted (y03 Deut. I.e.) or set on end (TDJfil 2 Chr. 33. 19) 
in the ground. When destroyed it is said to be cut down (ms 
Judg. 6. 25; II. 18. 4; 23. 14), chopped down (TO Deut. 7. 5; 
2 Chr. 14. 2; 31. 1), plucked up (cTU Mic. 5. 13), pulled down 
(YW 2 Chr. 34. 7), or burnt (Deut. 12. 3 ; II. 23. 15) \ Thus mett 
is thought to designate a pole set up as a symbol or substitute for 
the sacred tree venerated by the ancient Semites as the abode of 
the deity. This pole appears to have usually stood beside the altar 
at the Bamoth of the Canaanites, and to have been adopted from 
them by the Israelites in their perverted worship of Yahwe, or 
definitely extraneous worship; cf. Deut. 16. 21; Judg. 6. 25^*. 
See R. Sm. Rel. Sem? 187 ff. 2 

1 pim "teXD ' broke in pieces and beat small,' 2 Chr. 34. 4, probably applies 
chiefly to the graven and molten images, and only by zeugma to the (wooden N 
Asherim. LXX, Luc, making a different division of the verse, read teal 
(Luc. k£)cKo\f/e ra a\<Ji], i.e. DntDWH SW. 

2 F. B. Jevons, Introduction to History of Religion, pp. 134/., collects 
instances of the use of symbolic poles among non-Semitic races : — • This 
ashera appears again amongst people which differ as widely as possible from 
one another in race and place and time : it is presupposed by the £oava of the 

XIV. i 3-i j 191 

It is a moot question whether the name Ashera is also used to 
designate a particular Canaanite goddess. Mention is made of an 
image of the Ashera placed by Manasseh in the Temple, II. 21. 7, 
cf. ch. 15. 13 note; II. 23. 7 perhaps speaks of the making of 
'shrines' for the Ashera (cf. note ad loc.) ; and the Ba'al and the 
Ashera are coupled together as the objects of idolatrous worship, 
ch. 18. 19 (but see note); II. 23. 4; cf. Judg. 3. 7. In the 
Tell-el-Amarna inscriptions we find a name Abd-Asratu = 
' servant of Ashera' (cf. Schrader, ZA. hi. 363^/ KAT? i. 276), 
and the name occurs twice with doubtful significance in Phoenician 
inscriptions. Cf. Dri. Deut. pp. 201 ff. 

Verss. : — LXX always aka-os, pi. a\<rr), except 2 Chr. 15. 16 rf} 

y KcrTapTrj (so Luc); 24. 1 8 reus- ' AardpTats (Luc. Trj'Ao-rapTT}); Isa. 17. 8; 

27. 9 ra 8ep8pa; Luc. in II. 23. 4 rfj 'AarjpwO. Vulg. always lucus, 
except Judg. 6. 25, 26, 30 nemus, 3. 7 Astaroth. Pesh. 19 times 
)1^Xm?, pi. )l^wf 'object of reverence'; Judg. 3. 7; 6. 25, 26, 

28, 30 )*kW> pi- R»kW 'Astarte'; Deut. 16. 21; Mic. 5. 13 
Jl^ks.*. 'trees'; Deut. 7. 5; 12. 4 Jfc^JL* 'molten images '(?); 2 Chr. 
15. 6; 24. 18 k*^,, pi. )^£j 'image'; 2 Chr. 34. 3; Isa. 17. 8 
)iDk.2> 'idols'; 2 Chr. 14. 2 Jl^i-i>y/ ai/8ptawas ; 2 Chr. 17. 6 
JLc£»£ 'high-places' ; 1 Chr. 31. 1 ; 33. 3 ; 34. 3 Jvlsu ' nemora'(?) 
Targ. transliterates. 

CD^ID] The participle determines the subject, forming the 
secondary predicate ; ' because they have made &c, vexing Yahwe.' 
Cf. Dri. Tenses, § 161, 2. 

16. jm] ' Shall give up: Cf. the phrase mN vsh \JV ch. 8. 
46 note. 

17. 'ai rwn nyi] Cf. ^. l. 14 note. 

Greeks ; it is found among the Ainos ; the gods of the Brazilian tribes were 
represented by poles stuck upright in the ground, at the foot of which offerings 
were laid ; the Hurd Islanders " in their houses had several stocks or small 
pillars of wood, four or five feet high, as the representatives of household gods, 
and on these they poured oil [which takes the place of fat or blood], and laid 
before them offerings of cocoa-nuts and fish " ; the Kureks at irregular times 
slaughter a reindeer or a dog, put its head on a pole facing east, and men- 
tioning no name, say, " This for thee : grant me a blessing." ' 

192 The First Book of Kings 

14. 19, 20. Summary of Jeroboam s reign. 

R D . Cf. Introduction. 

19. D^DT! "H:n] ' Acts of the days,' i. e. ' daily record of events,' 
and so ' annals.' 

14. 21-31. Rehoboam, king of Judah. 

Ch. 14. 26-28, 31 = 2 Chr. 12. 9-1 1, 16. 

Beside the introductory and summarizing formulae vv. 21, 2 2 a , 
29-31 (see Introd.), the hand of R D is to be noticed in vv. 22-24 : — 

ai. 'ai "vyn D^rvn] Cf. c/%. 8. 16 «<?/<?. 

22. inK 1K3p* , l] 'And they moved him to jealousy'; cf. Deut. 
32. 2 1 !>N N^n '•Jiwp HDH. Cf. the phrase of the decalogue 
K?2 ^K ' a jealous God,' Ex. 20. 5 (E) ; || Deut. 5. 9, so 
Deut. 4. 24 ; 6. 15-h KfeF^B Josh. 24. 19 (E) ; Nah. 1. 2f. 

23. pxn . . . bs by] So exactly II. 17. 10 (R D ) ; Jer. 2. 20; 
cf. II. 16. 4 (R D , || 2 Chr. 28. 4); Deut. 12. 2 ; Ezek. 6. 13 ; 
Jer. 3. 6, 13; 17. 2; Isa. 57. 5. 

24. S>fcW , . , nnsnnn ^a] So II. 16. 3 ( || 2 Chr. 28. 3); 21. 2 

(|| 2 Chr. 33. 2) both R D . B^Wl with I1VT as subj., used of 
driving out the nations of Canaan, occurs in JE Ex. 34. 24 ; 
Num. 32. 21 ; Josh. 3. 10, but elsewhere appears to belong 
entirely to D and to passages influenced by D : — Deut. 4. 38 ; 
9. 4, 5 5 11. 23; 18. 12; Josh. 13. 6; 23. 5, 9, 13; Judg. 

2. 21, 23 ; ch. 21. 26 ; II. 17. 8 ; Ps. 44. 3t. 'an rajnn ba 

cf. Deut. 18. 9; 2 Chr. 36. 14. 
2 2. 'J1 min" 1 Wl] LXX, Luc. /cat eWijcre 'Pofioap. . . . Kai nape^- 
Xccaev avrbv k.t.X. is inconsistent with the context which lapses into 
the pi. (LXX ol narepfs avriov, V. 23, LXX, Luc. Kai (pKoSoprjaav) as 

in MT. Luc. ol narepes avTov (David and Solomon) is scarcely 
possible in view of the manner in which R D treats David as his 
standard of piety (ch. 3. 14 note). 

23. miDl] Cf. ch. 3. 2, 3 note. 

nnVD] ' Pillars.' nnSTE is ' something set up,' i. e. a stone pillar 
or obelisk, doubtless representing the sacred stone which in primitive 
times was thought to be the abode of the deity. Cf. R. Sm. Rel. 

XIV, K)-2$ 193 

Sem. 2 zo^ff. Thus Jacob sets up a rough stone as a Macceba 
to mark the scene of a Theophany, and anoints it with oil, calling 
it the house of God, Gen. 28. 18, 22 ; 31. 13 (E) ; and Macceboth 
are raised by him and by Moses to indicate that Yahwe is witness 
or party to a covenant or agreement, Gen. 31. 44, 45, 51^. (E) ; 
Ex. 24. 3, 4 (JE); cf. also Isa. 19. 19, 20. The Macceba played 
a prominent part in the worship of the Canaanites, standing, like 
the Ashera, beside the altar at the Bama. Its destruction is strictly 
enjoined in the Book of the Covenant, Ex. 23. 24, and in Deut. 7. 5 ; 
12. 3, this latter code also forbidding its use for the worship of 
Yahwe, 16. 22. Jehu destroyed the Macceboth at the Temple 
of the Canaanite Ba'al, II. 10. 26/., while Macceboth of all kinds 
were demolished with the destruction of the Bamoth at the 
reformations under Hezekiah and Josiah. Cf. further, for the use 
of the term in Phoenician to denote a commemorative obelisk, 
Dri. Deut. p. 204. 

DnpN] Cf. v. 15 note. 

pjn] Prob. 'spreading,' i.e. with branches hanging down and 
affording shelter for such worship. Cf. Verss. : — LXX, Luc. 
awKiov, Vulg. frondosam, Pesh. ,V^^ 'thick/ Targ. spsy 'shady.' 
Etym. doubtful. 

24. Wlp] ' Temple prostitutes/ The word is here collective as 
in ch. 22. 47, and includes persons of both sexes, O^i? and rtfBHp, 
who were ' set apart ' for the immoral rites of the Canaanites, 
carried on within the precincts of their sanctuaries. A law against 
the introduction of these practices into Israel is found in Deut. 
23. 18. Asa, ch. 15. 12, and Jehoshaphat, ch. 22. 47, effected 
a banishment of D^KHp from Judah, and Josiah destroyed the houses 
of the D'Wp which, during Manasseh's reign, had been established 
even at the Temple of Yahwe, II. 23. 7. 

LXX, Luc. o-vvdeo-fios erroneously read it?j5 for W~\\>. 

25. pW)W rbv~\ Cf. ch. 11. 40 note. This invasion of Palestine 
by Sheshonk is recorded in an inscription upon the walls of the 
temple of Amon at Karnak. From the list of cities subjugated 
it appears that the expedition was directed not only against Judah 


194 The First Book of Kings 

but also against the N. kingdom. The name of Jerusalem cannot 
be identified in the list. Cf. Dri. Authority, 8jf; Sta. Ges. i. 353/". 

26. After itan rP3 nm« riNI LXX, Luc. have the insertion 

/cat Tti dopara to. \pvaa a cXa/Sep Aavetd ex %eip6s touv naldoov ' Adpad^ap 
^acrtXc'ooy 2ou/3d Kai elarjveyKfv avra ds 'lepovaakrjp. The reference 

is to 2 Sam. 8. 7, where also LXX, Luc. contain an addition stating 
that Shishak made booty of these shields in his expedition against 
Jerusalem recorded in our passage. Th., noticing that LXX in 
Samuel renders ^ptfj by xX<S&>j/ar, while in Kings addition the word 
used is 86para, infers thence that while Samuel addition is certainly 
a gloss (so Wellh.), Kings addition must be based upon an 
authentic text. Possibly, however, both additions are later cross- 
references derived from some independent source. If original, the 
sentence of LXX in our passage represents "^K 3njn '•DpBrn&O 

D^w dnw nnte *ib» ~>nrnn nny -p» in nph. 

•• t ; ■• • •• T 'v v v" : — : •• • -• • t -t 

r\pb bin HNl] LXX, Luc. omit 1, rightly. In Pesh. the whole is 

27. TpDJTi] We should expect *lpB*l in continuation of W), since 
the shields appear to have been given permanently into the charge 
of the D^Tl *nc\ Possibly, however, TpBn) is intended as a 
frequentative, like DWi^\ DIJWI v. 28 which are used of the 
recurrent occasions upon which the D^l carried the shields. 

T bv~\ l Upon the hand,' i. e. ' into the possession or care of! 
So with fro Gen. 42. 37, >T by inN run, 'Give him into my care? 
Cf. the phrase ^jrPT-Tjf V2H, ' deliver into the power 0/the sword,' 
Jer. 18. 21; Ezek. 35. 5; Ps. 63. 11. 

D^nn np] Cf. ch. 1. 5 note. 

28. HD] Lit. 'out of the sufficiency of,' and so, 'as often as.' 
Followed thus by Infin. || 2 Chr. 12. 11; 1 Sam. 1. 7; 18. 30; 
II. 4. 8; Isa. 28. 19; Jer. 31. ic)t. 

NJ"l] Prob. ' guard room ' ; Vulg. armamentarium. The word 
is only elsewhere used in Ezek. 40. "j ff., where it denotes the small 
guard chambers at the gates of the outer court of Ezekiel's Temple. 

30. '}) niontal] Cf. note on ch, 12. 1-24. For this summary 
statement by R D of warfare recorded with some detail in the 

XIV. 26— XV. 2 i 9 5 

Annals cf. ch. 15. 6, 16, 32, and v. 19, *vfc. 22. 46; II. 13. 12 ; 
14. 15, 28. 

D^DM b] Cf. r^. 5. 15 note. 

31. The mention of the name of the queen-mother, repeated 
from v.2\, occurs only here in the summary of a reign, and is rightly 
omitted by LXX, Luc, Pesh., || 2 Chr. 

D S 3K] So ch. 15. i, 7 (twice), 8t. In every case, Luc. 'A/3td, 
Pesh. \+2>l presuppose nj3N as in MT. 1 Chr. 3. 10 ; 2 Chr. 12. 16 ; 
13. 1, 2, 3, 4, 15, 17, 19, 22, 23 ; LXX 'Afiiov, ^nj3K as in MT. 
2 Chr. 13. 20, ax. We may therefore conclude that this latter 
name, either in its longer or shorter form, stood originally in the 
text of Kings, and was altered by a later hand into MK, perhaps 
for the sake of making a distinction from iT3K of ch. 14. 1. 

15. 1-8. Abijah, king of Judah. 

The whole account is framed by R D . For vv. 1-3, 7, 8 cf. 
Introd.; v. 4 TJ cf. r/$. 11. 36; z>. 5 '31 J"OT ntf>K cf. ^. 11. 33, 
and generally for reference to David ch. 3. 14. 

1. MK] Luc. adds vl6 s 'Pofiodp, LXX vtis 'Upofioap. 

2. DltauK m fiajflD i»K D^l] Precisely the same statement is 
made concerning Asa the son of Abijah v. 10; cf. v. 13. Hence 
Ew., Ke., Ber. suggest that the mother of Abijah continued to hold 
the position of JT^aj or ' chief lady ' during the reign of hex grandson 
Asa. More probably there has occurred a very early confusion 
between the mothers of the two kings which cannot now be eluci- 
dated. Kit. (Ges.) supposes that both were named Ma'acha, and that 
the addition Dw'QN D2 in v. 10 is an erroneous insertion from v. 2. 

LXX, Luc. V. 2 Maa^d, Bvydrrjp 'A/SccrcraXco/i, V. 10 'Am, Bvydrrjp 

'A/3f(ro-aXa)/x, so v. io 'Am; probably an alteration made to remove 
the difficulty, the repetition of the name 'Apeo-trakcop, being against 
the originality of the reading. 2 Chr. 11. 20-22, which gives the 
name of Abijah's mother as ^VP and names her other sons, 
appears to be derived from an ancient source. In 2 Chr. 13. 2 she 
is called ^njyo, and so Vulg. Michaia, Jos. Ant. viii, 1 1, § 3 Ma^aia ; 

o 2 

196 The First Book of Kings 

but LXX, Luc, Pesh. presuppose nayo rightly, ifWID being elsewhere 
a male name. So Ew., Ber., Kamp., Kit., Si'eg. u. S/a. 

0^B»3K] 2 Chr. 11. 20 DvtfhK. Doubtless the son of David is 
here meant, and Jos. {Ant. viii. 10, § 1) is probably correct in 
saying that Ma'acha was really his granddaughter, her mother being 
Tamar the daughter of Absalom (2 Sam. 14. 27): — fjy€ro va-repov 

{'Pofioapos) Ka\ rrju ex ttjs ' A^aXco/nou Svyarpos Qapdprjs Ma\dvr]v ovopa 

Ka\ avrrjv ovcrav avyyevrj. Thus Ma'acha bore the same name as her 
great-grandmother 2 Sam. 3. 3. The statement of 2 Chr. 13. 2 
that she was the daughter of nyD2~(?p ^Nn^K l perhaps implies 
(Ke., Ber.) that this Uriel married Tamar, Absalom's daughter. 

4 a . D$>Wa] LXX, Luc. omit. 

4 b . ua] LXX, Luc. to. Tcicva airov rightly presuppose PJ3. 
So Klo., Kamp. 

5. 'HI "1312 pi] LXX omits. The words may perhaps be a 
qualification inserted by a later hand. 

6. 'ai rtttntal] LXX, Luc. omit. The words are an erroneous 
insertion from ch. 14. 30. Pesh. reads p.Nrwi *s U^>( 'Abijah 
son of R.' for Djnm, and omits the similar statement in v. 7. 

15. 9-24. Asa, king of Judah. 

Ch. 15. 13-22 = 2 Chr. 15. 16— 16. 6. 

R D — introduction and summary; v. 14 (cf. ch. 3. 2, 3); casting 
of v. 12 (cf. note on whbl7\ below) and of v. 16 (cf. ch. 14. 30) from 
information derived from the Annals. From this source all further 
particulars of the reign are drawn. 

12. DWpn] LXX suitably renders ras reXfrdi, for which Luc. 
by corruption reads ras arr^Xas. Cf. note on ch. 14. 24. 

O^an] 'The idol-blocks'; a term of opprobrium. Probably lit. 
'logs' or 'rolling things,' from \hl 'to roll'; so Ges., &c. Ew. 
{Die Lehre der Bibel von Go//, ii. 264) prefers to render l do//-images,' 
as rolled or wrapped up in clothes, dressed up. Smend's proposal 
to connect the word with T\3, 773 'dung' (Ezek. 6. 4), as is done 

1 Luc. 'APtaaaXwp, is clearly a correction in accordance with 11. 20. 

XV. 4-i8 197 

by the Rabbinic interpreters, is improbable. The word occurs 
elsewhere in Kings, ch. 21. 26; II. 17. 12; 21. 11, 21; 23. 24 
(all R D ); and besides, Deut. 29. 16; Lev. 26. 30 (H), and thirty- 
nine times in Ezekiel t. 

13. niD^l] The 1 consec. introduces the predicate after the accus. 
pendens, as in ch. 9. 21 (cf. note). 

rn^ao] Cf. ch. 11. 19 «<?/<?. 

rWtfi? DV^SD] ' A horrible thing for an ashera ' (or ' for Ashera/ 
supposing the word here to denote a Canaanite goddess ; cf. note 
on ch. 14. 15). 

nV^DD only occurs again in || 2 Chr. 15. 16, and its meaning, 
' an object causing shuddering or horror I must be determined from 
the use of the verb fw#TP prob. 'tremble/ Job 9. 6t, and the 
substantive T)^B 'trembling' or 'horror,' Isa. 21. 4 ; Ezek. 7. 18; 
Ps. 55. 6; Job 21. 6f. The nature of this 'horrible thing' is not 
clear. It must have been some kind of idol or idolatrous symbol, 
and Vulg., Kings in sacris Priapi, v. 13b simulacrum turpissimum \ 
Chr. simulacrum Priapi, finds reference to a phallus cult. This 
explanation is adopted by Ew., Th., Ber., Kit.; Ew., citing the 
somewhat obscure ^jrwpsri, perhaps l Oh, thy wantonness! ' Jer. 49. 16. 
LXX, Luc, Pesh. misunderstand, and Targ. offers no elucidation. 

15. 1&npi] Read infhgj with || 2 Chr. 15. 18 and LXX, Luc, 
Pesh., Targ. ' And he brought the votive gifts of his father and his 
own votive gifts into the house of Yahwe — silver and gold and 

17. nD"in] Er-Rdm, two hours north of Jerusalem, and a short 
distance to the west of Geba (Jeba*). Rob. BR. i. 576; Smith, 
Hist. Geogr. 251. 

N31 K^ nn TlW>] Cf. Josh. 6. 1. 

18. nn p] Three Aramaean kings of this name are generally 

1 The rendering ne esset princeps in sacris Priapi, et in luco eius quern 
consecraverat seems to presuppose a wrong rearrangement of words in some 
such form as nn©y n^N rrvDNVi mbsE 1 ? rrvaa nvrra ; v. i3 b , subvertitque 
specum eius, et confregit simulacrum turpissimum, is probably merely a para- 
phrastic expansion of nnsbDD man. 

198 The First Book of Kings 

supposed to be mentioned in these books; cf. ch. 20. iff*; II. 13. 
24. Winckler, however, regards the Ben-hadad of this passage 
as one with the Ben-hadad of ch. 20 ; an identification which 
postulates a reign of not much more than forty years in length. 
CLAlttest. Untersuchungen, pp. 60 ff. TIT], the Aram, weather-god, 
is the same as fi&) (II. 5. 18 note); cf. the compound name 
p£"nii] Zech. 12. 11; Baethgen, Semit. Relig. pp. 67/! 

|Vm] LXX 'ACeiV, Luc, Cod. A 'Affix. Ew., Th., Klo., &c. 
plausibly suggest the identification of ]Vir\ with ^ of ch. 11. 23, 
whose name appears in LXX (11. 14) as 'Eo-pd>p, Luc'Eapw, Pesh. 
.©*?©». Klo. regards pijn as the original form of the name. 

19. 'ai IV"Q] ' There is a covenant between me and thee, &c.' 
LXX dtddov dtadrjKrjv k.t.X. is self-condemned. 

20. ]Vy] Mentioned again in connexion with nayo JV3 73N and 
other cities of the north, as taken by Tiglath-Pileser in the reign 
of Pekah (II. 15. 29). Rob. suggests as the site of fVJJ the modern 
^j^c -J* ' the plain of 'Ay&nl a fertile basin lying to the north 
of the plain of the Hu/eh, and south-west of the ancient Dan. 
To the south of Merj 'Ajun lies Abil, probably the site of n*3 73N 
royD. BR. ii. 438; iii. 372/ 

nfOD 73 DSl] Th. is right in noticing that the reference, thus 
phrased, is to a district, and not to a city. So, as here in plural, 
Josh. 11. 2, and singular ro.33 Deut. 3. 17. In Josh. 19. 35 the 
allusion seems to be to a city rQ.33 in the land of Naphtali, while 
in Num. 34. 11; Josh. 13. 27 we find mention of the Sea of 
Cinnereth rn.3? DJ, Josh. 12. 3 nVljj? DJ. Targ., except Josh. 19. 35 
where it preserves ni33, renders "1D^3, ID^Jl, this being the name 
adopted in later times; cf. 1 Mace. 11. 67 Tewrja-dp, S. Matt. 14. 34; 
S. Mark 6. 53 ; S. Luke 5. 1 TfwrjaaptT. The region of Gennesaret 
is described by Josephus (Bf. iii. 10, § 8) as being of marvellous 
beauty and fertility, and accordingly is generally identified with 
the level plain El-Ghuwer on the north-west shore of the lake 
of Galilee; Sta. SP. 374 f; Rob. BR. iii. 348// Smith, Hist. 
Geogr. 443. A city rQ33 may have lain in this district, but its 
site is unknown. 

XV. ig-2j 199 

^ns: pN b fe] RV., Kamp. ' with all the land of Naphtali/ 
taking 71? in the sense ' in addition to', as in Gen. 32. 12 coa ?y DX ; 
Ex. 35. 22 ; Job 38. 32. But such a use of the preposition is here 
very unnatural, and LXX, Luc. eas, i. e. ^V ' even unto the whole 
land of Naphtali/ preserve a superior reading. 

|| 2 Chr. 16. 4 b reads, in place of v. 20*>, *hm\ "n? rri33D??-73 my. 

21. n^l] LXX, Luc, Vulg. n^l, incorrectly. 

22. JTE^n] ' Summoned.' In this special sense only again in 
Jer. 50. 29; 51. 27; Pi'el 1 Sam. 15. 4; 23. 8f. 

*pJ pR] 'Without exemption'; lit. 'none was exempted,' a cir- 
cumstantial clause; Dri. Tenses, § 164. For '•pj '/>-#?' /h?w 
obligation, cf. Num. 32. 22 7fcOt^E1 mrPD D"pJ WWR- 

JD}] Now called Jebd ; south of Mukhmds (Michmash) from 
which it is separated by the steep ravine called the Wady es-Suweinet, 
the scene of Jonathan's adventure 1 Sam- 14. iff. Rob. B>R. i. 440. 

HEttftn] Also called nQifen Josh. 18. 26. No modern equivalent 
of the name has been discovered, but Nebi Samwfl, about five 
miles NNW. of Jerusalem, and visible therefrom, is plausibly 
regarded by Rob. (BR. i. 459,/) and others as the site of the 
ancient city. Mizpah was well known in connexion with Samuel, 
1 Sam. 7. 5 ff., 16; 10. 17, and is described in 1 Mace. 3. 46 

as being Karivavri 'lepovaaXrjiJ.. 

23. ran nx n?n] ' He was diseased in his feet.' The accusative, 
as in Greek, specifies the part affected; cf. Gen. 3. 15 *JW Kin 
£>K1; Deut. 33. 11 ; al. Da. § 71; Ew. § 2,81, c. 3. Luc. after the 
words IDJpT T)y? adds enoirjaev 'Aaa to irovqpov, Kai — a gloss inserted 
to assign a cause for his disease, and perhaps with reference to the 
events described in 2 Chr. 16. 7-12. 

15. 25-32. Nadab, king of Israel. 

R D vv. 25, 26, 2 9 b ~32. 

27. "OPB* ]Yoi>] 'Belonging to the house of Issachar.' In place of 
"OW* LXX reads BeXadv, Luc. BcSSa/ia. 

NS^JD in3 > ')] LXX f'^apa^ei/ avrov, Luc. e^apaKaxr^v avrdv. 

200 The First Book of Kings 

pnzu] Pesh. fc^' Gath,' an easy substitution of a well known 
for a less known place. So ch. 16. 15, 17. 

28. miir "]i>D NDtfi>] LXX roC 'Ao-a vioO 'Afaov. 
Vnnn] LUC. Baaaa eVi tov 'icrpajjX. LXX OmitS. 

29. iiBBtt ^3] 'Anything breathing'; lit. 'any breath.' So 
Deut. 20. 16; Josh. 10. 40; 11. 11, 14 (D 2 ); Ps. 150. 6t. 

hdwi ny] Cf. 11. 3. 25 »0& on "mcwi ny. 

131 1BW '* 1313] Reference to ch. 14. 14. Cf. ch. 13. 26 note. 
n3y T3] Cf. r^. 8. 53 note. 

30. D S 5»PI IBW 1Dy33] Cf. f^. 14. 9 note. 
btc\w v6n '*] Cf. f^. 8. 15 »0/*. 

32. A repetition of z/. 16, rightly omitted by LXX, Luc. 

15. 3$ — 16. 7. Baasha, king of Israel. 

The whole is framed by R D . 

16. 1-4. Cf. phraseology of Ahijah's speech ch. 14. 7-16 notes. 

2. T::] Cf. ch. 1. 35 note. 

DnxurQ] Read Dn\p3H3 'with their vain things/ as in vv. 13, 26 
(cf. Deut. 32. 2 1), with LXX, Luc. iv rots ^araiois avrtov, and probably 
Pesh. .oo^m/ »^*o 'with the work of their hands.' So Klo. 

7. IDS H3H ib>n ^yi , , . nyvi i)3 5>jn] 'Both because of all the 
evil, &c, and because he smote him.' The repeated 1, 'both . . . and' 
is, however, rare (poetical); Job 34. 29; Ps. 76. 7; except in the 
rather different class of instances cited 0.11. iriN refers to Jeroboam 
as personifying his house, and Vulg. is incorrect in paraphrasing 
ob hanc causam occidit eum, hoc est, Iehu filium Hanant, propheiam. 

16. 8-14. Ela/i, king of Israel. 
Framed throughout by R D , with short notices from the Annals 

VV. 9, IO aa ' b , II a . 

9. "VI3&T nnt?] So ch. 20. 16. ' Drinking to excess '; lit. ' drinking, 
drunk,' the two words being in apposition, and the second making 
closer definition of the first. Cf. ch. 1. 2 note on n?1D3 tT\W. 

NS"W] LXX 'Qad, Luc. 'hard. 

XV 28— XVI. i6 201 

JV2n by ~\Wl(] Cf. ch. 4. 6 note. Targ. strangely explains N¥1N as 
the name of an idol;— mnrD KTViM H KJV.yB KnK IV3'. 

n a , i2 a . LXX, Luc. omit, through homoioteleuton, jy»3 fa HK 

ii. T»p3 fWfc] Cf. *•& 14. i o note. 

insni IvWl] 'Neither kinsmen nor friends.' The repeated 1, 
1 neither . . . nor,' or without preceding negative, ' foM . . . and,' is 
used idiomatically in connecting an exhaustive category on to 
a previous more general statement, of which it is epexegetical. 
So Num. 9. 14 H9? ^5? "Vtl D ?^ n J?! n ^ ^J Gen. 34. 28 

inrii nn^a "vfefTHH Tja-w&te n $ ' ai ^ N;rn ?; Josh. 9. 23; Jer. 

13. 14; 21. 6; Neh. 12. 28. <>$ is one to whom pertain the 
duties of a kinsman — in this case, the prosecution of a blood-feud ; 
cf. the phrase D'nn 7N3 '//fo blood- avenger] 2 Sam. 14. 11; Deut. 
19. 6, 12, and in P Num. 35. 19, 21, 24, 25, 27; Josh. 20. 3, 5 
(om. LXX), 9. For irrjm sing, used collectively cf. Da. § 17. 

12. 'ai T313] Cf. r/4. 15. 29. 

K1.T T3] LXX *ai Trpoy Etov as in v. 1; MT. '* 5>K, where, 
however, LXX reads iv x* l p' 1 E. 

13. niNDH fa £>K] i>N for by, cf. f^. 13. 29 note. The sins 
of Ba'asha and his son are here spoken of in the terms usually 
applied by R D to the sins of Jeroboam. See Introduction. 

D*JDr6] Cf. ch. 14. 9 note. 

bvrw wbn '*] Cf. r^. 8. 15 »<?&. 

16. 15-20. Ztmrt, king of Israel. 

R D , z>». 15a, 19, 20, frames a brief narrative drawn from the 

15. D^n Dyro] LXX, Luc. km f) vapcppoKr) 'io-pa^A, if not a direct 
paraphrase, probably arose from omission of y, which gave the 
reading D^nrani or PIJTOn, to which the translator added the 
explanatory 'ia-pujjX. oyn is used here, as in ch. 20. 15; 1 Sam. 

14. 26 ; 30. 21 ; 2 Sam. 15. 17, of an army or military detachment: 
cf. Vulg. porro exercitus obsidebat. 

16. -\Qt& DOT] QPn PD&n] The use of nDN^ with a subj. 

202 The First Book of Kings 

different from that of the preceding clause is idiomatic after the 
verb yiOP. Cf. II. 19. 9 ; || Isa. 37. 9 ; Deut. 13. 13 ; 1 Sam. 13. 4 ; 
2 Sam. 19. 3. The new subj. is really the implied obj. of the 
preceding ywi, e.g. SJP$rrn« 'the report/ or 'B "HrrrriK 'some- 
one's words.' This is apparent from Gen. 31. 1 ^1 nni DX y»B^l 
i»N7 p7; 1 Sam. 24. 10 1EK7 D1K nn nK JWfl 1D7; and, after 
a verb other than yo^, II. 5. 6 1DN7 7K1B* ifcn 7N 1DDPI KIJI ; so 
perhaps 2 Sam. 13. 33 ; Jer. 7. 4. 

More peculiar and not to be classed are the cases in which 
the subj. of 1DN? is quite indefinite, , and lies in a loose sense 
of the connexion with the preceding clause; — 2 Sam. 7. 26 7131 
7K1B* 7V DN17K DINn* '* 1EK7 071V iy *]BP; Deut. 30. 12, 13 

'ji .17^ "»» 12x7 Kin Dwn N7; Ex. 5. 19. 

Quite a distinct class, however, is formed by cases in which 
a passive verb is employed in the clause preceding 1DK7, and the 
substitution of an active gives the subj. of 1DN7; — 1DK7 1|*1 ch. 
I.51; II. 6. 13; 8.7; Gen. 22. 20; 38.13,24; Josh. 10. 17; 
1 Sam. 15. 12; 19. 19; 2 Sam. 6. 12; Isa. 7. 2t; Ex. 5. 14 EW 
1?3N7 . 4 . 7fcOB» "On nBP; 1 Sam. 9. 24 1EX7 "]7 1*DB> 1jnB7 *3 ; 

isa. 29. 12 idx7 . ♦ . i2Di }p\2) (cf. z>. 11 idx7 , ♦ • ma ur; ipn)- 

7N1K" 73 ^7Dl] Luc. Kai efiao-tXcvaav 6 Aao?, LXX ml ifiaaikevaav 
iv y l<rpar)\. MT. is favoured by v. i7 a . 

18. *]7E1 n"a poiN] ' the keep of the kings palace '; cf. II. 15. 25. 
Cpl^l] Pesh. o*©e{o, i.e. IDI^I 'they (the besiegers) burnt &c.' 
"j7» nu rix] Cf. »<?/<? ond 12. 31. 

16. 21, 22. Civil war between the parties of rival aspirants 
to the throne of Israel, Tibni a?id Omri. 

The short notice comes from the Annals. 

21. \htV TK] Cf. ch. 3. 16 note. 

7N1B* DJ?n] 'The people Israel'; a case of apposition exactly 
like 111 *ffen ; fhDb> inn z -. 24. So Josh. 8. 33T; cf. Judg. 20. 22 
7fcW B»K Dy.1. 

W7] LXX, Luc. omit, and Klo., Kamp., Kit. regard as an erro- 
neous dittography of the final letter of 7K1B* and the following ^Vn. 

XVI. 1 8-23 203 

rTO] On form of name cf. note on HDD ch. 4. 11. 
^nni] 'And the half/ i.e. ' the other half/ in sharply defined 
opposition to the previously mentioned DJJH ^U. LXX kcu to {jyno-v 

tov XaoO yivcTai 6ni(T(o Zafxfipd (LllC. 'AfxPpi, tov /3ao-tXeG(rai gvtov) IS 

probably due to desire for uniformity with the preceding clause. 

22. Dyn riK ♦ ♦ ♦ pNTl] ptn thus followed by accusative only here ; 
' were strong as regards the people/ so prevailed over them. Cf. 
the similar (but poetic) use of accus. in Vflpaj ' I have prevailed 
over him/ Ps. 13. 5. The construction is, however, somewhat 
harsh in prose, and the connexion almost demands (Kamp.) the 
emendation Byrrby or B^E. LXX for v. 2 2 a kcu t}ttt}6tj 6 Xaos 
6 o)v 6nio~a> Qanvel vlov TcovdO, a reading probably due in the first 
place to omission of >"iE>y nnK ♦ ♦ . ptrW through homoioteleuton 
with v. 21 end. 

•O^n fiW)] LXX, Luc. add kq\ 'ioopaju 6 d^Xcpos clvtov iv tg> Kcupco 

cKclvcp, and then, after *noy ~pW), ^(ra Qapvd (Luc. t6v eafawcl); 
i.e. v. 2 2 b 'oan nn« noy tjIj^i aonn nya vna Dnfr ^nn nDji 

' And Tibni died and his brother Joram at that time, and Omri 
reigned after Tibni/ The genuineness of this text is favoured 
by the fact that the additional words supply a detail unessential 
to the narrative, and thus not to be explained as a later invention. 
So Th., Kamp., Benz., Kit., Maspero. 

16. 23-28. Omri, king of Israel. 

The work of R D , with short details from the Annals, vv. 23b, 24. 

23. rW nnM twbw rwa] But Zimri, who reigned but seven 
days, is said, v. 15, to have come to the throne in the twenty-seventh 
year of Asa. It might therefore be supposed that the civil war, 
vv. 21, 22, lasted some three or four years; but this is precluded 
by the synchronism in the case of Ahab's accession, #.29' the 
thirty-eighth year of Asa/ which harmonizes with v. ig, supposing 
the interregnum to have been merely a matter of a few days or 
months — as might be inferred from the absence of special detail — 
and the length of Omri's reign to be correctly stated as twelve 
years. It must therefore be concluded that in the synchronism 

204 The First Book of Kings 

for Omri's accession thirty-first is an error for twenty-seventh or 

■Hoy] Mentioned in Mesha's inscription, 11. 4 /., as king of 
Israel who 'afflicted Moab for many days' {Append. 1). In the 
Cuneiform inscriptions Jehu is called ' son of Omri ' {Append. 4), 
and the northern kingdom named mat Hu-um-ri-i, ' Omri-land/ 
or mat Bit-Ifu-um-ri-a, ' Beth-Omri-land.' Cf. COT. i. 179/ 

24. jnw] Sta. {ZA TW. v. 165^".) argues very plausibly for 
an original vocalization |TOt? or ry?&, upon the following 
grounds : — 

1. The form of the name from which ]T\12W is said to be derived. 
First stating that \SiDW cannot come from "I0B> but only from 

"UOb*, he goes on to prove the genuineness of the form "^P as 
against "W*, and its actual existence, together with the kindred 
rvjotf 1 Chr. 8. 21, fnny Gen. 46. 13; Num. 26. 24; 1 Chr. 7. 1, 
as a clan name 1 . f^V Josh. 19. 15; 11. 1 is also the name of 
a city, and this transference of a clan-name to a city has its analogy 
in jrnn pnn clan name 1 Chr. 8. 17), fb% D^ytf 2 , &c. 

2. Ancient evidence for vocalization of JVW. 

(a) Cuneiform inscriptions. Three forms of the name occur : 

v V w • 

Sa-mir-i-na, Sa-mi-ri-na, Sa-mi-ur-na. These presuppose P">EP 
or p»tf or |1»^. 

(5) LXX 2afxdp€ia. « may represent Hebrew <zz' or € or £ So 
H5^ or H££ or P")»B\ 

(r) Aramaic forms ^»^ajL, IH?J? (Ezra 4. 10, 17). 

1 That "02? is preferable to ipizj in the two cases where the latter form 
occurs in MT. appears from the following facts, "loitf is found 1 Chr. 7- 32 
as a proper name, probably of a clan, but in v. 34 the name appears as 
iDtt> ("tottf in pause). Further, one of the murderers of Joash, II. 12. 22, 
is named 1Dfc5"]a llriJT ; but that this vocalization does not rest upon ancient 
tradition is clear from 2 Chr. 24. 26, where the same man is said to be son 
of nnptp, a form presupposing intf and not "XQXB. And moreover, while LXX 
in II. 12. 22 reads "Sa/firjp, Luc. has the form Se/^p, as in ch. 16. 24, LXX, 
Luc. 2f/i77/), 2e/*/«7p, ^afirjp. 

3 From names of animals used as clan totems. 

XVI. 24-28 205 

(d) Testimony of LXX in ch. 16. 24. To mark derivation 
from 2€firjp, 2afxr)p, \)~\fiW is represented, not as usually by 2apdpeia, 
but by 2epep<av, 2ae/zepa>i>, of which 2opopd)v (Luc, Cod. A) is a cor- 
rection in accordance with MT. 

Supposing therefore flTOJ?, Pl*?,^' to be the original form, the 
termination p— is illustrated by pfifa Gen. 37. 17 (Aa>0aet>), and 
answers to the more usual D?-=- which appears in the place-names 
QWJP, DW. J^B?* may stand together with P"^, just as we 
find the two names d£$ (H>) and 1%. 

The reason why the name should have been altered in later 
times into tf-O? Sta. is not prepared to explain. He suggests the 
possibility of an erroneous explanation of the Aramaic form 
with a, but admits that this merely postpones the question, since 
one must next inquire how the Aramaic form with Qameg is to be 
explained. That the form fPEfo is, however, very young, appears 
from the LXX rendering in ch. 16. 24. 

If, as seems to be the case, "OP was a clan-name, the hill upon 
which Omri built his city was probably already named Samaria, and 
bore this name as being the possession and residence of the clan 
"OJ\ But that this fact need not invalidate the statement that Omri 
bought the hill from a man named "O? may be argued from the 
many occurrences of clan-names used as personal names. Thus 
tyfip, David's foe, bears a clan-name Num. 3. 21 ; al., and the same 
is the case with "9 » the Kenite ; Saul's son 'Esh-ba'al has the 
name of the Benjamite clan ?2&$ Gen. 46. 21 ; al.; i"6tf } the name 
of Ba'asha's son, and also of the father of Hosea, is found as 
a clan-name Gen. 36. 41 ; ~\\ the tribal-name is borne by a prophet 
in David's time ; &c. 

25. 'J1 yci] Cf. ch. 14. 9 note. 

26. 'ai D^jnn^] Cf. ^.13. 

28. At the close of Omri's reign LXX, Luc. insert the account 
of Jehoshaphat's reign=MT. ch. 22. 41-51 with certain variations, 
in accordance with the different system of synchronism which 
appears in Luc. See Introduction. 

206 The First Book of Kings 

16. 29-34. 22. 39, 40. Ahab, king of Israel. 
R D embodies short notices from the Annals (substance of v. 3i b , 

v. 32, z>. 34 to irr&i). 

29. 3Nnx] Mentioned once on the monolith of Shalmaneser II 
as A-lia-ab-bu mdtu Sir--la-ai, *Ahab of Israel'; cf. Append. 3, 
and ch. 20. 34 note. 

30 b . 'jl 730] LXX, Luc. prefix (Luc. /cat) enovrjpfva-aTO, i.e. JTIJI, 
probably correctly. Cf. v. 25; r& 14. 9 »0/*. 

31. 'ai ^pan \Tl] 'And it came to pass — was it a light thing his 
walking in the sins of Jeroboam? — and (that) he took &c.': so 
RV. ' And it came to pass, as if it had been a light thing &c, that 
he took &c.' For similar use of interrogative with ?\?}, expressing 
surprise at the lengths to which any one can go in sinning, cf. 

Ezek.8. 17 ^d-^ nerV^y "lete nbyinrrnx nife^o irwr ivnb ijpan 

DSfccbtf rniDpTlK D»n|»W D|rl] '31 ' Is it a light thing to the house 
of Judah that they do all the abominations which they do here, for 
behold &c, that, lo, they are holding the branch to their nose?' 
i. e. they overleap moral offences, and indulge in definite idolatry 

^y?^?] The name is similarly vocalized by LXX 'le#*0uaA, Luc. 
'l€0/3aaA, and would thus bear the meaning with Baal, i. e. under 
his protection. Jos., however, writes *l0a>/3aXor (Ant. viii. 13, § 1), 
i.e. PJDifiN Baal is with him, and this form is preferred by Th., 
Sta. According to Jos. (C. Ap. i. 18) Ittoba'al, who lived some 
fifty years after Hiram, was a priest of Astarte, who came to the 
throne by the murder of the usurper Phelles. 

33. mtJWl] Cf. ch. 14. 15 note. 

'V\ ni^yb] LXX, LUC. rov irotrjcrai Trapopylapara tov 7rapopyi(rai 
(Luc. adds Kai noLrjcrai) rrjv ^v\rjV axirov (LXX tov) e^okoOpevdr/vai (Luc. 
avff S)i/) (KaKoiroLTjo-ev vnep ndvTas k.t.X., i. e. apparently CpyS JV&yb 

'y\ bbrp J?i;i TVnfnb teterngfY] D^3n|). Scarcely superior to MT. 
Elsewhere D^DyD II. 23. 26, DyD ch. 15. 30; 21. 22 form the direct 
obj. of D^JDii; and omission of btiTW \"6« '* DK (R D ; cf. ch. 8. 15 
note) is unfavourable. 

XVI. 29-34 207 

34. Luc. omits. 

VD'a] A phrase of R D used in synchronizing an event with the 
preceding narrative. So II. 8. 20; 23. 29; 24. 1; and 15. 19 
(emend after LXX). For similar phrases thus employed cf. ch. 3. 16 
note on TN. 

J>KTl] LXX 'Ax«$X, i.e. bwn*. Cf. note on DTn ^. 5. 15. 

>^n rvn] Cf, «<?/* on ywi p ^. 2. 8. 

DWai , . ♦ D"V2N3] 3 ='#/ M*? r^/ ^/"; I pretii. Cf. »0& on 
1E>D32 ^. 2. 23. The statement suggests the possibility that 
the builder sacrificed his sons, perhaps by enclosing them alive 
in the foundation and wall, in order by this costly blood-offering 
to secure the prosperity of his city. Or, the tradition may have 
been that, through failure to perform such a rite, his eldest and 
youngest born were claimed by the offended deity at the initiatory 
and final stages of the building. For instances from various 
sources of the wide-spread primitive custom of human sacrifice 
1 in order to furnish blood at the foundations of a house or of 
a public structure/ cf. H. C. Trumbull, The Threshold Covenant, 
pp. 46/. 

f i) "ana] Josh. 6. 26. 

Narratives of the Northern Kingdom. 

I. 17-19; 20; 21; 22. 1-38. II. 1. 2-i7 a % 2. 1-18, 19-22, 
23-25; 3. 4-27; 4. 1-7, 8-37, 38-41, 42-44; 5; 6. 1-7, 8-23, 
24-33; 7 ; 8. 1-6, 7-15; 9. i— 10. 28; 13. 14-19* 20, 21; 
(14. 8-14). 

This great group consists of narratives dealing with the affairs 
of the kingdom of Israel. The stories are in most cases of some 
length, their high descriptive power and sympathetic feeling in- 
dicating that they have their origin in the kingdom to which they 
relate ; and this conclusion is substantiated by such touches as 

I. 19. 3 rrwb new V2V "wn; II. 14. n mwi? ntjw wnw nan. 

No blame is anywhere attached to the calf-worship of Bethel and 
Dan, the efforts of Elijah and his successor being wholly directed 
to the rooting out of the foreign cult of the Tyrian Ba'al. 

208 The First Book of Kings 

Certain peculiarities of diction probably belong to the dialect of 
North Palestine. The following may be noticed : — 

Suff. 2 f. sing. *3^-, pi. >?;~ :— Kt. II. 4. 2 "^, 3 V?33?, 7 ^3, 
^i3 ( Elsewhere, sing. Cant. 2. 3 ; Ps. 103. 3, 4 ; Jer. 11. 15 
(text corrupt), pi. Ps. 103. 3, 4, 5 ; 116. 7. Cf. Syr. suff. 
2 f. sing. iO— , pi. ua*_. 

Pers. pron. 2 f. sing. Kt. ^K : — II. 4. 16, 23 ; 8. 1. Elsewhere 
ch. 14. 2 (cf. #0/^); Judg. 17. 2 ; Jer. 4. 30 ; Ezek. 36. 131% 
Cf. Syr. */fcj/T So probably Kt. ^^Sl II. 4. 23 stands for 
"•riK Jwil, as in Syr. **'fc>J>fco for JfcJf )ofco; Duval, Gramm. 
Syr. pp. 174/ 

Demonstr. pron. f. HT II. 6. 19. Cf. Aram. N^. 

Infin. constr. verb r\"b with suff. Wnnpna II. 5. 18, 
perhaps presupposing form without suff. njjnri^n with 
termination as in Aram. Cf. Dalman, Gramm. Jud.-Pal. 
Aram. pp. 289/! 

Rel. f in «?>#!? II. 6. n. So Judg. 5. 7 (North Palestine); 
6. 17; 7. 12; 8. 26 (prob. Ephraimitic), and uniformly in 
Cant. (exc. title 1. 1). Elsewhere only in exilic or post- 
exilic writings \ In Phoenician rel. is CW with prosthetic X. 

1 The particle V$ 'of is thought by some to occur upon a haematite weight 
from Samaria, bearing an inscription upon either side which was at first read as 
Jts: tfn bti? 2?n 'the fourth part of the fourth part of a nicegh (?),' and dated 
cir. 8th century B.C. Careful examination of the original weight convinces 
the writer that Prof. Robertson Smith {Academy, Nov. 18, 1893, pp. 443^) 
is correct in his view (based upon a close study of the original) that the much 
worn "?td yxi upon the one side is of earlier date than the clearly cut 323 yn 
upon the other, this fact being especially marked in the different workmanship 
of the two inscriptions. To add one point to others already noticed by the 
Professor — in the older inscription the s? (which in the old character usually 
takes the shape of a circle) is formed by four straight cuts, which give the letter 
nearly the appearance of a quadrilateral. In the newer inscription, upon the 
other hand, attempt has been made to render the rounded form of the letter, 
at the cost of more than one slip of the graving tool. 

It is also extremely doubtful whether the first letter of the supposed bs? is 
really a ir>. If, however, this be the true reading, and Prof. Smith be correct 
in regarding bxc as an abbreviation of chvi , the word is most simply to be 
regarded as an adjective in agreement with m, and the inscription denotes 

North Palestinian Narratives 209 

Preservation of n of art. after prep. 1\ — II. 7. 12 rn&n3. 
Kt. HD^X = where ? II. 6. 13. Elsewhere only Cant. 1. 7 bis, 
Cf. Aram. K?"X, \^\\ 

&n-ny, orpbipS 11. 9. 18, 20. 

Constr. with sufT. pron. anticipating obj. (akin to Syr.) : — 

I. 19. 21 "ton tfea- 21. 1 q ntarnK . . , *mjn. 

Indefinite use of nntf a certain: — I. 19. 4, 5 ; 20. 13, 35 ; 22. 9 
(cf. v. 8); II. 4. 1 ; 7. 8; 8. 6: add I. 21. 1, LXX, 
Luc. Elsewhere I. 13. 11 (perhaps for nriN) ; II. 12. 10; 
Judg. 9. 53 ; 13. 2 ; 1 Sam. 1. 1 ; 7. 9, 12 ; 2 Sam. 18. 10, 
and late Ezek. 1. 15; 8. 7, 8; 9. 2; 17. 7; 33. 2; 
Zech. 5. 7; Dan. 8. 13, 3 ; 10. 5 \ 

To these may be added a few roots which betray the influence 
of Aram.:— p!& I. 20. 10; ni^*]D20. 14, 15,17, 19 (elsewhere 
only very late) ; Dnh 2 1 . 8, 1 1 ; thfn II. 4. 2 8. There is also 
a fair number of dna^ Aeyy., some of which take the place of 
ordinary words and thus may be dialectical ; e. g. D3B> gird, 

I. is. 46 (for nan, nra), *tyy*food 9 19. 8 (for i>5«, rfe?K, 

73^0) ; but of others nothing can be affirmed. 

The narratives are clearly not all by one author. 

(i) Some are histories of Elijah and Elisha, or of movements 
which they instituted in the direction of religious reform, (ii) In 
others the fate of the kingdom is regarded from a political stand- 
point, and this as determined mainly by the action of the king; 
though here also prophets play an important part as advisers and 
announcers of the oracle of Yahwe. Thus both classes have 
a religious colouring or motive, and may equally be regarded as 

' a full (i.e. complete or accurate; cf. Deut. 25. 15, Prov. 11. 1) quarter.'' 
In this case the difficult 2S3 of the obverse may be a Niph'al participle 323 ' set ' 
or ' appointed* 1 ; so 3.U2 2?:n ' a standard quarter! 

Prof. Smith's article, together with other correspondence upon the subject of 
the inscription, is collected mPEF. Ay. St., July, 1894, pp. 220-231 ; October, 
1894, pp. 284-287. 

1 irTN II. 25. 19 appears to have a certain force ; ' One Eunuch and five 
men, &c.' Cf. 1 Sam. 6. 7. 


210 The First Book of Kings 

the work of men of prophetic training, perhaps members of the 
guilds which we see coming into prominence in some of the Elisha 

(i) To the former class belong I. 17-19; 21; II. 1. 2-1 7 aa ; 
2. 1-18, 19-22, 23-25; 4. 1-7, 8-37, 38-41, 42-44; 5; 6. 1-7; 
8. 1-6, 7-15; 9. 1 — 10. 28; 13. 14-19, 20, 21. 

Of these, I. 17-19 forms a continuous narrative. From the 
abruptness of v. 1, no reason being assigned for Elijah's threat, and 
no point of connexion existing for iTO v. 3, it may be inferred that 
the commencement of the story has been omitted or abbreviated 
by R D , and the specification njta ^a^DD 'QKTin I.T^N thus represents 
his summary introduction. The sequel also, in strict accordance 
with 19. 15, 16, is lacking, only one part of Yahwe's commission 
being fulfilled, vv. 19-21. 

I. 21 is clearly out of place in MT., breaking the connexion 
between ch. 20 and its sequel ch. 22, and LXX, Luc. are no doubt 
correct in placing this narrative immediately after ch. 19. The 
dislocation may have been due to the desire to bring the prophecy 
of Ahab's death (21. 19) nearer to the account of its occurrence 
(22. 35JF-), and perhaps in a minor degree to the description of the 
king's mood as fjyn "ID in 20. 43 as in 21. 4. 

Most critics (Wellh., Dri., Kamp., Benz., Kit. ; but Kue. is uncertain : 
Ond. § 25. 7) assign I. 21 to the same author as I. 17-19. Thus 
Wellh. cites as points of contact the central position occupied by 
Elijah, his eagle-like swoop upon Ahab at the right moment, and 
the formulae rbttT] DmiH nnN \T1 21. 1 (but cf. note ad toe.) 

as 17. 17, 'n bx "* im w 21. 17 as 'k ta nvi '* -oil 18. 1. 

On the other hand, it may be maintained that Elijah is not really 
the central figure as in I. 17-19. He does not appear upon the 
scene until v. 17, and then takes scarcely a more conspicuous 
position than Micaiah in 22. 8 ff. The king and his action form 
the centre of interest both at the beginning and end of the narrative. 
Further, Kue. notices the absence of any reference in 21 to 17-19 
and vice versa, the murder of Naboth forming the single crime 
of Ahab and Jezebel in the one story, while in the other the sole 

North Palestinian Narratives 211 

pivot is the struggle between Yahwe and Ba'al. This, however, 
is a point of slight moment, and no definite conclusion can be 
reached as to the relative authorship of the two sections. 

Of far greater interest and importance is the question of the 
connexion of I. 21 with its natural sequel II. 9. 1 — 10. 28. Critics 
generally argue or assume that the latter section is by a different 
author to the former, and most (Wellh., Dri., Kamp., Kit.) assign 
II. 9/ to the writer of I. 20. 22; II. 3. 4-27, &c. (see below). 
The argument against identity of authorship of I. 21 and II. 9/., 
as stated by Wellh., is based upon supposed discrepancy in detail. 
While in I. 21 it is the vineyard of Naboth which is mentioned, 
and this is described as SXI1X 73\1 /¥K (v. 1), II. 9. 21-26 alludes 
to the D135 nppn, i.e. his portion or estate, which lay outside the 
city. Again, I. 21. 13 records only the death of Naboth, while 
II. 9. 26 speaks also of the blood of his sons as calling for 

On the other hand, the following considerations clearly make 
for the unity of the two narratives : — 

II. 9. 2i b , the meeting of Joram ben-Ahab with Jehu actually 
upon the estate of Naboth, is a touch of high dramatic power which 
demands that the writer should not only have known the story of 
Naboth (proved by vv. 25, 26), but should actually have written 
it down himself as an introduction to the sequel II. 9f. 

Thus a presumption is created in favour of our Naboth narrative 
being the story thus written. 

The parallels between the prediction I. 21. 19, 23 and the 
fulfilment II. 9. 25, 26, 36 cannot be insisted upon, because 
I. 21. 19.^. has been largely amplified by R D (see notes ad loc), 
and it is not now possible certainly to determine the original kernel 
of Elijah's prediction. It should, however, be noticed that the 
usual method of R D is to expand rather than to excise, and, if this 
plan has here prevailed, the original speech must be contained in 
vv. 19, 20, 23 b . The disagreement in points of fact between I. 21 
and II. 9 proves upon examination to be non-existent. Aliab's 
dispute with Naboth arose in the first instance about a vineyard 

p 2 

212 The First Book of Kings 

adjoining the palace, but this was only a portion of Naboth's 
estate (np?n), the whole of which would lapse to the king supposing 
that the family of Naboth became extinct. And I. 21. 15, where 
Jezebel tells Ahab to go down and take possession of the vineyard, 
clearly implies the extirpation of the whole family: in the statement 
no *3 Tl ni33 pN *3 the name TW11 means Naboth and his sons, just 
as much as in v. 19 nriN DJ *JD1 means the blood of Ahab and his 
son (cf. v. 2 9 b ). 

Most decisive, however, is the question of the supposed unity 
of II. 9. 1— 10. 28 with I. 20. 22; II. 3. 4-27; 6. 8—7. 20. If 
this be granted, the diverse authorship of I. 21 and II. 9f. seems 
necessarily to follow, since I. 21 can scarcely be regarded as of one 
piece with I. 20. 22. The place where the dogs lick the blood 
of Ahab, 22. 38, is discordant with the prediction of 21. 19, and 
in general the interest of the writer of 20. 22 — mainly, if not 
wholly, political — and his sympathetic feeling for the king of Israel, 
preclude the supposition that he is also the author of the Naboth 

Wellh. cites the following coincidences in phraseology of II. 9f. 

with I. 20. 22, &c.:— mnn vin II. 9. 2; I. 20. 30; 22. 25; ran 

tarry, II. 9. 3; 7. 9; D1DH 331 9. 18; 7. 14; VT *]Dn II. 9. 23; 

I. 22. 34; ti tran II. 10. 14; 7. 12; I. 20. 18; ain II. 10. 27; 

6. 25. The importance of this collection is, however, open to 
doubt, since it contains no striking phrase, but such only as might 
be expected to occur in narratives nearly contemporaneous, and 
having, in the main, the same subjects in common. 

On the other hand, a point of phraseology, apparently hitherto 
overlooked, sharply separates between II. 9f. and I. 20. 22, &c, 
and seems absolutely to preclude the theory of a common author- 
ship. This is the title which is ordinarily applied to the king 
in the course of the narrative. 

I. 20. 22 ; II. 3. 4-27; 6. 8 — 7. 20 are, as might be expected, 
bound together by the use of a common title. In all the writer's 
phrase is 7K1B* "po, and the proper name of the king, if it 
occurs at all, is in nearly every case reserved for the necessary 

North Palestinian Narratives 213 

specification at the commencement of a section. The facts are as 
follow :— 

I. 20 7K"^ i?V 3NnN vv. 2, 13; btirw *]7D eleven times, viz. 
W. 4, 7, ii, 21, 22, 28, 31, 32, 40, 41, 43; itan zw. 38, 39 bis; 
3Xnx simply z>. 14. 

I. 22 7N1K" "]7£D seventeen times, viz. vv. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 
18, 26, 29, 30 bis, 31, 32, 33, 34; 17EH zw. 15 Jw, 16, 35, 37b. 

II. 3. 4-27 7N"i^ 1?D eight times, viz. »». 4, 5, 9, 10, n, 12, i$bis; 
DNns simply #. 5 (probably from another source); D"11.T 'pDil z>. 6. 

II. 6. 8 — 7. 20 7frW "]7D seven times, viz. 6. 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 21, 
26; *j7Dn ten times, viz. 6. 28, 30; 7. 2, 6, 12, 14, 15, 17 bis, 18. 

On the other hand, in II. 9 the king of Israel is called D"W or 
DlliT 1 simply nine times, viz. vv. 14 bis, 16 bis, 17, 21, 22, 23, 24; 
once *]7D.1 D*W v. 15; and once 76TIB* 17» ETW in direct dis- 
tinction from rm.T 170 IPWriN v, 21 ; never 7K">E" *]7» simply. The 
double occurrence of DiV simply in v. 1 6 is specially to be noticed, 
since, on account of the proximity of PfOT *]7E WnX, the specifi- 
cation 7fcOB* 17E might have been expected. 

Similarly, in I. 21 2Nns simply is usual; nine times (omitting the 
prophecy vv. 21-26), viz. vv. 2, 3, 4, 8, 15, 16, 20, 27, 29. 2NriN 

JVWJ70 ^ x * ^" l ^ 1^ D SN™ £>. 18. 

Now though this agreement in form of reference to the king 
cannot be pressed to prove identity of authorship for I. 21 and II. 9, 
any more than the fact that I. 17-19 always speaks of 3KI"IK simply 
can be used to connect this section with I. 21, because different 
writers may easily have employed the same so obvious citation 
of the proper name; yet the fact of disagreement in form of 
reference between I. 21 and I. 20. 22, &c, ought to be emphasized 
as demonstrating diversity of authorship. 

It is true that in I. 20. 22, &c, the general use of 7fcO£» *]7D may 
be explained as prompted to a large extent by contrast to DiX *]7ID ; 
but this does not sufficiently account for the almost total omission of 
the king's proper name, which would certainly have occurred far more 
frequently had the author of II. 9 been the writer of these narratives. 
Contrast especially I. 22, II. 3. 4-27, where (excepting 3. 6) the 

214 The First Book of Kings 

names of Ahab and Joram are never mentioned in spite of the close 
connexion with pflliT *pB DSC'liT, with II. 9, where in connexion with 
rnirv ^D IrVinN the usual form of citation is D")1\ CD TUT 1 simply. 
And, again, notice the use of j?ftn simply five times in I. 22, ten 
times in II. 6. 8 — 7. 20, where the desire for distinction from 
DIN *pD cannot have been in the writer's mind, and the occasion 
might have been suitable for the use of the king's proper name. 

By this point, therefore, the diverse authorship of I. 20. 22, &c, 
and II. 9 seems to be proved, and this dissociation adds weight 
to the arguments which have above been put forward in favour 
of the unity of II. 9. 1— 10. 27 with I. 21. 

II. 1. 2-1 7 aa is' from a different source to the preceding Elijah 
narratives. This fact is marked by the form of the name HvX 
w. 3, 4, 8, 12, peculiar to this section, and generally by the inferior 
literary merit of the composition. The story is probably much 
later than I. 17-19, I. 21 and sequel. 

II. 2. 1-18, Elijah's translation, links itself closely on to some 
of the longer Elisha narratives which follow, as their introduction ; 
but also might have formed a suitable close to the Elijah history, 
of which we possess a fragment in I. 17-19, if this can be thought 
to have gone on to embody also a history of Elisha. The following 
coincidences between the narratives are worthy of notice, and suggest 
that I. 17-19 ; II. 2. 1-18; 4. 1-37, to which we may add II. 5, may 
be the work of one author. In the case of II. 8. 7-15 ; 13. 14-19 
the evidence is too slight to build upon. 

Elijah. Elisha. 

1. 17. 8-24. Miraculous provision II. 4. 1-7. Miraculous provision 
for the widow of Zarephath for the wife of one of the 

during famine, and the raising sons of the prophets, 

of her son from death. II. 4. 8-37. Raising to life of 

the son of the Shunammite 


1. 18. 26. nD'y pw bsp ptfl; 11. 4. 31. a?"g,PK) ^P P*& 

29. 2pp r pw na'y pw ^p pw. 

XVII. i 

Elijah. Elisha. 

I. 18. 42. nria nna*i. II. 4. 34, 35. v^y "in?*!. 

I. 19. 13,19. Mention of Elijah's II. 2. 8, 13, 14. #. 

II. 2. 2, 4, 6. "DK Kte^Dl '* fl II. 4. 30. i? ; 


II. 2. 7. 1330 VW1 ; 1 * ♦ ♦ }n*0>1 II. 4. 2 £. DTliwri B*K niK"l3 W 

^3D. *?jjo rink. 

II. 2. 17. Bfr-rg fcrayw. n. 8. 11. pany d^ji. 

11. 2. 12. bynto] ayj ■*« ^ 



The short Elisha stories are probably popular tales handed down 
orally at first, and not put into writing till some considerable time 
after the longer narratives. 

(ii) The second class includes I. 20; 22. 1-38; II. 3. 4-27; 
6. 8-23, 24-33; 7; (14. 8-14). All these, with the exception 
of 14. 8-14, deal in the same style with the same subject — Israel's 
relations with Aram, and may not improbably flow from one hand. 
Notice especially the close bond of connexion between I. 22. 4, 7 
and II. 3. 7, n. 

II. 14. 8-14, which stands apart from the other narratives, is 
marked as probably North Palestinian in origin by its tone, and 
especially by the reference v. 11 mirv6 1EW WDW JV33. Cf. I. 19. 3. 

17. Elijah the prophet predicts three years of famine. He is 
supported at the brook Kerilh by ravens, and afterwards at 
Zarephaih by a widow, whose means of subsistence he miraculously 
maintains. He raises the widow's son from death. 

17. 1. "QBTin] So ch. 21. 17, 28; II. 9. 36; 1. 3, 8. On the 
place Tishbe see below. 

njfe *lBta»] R.V. < Of the sojourners of Gilead.' Win occurs 
thirteen times elsewhere — eleven times in the Pentateuch exclusively 
in P and H, and in 1 Chr. 29. 15; Ps. 39. 13. The word may 

216 The First Book of Kings 

thus, but for this occurrence in Kings, be judged to be late. 
2W)T) is found eight times || "VI, viz. Gen. 23. 4; Lev. 25. 23, 35, 
47 Ms; Num. 35. 15; 1 Chr. 29. 15; Ps. 39. 13; || 1*afe> four 
times, viz. Ex. 12. 45 ; Lev. 22. 10 ; 25. 6, 40; while the participle 
nnsn refers to D'QWin Lev. 25. 45. Thus 3K>in has much the 
same meaning as "13 — a foreigner dwelling in the midst of Israel, 
and, if it can be in any way distinguished from this latter, seems 
to denote residence of a more fortuitous or transitory character; 
cf. Gen. 23. 4; Ps. 39. 13; 1 Chr. 29. 15. Elijah is thus said 
to have been a foreigner who had been sojourning, probably for 
a short time merely, in the region east of Jordan — a statement 
which ill accords with his zeal in extirpating the foreign Ba'al cult, 
and confirming the worship of Yarrwe in the kingdom of Israel. 

It should be noticed further that the scriptio defectiva of the 
Holem in *3B>n is not found elsewhere among the thirteen other 
occurrences of the word, and is unusual in the case of arising 
out of the diphthong aw. 

The difficulty thus apparent is met by the rendering of LXX 

i< Oeo-(3a>v ttjs TaXadd, Luc. 6 e'/c Geaae^cov ttjs TaXadd, i.e. *3E?flB 
^3 (naffrto?) ' of Tishbe in Gilead: Thus the gentilic *3^nn is 
further elucidated, and the native city or village of the prophet 
is named, as might have been expected; cf. ch. 19. 16; II. 14. 25; 

dl. So JOS. (Ant. viii. 13, § 2) (K noXecos Qeo-ffioovrjs rrjs TaXadiTibos 

xcopay, and among moderns Ew., Th., Wellh., Kamp., Benz., Kit., 
Sta. u. Sieg., &c. Klo., who reads ' aus Thisbe Gileads ' in his text, 
suggests in the notes that LXX 6 irpo^rris (Qea^irrji) 6 £k 6. 1 
stands for *3BTOB> *33n, and that this is a corruption of BOJO *#M 
nySs ' the Jabeshite of Jabesh Gilead.' This, however, must pre- 
suppose that *3^Jjin is a corruption in all its six occurrences. 

A place named Tishbe in Naphtali is mentioned Tobit 1. 2 : — 

os yxfiaXoiTevdr) iv fjpipais 'Evep-eaadpov rov j3ao-iXi(os 'Aaavpiav etc 
6ia@r)S (Cod. A Qi@T]s), rj icrriv iic degicov Kvdtus ttjs NfCpOaXrip iv 77; 

1 According to Field, in some texts 6 irpo<pr}TT]s stands alone without ®e<j/3iTT)s. 
His note is: — 'Sic Aid., Codd. Ill, XI, 44, 55, 64, 71, alii (inter quos 247 , 
Syro-hex. (cum ^a »l •>** in marg.), Arm. i.' 

XVII. 2-4 2i 7 

Takcikala imcpdva) 'Aarjp. Thus the statement ' Tishbe of Gilead ' 
may be intended to make distinction from this other place of the 
same name. 

Van Kasteren (Zeitschr. d. deutsch. Pal. Vereins XIII, 207 ff.) 
identifies rQBTI with El-istib upon the febel Ajliin, some ten miles 
north of the Jabbok, and supports the metathesis (st for ts) by 
comparison of Ar. Tell semak = Sycaminos. To the south-east 
of Istib lie the ruins of a quadrangular chapel now bearing the 
name of Mar Elyas, and near to this is an insignificant grave 
which is said to be the grave of the prophet. 

f X\'t *n] Cf. ch. 18. 15; II. 3. 14; 5. 16. 

bfcOK^ VvK r> ~\ LXX Kvpios 6 Qeos tcov dvvdpeav, 6 Qeos 'lo-parjX. 

Luc. omits. In v. 14 LXX, Luc. Kvpios. Elijah's expression else- 
where ch. 18. 15; 19. 10, 14 is ITifcttV \"l?N '', and this, taken in 
connexion with the fact that btiTWF* \17K '* is most generally 
a redactional phrase (cf. ch. 8. 15 note), favours the reading in v. 1 
rrtKITC Tl^N \ and in v. 14 mrp merely. 

VJB? VHOy 1BW] ' Before whom I stand/ i.e. whose servant I am, 
the phrase being employed in the idiomatic sense noticed ch. 1. 2 
7iote. The perfect is here used of an action commencing at some 
point of time indefinitely anterior, and continuing into the 

'31 rhw\ &:&n PIW DK] According to Jos. (Ant. viii. 13, § 2) this 
drought is mentioned by Menander the historian among the events 
of the reign of Ittoba'al of Tyre, and its duration is stated as one 
full year : — pepvrjrai be rrjs dvopfipias Tavrrjs fat Nlevavdpos ev rais 
'l#co/3aAou tg>v Tvpioiv ftaaiXeens npd^eai Xeytov ovtq>s' (t d/3/70^ta r in 
avroi) iyevero dnb tov ^Ynepftepetaiov prjvbs ea>s tov e^opevov erovs 
'YTtepfieperaiov, iKerelav b avrov iroirjcrapevov Kepavvovs iKavovs (3ej3\r]- 
nevai, k.t.X.' 

2. VvK] LXX, Luc. here and in v. 8 npbs 'HXeiot ('HXtuV), if not 
paraphrastic, seems to be an easy error )W?t< (7tf) for V,>X. Cf. 
v. n where nvK Kip*! is rendered Ka\ efidqacv omaa> avTfjs'HXeiov. 
For MT. cf. ch. 19. 9. 

4. '}) n\Ti] The substantive verb merely serves loosely to 

218 The First Book of Kings 

introduce what follows. Dri. Tenses, § 121 Obs. 1, quotes also 
Ex. 4. 16; Ezek. 47. 10, 22. 

6. DWao] ' Were bringing/ The stress is on the continuity 
of their action during a period of some length. 

y\ "It^ni Drv] LXX, Luc. aprovs to npool Kal Kpta. to deiXrjs, 

favoured by Klo., Kamp., Kit. upon the ground (Klo.) of a 
supposed reference to Ex. 1G. 8, 12. 

7. D^ fpD] ' At the end of some days '; undefined. So Gen. 4. 3; 
2 Sam. 14. 2 6f. Cf. Neh. 13. 6. The use of D*!D* v. 15 is similar. 

9. nnS"W] The modern Sara/and, a large village near the sea, 
and some eight miles below Zidon. Cf. Rob. BR. 474^*. So 

Jos. {Ant. viii. 13, § 2): — ivoXw ovk ancoOev rrjs 2ibcovos Kal Tvpov, pera^v 
yap Kflrat. 

DP m^lj LXX, Luc. omit. 

10. NTl] LXX, Luc. omit. 

\S>aa] 'In M* vessel.' So 132, nnssa v , i2 . Cf. wA? on DHJaa 
f/fc. 1. 1. 

n. Tip?] The first radical is thus preserved only again in imperat. 
2 sing. masc. npp Ex. 29. 1 ; Prov. 20. 16 ; Ezek. 37. i6f. 

12. Jiytt] ' A cake '; only again in the doubtful passage Ps. 35. 16. 
The more usual word is Hjy v. 13; #/., possibly so named from its 
rounded or twisted shape, if we may suppose a connexion with 
Ar. J^E 'to be curved or distorted.' Pesh. «♦»» ^ k»»( y/, 
Targ. DJJYD *6 JVN EN presuppose nDWB ^ B» DK < I have nothing' 
a reading which, as Th. notices, agrees better than MT. with the 
following 'y\ DK *3, and is therefore preferable. So Klo. 

^apl] LXX, Luc. presuppose ^apl ' and for my children '; and 
so v. 13 ^ap} for ^?api. So Th., upon the ground that the pi. 
agrees better w r ith nrva 'her household? v. 15, and that MT. 
vocalization may be due to vv. 17 ff. These latter verses, however, 
certainly convey the impression that the boy was the widow's only 
son, and this perhaps gains confirmation from the parallel story 
ofElisha, II. 4. 8 ff. 

14. npan] The final syllable anomalously vocalized after the 

XV I L 6- 1 9 219 

analogy of verbs tt"b ; cf. THp) Dan. 10. 14 *. For cases of the 
converse change — true K"p vocalized as n"?, cf. $fl ch. 9. 11; 

KOhEccl. 8. 12; 9.i8; V^JSIII.2. 21; V»«S>3Ps. 119. roi; G-K. 

§ 75 00 ; Sta. § 143 e, i?<?#z. 1 S. 
jnn] On Kt. cf. ch. 6. 19 note. 

15. RVlTKin iaKWl] Q're, which is postulated by the fern, verb, 
has the support of LXX, Luc, Pesh., Targ. 

16. IDPl N?] The predicate agrees with |BB>, the principal number 
of the compound subj., and not with nnD¥ as in v. 14. Naturally 
it is the oil and not the cruse which is thought of as not failing. 

Cf. dw Dnaa wp 1 Sam. 2. 4; hw oik nwaa w isa. 2. u. 

Ew. § 317°; Da. § 116, i?«w. 2. 

17. Wan n^Vl] ' The mistress of the house.' Similarly nan £>]D 
Ex. 22. 7 (E); Judg. 19. 22, 23. Klo/s ingenious suggestion to 
emend JV2n n vXD « in the upper chamber of the house/ regarding 
this as a gloss from v. 19, is in fact refuted by the statement of 
that verse, irtjn. 

n»SM] Luc. nvorj far}? suggests D**n npBO as in Gen. 2. 7. For 
MT., supported by LXX, Vulg., Pesh., Targ., cf. Dan. 10. 17. 

18. *]h ^ no] < What have I and thou (in common)?' i.e. ' What 
concern hast thou with my affairs ? ' The phrase occurs again in 
II. 3. 13 ; Judg. 11. 12; 2 Chr. 35. 21 ; nJ?) *6 n» 2 Sam. 16. 10; 
19. 23, and in each case deprecates outside interference. This is 
further illustrated by NT.; S. Matt. 8. 29 Ti wlv kol <rol, vie roi> Geov; 

f]\6es o)Se rrpo Kaipov fiacraviaai rjfias ] S. To. 2. 4 Tt efiol Kal (rot, yvvai j 
ovTTOi rjicei 17 &pa jxov. Cf. also S. Matt. 27. 19 fJLrjdeu aoi kcu t<5 SiKaico 

eKuvco. By 'ai '•PK n^2 the woman seems to mean that the man of 
God ; by living in her house, has directed God's attention to her, and 
that some secret sin, perhaps unknown to her and which might other- 
wise have escaped detection, has been the cause of her son's death. 

19. inBD] LXX, Luc, Pesh. seem to have read ntStpn. 

1 Here, however, the vocalization may have been determined by nip\ of 
Gen. 49. 1, which seems to have suggested the words of Daniel. Cf. Bevan, 

ad loc. 

220 The First Book of Kings 

20. TVOnd] Hithpdlel only here, Hos. 7. 14 being probably 
corrupt. Heb. Lex. Oxf cf. Ar. x. As?***' ' seek hospitality with.' 

21. TTDJVl] 'And he stretched himself out'; the only occurrence 
of the reflex Hithpdel. Cf. the similar action of Elisha, II. 4. 34, 

and of S. Paul with Eutychus, Karafias £e o IlavXos enenco-cv avrcp, 

Acts 20. 10. LXX, Luc. make the guess koi eveqjvarjo-cv. 
imp by] by in place of b$ ; cf. ch. 1. 33 note. 

2 2. TV! ♦ ♦ . VEC^l] LXX Kail iyevcro ovtoos (Luc. adds Kal €7T€(TTp(i(jiT] 
37 ^v^T) tov iraihapiov els avrovj, Kai avefiorjo-ev to iraihapiov. Here, no 

doubt, the words of MT. have fallen out through the homoioteleuton 
imp by, while, as Klo. suggests, *rw was read as \T1, and possibly 
the first few words of v. 23 gave rise to 1J?n K")i?!l. The additional 
words of Luc. represent a later attempt to restore the true text. 
24. n? Tiny] So II. 5. 22f. Cf. ch. 14. 6 note. 

18. Elijah's meeting with A had in the third year of the famine. 
After the contest between Yahwe and Baal, and the destruction of 
BdaVs prophets, the rain is sent by Yahwe. 

18. 1. 'y\ cm D* 1 ^ \Tl] 'And there were many days, and the 
word &c./ i.e. 'And when many days had elapsed, the word &c/ 
For the sing, verb preceding the pi. subj., cf. ch. 11. 3 note. 
Elsewhere the phrase B^DJO W occurs, Josh. 23. 1 ; Judg. 11. 4; 
15. it, and so, according to Th., 3 Codd. in our passage; but the 
rendering of the Verss. is ambiguous as to the original text, and 
cannot be cited (Th., Klo.) in support of the alteration. 

4. D^n^DI . . . DN^JVl] 'Hid them (once for all) and used to fed 
ihem (at stated intervals).' 

K^N D^On] LXX Kara (Luc. ava) irevr^KovTa, Vulg. quinquagenos 
et quinquagenos^ Pesh. l*i^ w ^j^„, Targ. K"Oa pC'En \WX\ 
presuppose the distrib. DTpn D*$»n < by fifty/ which is doubtless 
correct. Cf. z>. 13. 

JTTO3] Cf. ch. 13. 14 note. 

5. JHK2 *p] LXX Aevpo koi bitXOeapcv eVi tt)V yijv (Luc. lv rrj yy) 

presupposes f*l?? "^Pl =1.?, agreeably to the following KVDJ, and 
to v. 6 H3 "\2yb. So Th., Klo., Kamp., Benz., Kit. 

XVII. 20 — XVIII IJ 221 

nDi"Q }0 IVOJ KI7I] Impossible. Even a forced translation can 
merely give the sense that Ahab feared to lose some only of the 
beasts, while the context clearly demands expression of the appre- 
hension lest the whole should perish. The true text is given 

by Luc. Ka\ ovk e£o\odp€v6r)(reTai dcfS t]\xu>v kttjvt], i. e. I^JO Tl^H N^"J 
nonil ' that cattle be not cut off from us! So Wellh. 

6. X~\\zn\ LXX, Luc, Pesh. suggest *|7jn ; inferior to MT. 
)iy?~\ LXX, Luc. omit in reference to Ahab. 

7. irro v i] LXX, Luc. Ka\ €<T7rev<T€v, i.e. "1^1, preferred by Th., 
Klo. MT., however, agrees well with the fact that Obadiah had 
not before seen Elijah (cf. his question in this verse, and his 
statements as to himself vv. i2 b , 13), and must therefore have 
recognized him from popular description of his appearance. 

n? nnxn] The enclitic HT gives point and vivacity to the interro- 
gation. So v. 17; 2 Sam. 2. 20, and in an indirect question Gen. 
27. 2 it. With omission of n, HJ HflK Gen. 27. 241*. Cf. note on 
n? r\zb ch. 14. 6. 

8. *jn] Luc. omits. 

10. jP3B>m px TONl] 'And when they said, He is not (here), 
he would take an oath of &c.' LXX, Luc. render yaffil by kq\ 
eue'irpTjarev, rightly recognized by Klo. as a corruption of ko.\ cvenXrjaw, 

i.e. pnfem. 

PJ3KSD S tib ^] ' That he could not find thee.' Dri. Tenses, §37/3. 

11. vAh run] LXX omits. 

12. '31 "I8W by *]KB*] Unless by be merely used in place of ^K 
{ch. 1. 38 note), the constr. is pregnant: 'carry thee off (up) and 
set thee down upon! Cf. II. 2. 16 nnN2 W&jfa "> mi Sx&pB 
'si Dnnn. 

" T V 

13. '31 13H fcOn] For impers. passive governing the accus., cf. 
ch. 2. 21 note. 

NnnfcO . , ♦ VTOT "WW n«] ' That which I did . . . how I hid &c/ 
Cf. ch. 2. 5 note. 

15. 'm Tl] Cf. <r^. 17. 1 »0/<?. 

'ai DIM '•a] ^ introducing the substance of the oath. Ch. 
2. 23 note. 

222 The First Book of Kings 

1 6. DNIIX *^?' ,, )] LXX, Luc. Ka\ e|e'5pa/xei/ 'A^aa3 Kai iirupcvBr), i.e. 

'K *p v i ynjl. Th. notices that such haste is wholly conformable 
to the statement of v. 10. 

1 8. Dvynn] 'The Ba'als.' Some contempt is conveyed by the 
use of the plural as contrasted with the one Yah we. Cf. i Sam. 7. 4 
'And the children of Israel put away the Ba'als and the Astartes, 
and served Yahwe alone! The plural Dvyan has reference to the 
various local forms under which the Canaanite Ba'al was worshipped ; 
cf. mnj by_Z, rrja b$m, ntyS bn, and the place-names (local sanc- 
tuaries) Jtonn ^3, 12 ^13, ntfbtf bn, al. For instances from CIS. 
of Phoenician titles of special Ba'als, cf. Dri. Sam., pp. 49/I 

19. 7^311] LXX, Luc. rrjs al(rxvvr]S, an d SO V. 25; i.e. riB>3n 

' /fo shameful thing' substituted by a later hand, as in Hos. 9. 10 
ngzb injl}l ni^yn *K3 nttH; Jer. 3. 24; 11. 13. Cf. also the 
same alteration in the proper names nj^JJ 2 Sam. 11. 21 for ?y3T 
Judg. 6. 32 ; T\f ST^K 2 Sam. 2* 8 * for ^3^« 1 Chr. 8. 33 ; nefrfiti 
2 Sam. 4. 4 for bn nno 1 Chr. 8. 34 ; 9. 40* or 5>$D~nB 1 Chr. 9. 40 1 '. 
In these latter cases ?jn appears to have been used as a title of 
Yahwe, an ancient practice which was afterwards discouraged 
by the prophets (cf. Hos. 2. 18), and finally disappeared. Cf. 
Dri. Sam., p. 95. 

TWO yn-iK TTWKn wa^l] Wellh. (so Sta., Kamp., Benz., Kit.), 
calling attention to the absence of nx before W33 and to the omission 
of any mention in vv. 22, 40 2 , regards these words as a gloss, upon 
the ground that mBW was not confused with the goddess TTpWy 
until much later times. Cf. ch. 14. 15 note. Pesh. gives the number 
as 450. 

20. btiTW "03 bl2] LXX, Luc. are preferable in omission of >22 ; 

ds Tvavra 'lcrparfk. 

D^^H fit*] LXX, Luc. irdvras rovs irpocprjras. Pesh. .Qjf JLlSO 
)y^^y 'and gathered the men' may perhaps point to a reading 
DXSpJ^ with suffix of indefinite reference. 

1 Et<rj6aa\ is the reading of Cod. 93 Holmes and 01 Xoinoi, i. e. 'A., 2., 0. 
3 LXX, Luc. make the addition in v. 22 kclI ol Trpo<prJTai tov d\aovs (Luc. 
Tutv aXowv) Tcrpafcoatot. 

XVIII. i6-26 223 

2i. 'y\ TIE iy] ' How long are ye limping upon the two different 
opinions ? ' The attempt to combine two religions so incompatible 
as Yahwe-worship and Ba'al-worship is compared to the laboured 
gait of a man walking upon legs of different length. MyD appears 
to mean divisions, as rendered by Pesh. » a^iL9, Targ. piJTiQ, Vulg. 
partes^; cf. TV? 'cleft' or 'fissure' of a rock, Judg. 15. 8, n; 
Isa. 2. 21 ; 57. 5 ; ' branch ' Isa. 17.6; 27. iof. 0*3yfe> ' thoughts ' 
(as dividing or distracting the mind, Ges.) Job 4. 13; 20. 2f may 
be the same word. LXX, Luc. render by rah lyvvais, and this is 
followed by Ew., Th., Benz., who explain D^DVD as ' knee-cavities 
(Kniekehlen), the place where the bone is divided/ and regard 
the saying as a proverb of Elijah's time. 

22. Dyn i>N] Pesh. omits. Targ. N»y bib. 

23. UrV 1 )] ' So let them give/ The 1 is, however, not expressed 
in the Verss., excepting Targ. 

24. nW DBO] LXX, Luc, Pesh. presuppose additional w.K, 
probably an easy gloss in antithesis to the preceding DS'ivM. 

DT&HH Nin] ' He is the God,' i. e. the true God. Cf. v. 39. 

■Unri niD] LXX, Luc. add tirtift TBta; but for MT. cf. ch. 
?• 38, 42. 

25b. iwn ♦ . ♦ IfrOpl] Pesh. omits. 

26. yjy ?y^n] The repetition of LXX, Luc. 'EnaKovo-ov fjfi&p, 
6 BdaX, iivaKovcrov rjjxwv is probably an imitation of z>. 37. 

T\2XQT\ by ttTDB^] 'And they limped around the altar.' inDDI, 
the intensive of the word used in v. 21, describes with some scorn 
the pantomimic dance (Ke., Th.) of the priests. LXX, Luc. kq\ 
dUrpexov, Vulg. iransiiiedantque, Pesh. cuwkoUo ' exerted themselves,' 
Targ. jtDn^Dl ' leapt madly.' Klo.'s suggestion WW ' and they 
danced' (2 Sam. 6. 16) is unnecessary. Baethgen (Semit.Relig. 25) 
compares a Greek inscription from the neighbourhood of Berytus 

(CIG. 4536) EtXatfi uoi, BaXpapK&s, noipave Kcopcov, Here BaXfxapKoos 

must represent ^i?."lP •$?? 'Ba'al of the dance/ or *"li?"]P 'causing 
to dance,' i. e. ' worshipped in the dance/ 

2. d/*(£ij8oAa>s, perhaps a corruption of a}i<pi(36\ois } 'doubtful (opinions).' 

224 The First Book of Kings 

nwy "ipn] LXX, Luc, Vulg., Pesh. presuppose VBty "H5te ' which 
they had made/ correctly. 

27. ^l 1 "!!] Usually regarded as imperf. Pi'el, and a secondary 
form from ?r)\] Hiph'il of b?T\. Cf. Sta. § 145 c; Heb. Lex. Ox/. 

G-K. § 67 j/; Ko. Lehrg. I. i, p. 352, explain as imperf. Hiph. 
of 7?n with doubling of first radical (Aramai'zing form) as in 3B!, and 
without elision of fl as in the forms v>nnn Job 13. 9, wflfj! Jer. 9. 4. 
Sta., in adopting the former view, considers that these latter forms 
ought properly to be vocalized vfl\\) , 'fl . 

liT^K] LXX, Luc. add the gloss 6 eea^drrjs. Cf. ch. 17. 1 00/*. 
So Luc. v. 29. 

';i IW *o] ' Surely meditation, or surely going aside occupies 
him, or surely a journey occupies him!' iw ' meditation* as 
producing a condition of abstraction (Pesh. JJo>), is preferable 
here to 'conversation 1 (LXX, Luc, Vulg., Targ.). J*fe> (for yo from 
31D 'turn back'; cf. 3ib0 2 Sam. 1. 22 for SiDJ) is usually explained, 
after Jarchi, as an euphemism. But omission of y? 3^ Ol in LXX, 
Luc, suggests that these words may be an erroneous repetition 
of the former. So Klo. The meaning of v "pi *31 is brought 
OUt by paraphrase of LXX, Luc ko.1 dpa prj ttotc xprj par ifci avTos, 
•perhaps he has business to transact!' 

I'p^] The nuance is ' must (or s/ioutd) be awakened/ 

28. DOSJtt^sa] LXX omits; but Luc kcito tov edio-pov civtS>v. 

29. In place of MT., LXX reads Kai t7rpo(f)r)T(vcrav ecos ov naprjXOev 
to BeiXivov, Kcii iyivero cos 6 Kaipbs tov dva(3j]vai tt)V Ouaiav, Kai eXdXrjacv 
'HXeiou npos rovs 7rpo(pr]Tas tcov 7rpocro)(6i(rpa.T(t}V Xeyccv Mera'crrr/rf dno 
tov vvv, Ka\ eyu> Tvoirf'roi to oXoKavToapd pov' Kai peT^aTqaav Kai dnrjXdov. 

This is not, with Th., to be regarded as genuine, but is marked 
as a gloss which has usurped the place of the true text by the use 
of to SftXtvov for D'nnvn compared with vv. 26, 27 peo-qpPpla, and 

tovs Trpo(pr)Tas t<op Trpoaoxdio-paTOii' as against 01 npofyriTai tov BdaX 

vv. 22, 40, or revised ttjs alaxvvrjs vv. 19, 25. In Luc. this text has 
undergone revision, the reading of MT. being partially combined : — 
Kai ovk rjv cpa3vr] inserted after Bvalav. A similar glossing is to be 
seen in v. 36, LXX, Luc. 

XVIII. 2 7 -jo b 225 

nmPH nbuh *iy] ' Up to (the time of) the offering of the oblation'; 
but v. 36 nibjn ' a/ the offering.' b ny (exc. Josh. 13. 5= Judg. 3. 3 
NU7 *iy) is elsewhere very late, being confined to Chr., Ezra, Neh. 
The occurrences are cited Dri. LOT., p. 506. In the earlier 
language *jy alone is usual, as in Gen. 32. 25 "wn m^y iy; 19. 22; 
Judg. 6. 18 ; a/. The phrase nnj»n ni?y3 ^ about (the time of) the 
offering, &c./ is also found in II. 3. 20, of the early morning, and 
not, as here, of the afternoon. The reference can scarcely be to 
anything else than the morning and evening offering at the Temple 
at Jerusalem; nor need this, as coming from a writer of the 
northern kingdom, cause difficulty, in view of the statement of 
v. 3i a ; see note. 

nrUD in P always denotes a meal-offering, and this, according 
to the regulations of Ex. 29. 38-42 ; Num. 28. 3-8, was the 
regular accompaniment of the lamb which was to be offered 
morning and evening. But our passage clearly refers to the offering 
generally, of whatever it consisted at that time, and not to such 
a special portion of it as the term denotes in P. From 1 Sam. 
26. 19 nn30 rnj 'let him smell an offering/ smell i.e. the sweet 
smoke from the burning (cf. Gen. 8. 21), Gen. 4. 4; 1 Sam. 2. 17 
(cf. vv. 15, 16), it appears that nrtJB in early times could denote 
even an animal sacrifice, and was thus a general term for an 
offering, like J2f]i5 in P. The use of the word with the meaning 
present (ch. 5. 1 note) is closely allied. Cf. Wellh. Prolegomena, 
pp. 61 f. Upon the difficult passage II. 16. 15 cf. note ad loc. 

30 b . 'y\ tiESVi] ' And he repaired &c/: a use of tf£~\ heal peculiar 
to this passage. In LXX, Luc. these words do not stand in this 
position, but appear between 32 a and 32^, 32 a being somewhat 

abbreviated ; Kai ai<ob6nr]cr€v rovs \t60vs (LXX iv dvofiari Kvplov), kcu 
lacraro to Buaiaarrjpiou (Luc. Kvpiov) to KaT€0~KapL\iivov t k.t,X. This 

is a superficial rearrangement made because the altar could not 
be said to be repaired until the stones had been built up. But 
in MT., v. 30^ states summarily what is re-stated in detail in 
vv. 31, 32, according to the diffuse but picturesque style of the 
writer. Gen. 27. 23, followed by the details of vv. 24-29, is similar. 


226 The First Book of Kings 

DVinn '* rttto] Thus the spot selected on Carmel by Elijah was 
the site of a HD-ft or local sanctuary which had been destroyed 
at the idolatrous reaction which had been brought about by Jezebel. 
Cf. ch. 19. i o IDin *pnrn?D riK. These passages show incidentally 
the wide diffusion of such high-places for the (unmixed) worship 
of Yahwe throughout the northern kingdom. Cf. ch. 19. 18. 

Th. cites Tac. Hist. ii. 78 1 ; Suet. Vespas. 5 2 as stating that 
down to Vespasian's time an altar existed on Carmel without 
temple or statues. 

3i a . 'y\ D"03K m^y DW] Cf. the setting up by Joshua at the 
crossing of the Jordan of two cairns, each consisting of twelve 
stones, one for each tribe, Josh. 4. 1 ff. (JE) ; and the erection 
of the twelve Macceboth for the twelve tribes at the ratification of 
the 'Book of the Covenant/ Ex. 24. iff. (JE). 

This notice goes to show that the absence of any polemic on 
the part of Elijah against the calf-worship of the kingdom of Israel 
does not imply his tacit approval, but rather that while (so far as 
w r e know) tolerating it in face of the far more serious deflection 
caused by the introduction of the Phoenician Ba'al worship, he had 
in view as an ideal the ultimate union of the two kingdoms in the 
pure worship of Yahwe. Cf. v. 29 note; ch. 22. 7 note. 

*y\ "IQDCO] LXX, Luc. kot dptdfiov (Luc. T<ov SooSeKct) <pv\£)v 'io-paqA, 
m (\d\rjacv Kvpios npos avrov k.t.X. The Substitution of 'icrpa^X for 

Spy, however, makes the statement of 31^ superfluous. 

3i b . '31 n\l T^'k] The precise words, ")EP n\T btnw, occur 
in Gen. 35. 10 (P), and this has caused Kue. and others to regard 
this half-verse as an addition under the influence of P. Kamp. 
goes further, taking the whole of vv. 31, 32 a as a later gloss, and 
finding in them a contradiction to v. 30 b (the mere repair of the 
altar ; but see note) ; and it is mo^ probable that, if the narrative 

1 ' Est Iudaeam inter Suriamque Carmelus, ita vocant montem deumque, 
nee simulacrum deo aut templum — sic tradidere maiores — ara tantum et 

2 ' Apud Iudaeam Carmeli dei oraculum consulentem ita confirmavere sortes, 
ut quidquid cogitaret volveretque animo, quamlibet magnum, id esse proven- 
turum pollicerentur.' 

XVIII. )i a -4 2 22 7 

has received any addition, this is the correct view. But the fact 
recorded in v. 3i b appears also in Gen. 32. 28, 29 (J), and too 
much stress must not be laid upon such a very easy coincidence 
with the words of P. 

32. rbvT\] 'A channel/ Cf. II. 18. 17 ; 20. 20, where the word 
means a ' conduit ' or ' aqueduct/ 

TVM] ' (Of) about the capacity of/ 

33. After V. 33 a , LXX, Luc. add em to 6vaiacrTr)piov o cirolr]<T€v f 
and at the close of the verse, kcu eoroiftao-ev im t6 Ovo-iaarrjpiov. 

34. IB^P] 'Do it a third time/ Elsewhere this denom. Pi'el 
means Do on the third day 1 Sam. 20. 19 ; Divide into three parts 
Deut. 19. 3t. 

35. *6o] LXX fnXrjo-av, under the influence of the plural verbs 
in the preceding verse. 

36. After btrw*\ prw DrrDK LXX, Luc. add the gloss eVaKouo-oV 
fiov, Kvpie, inamvaov fiov (rrjficpov ev nvpi, and then continue Kal 

yv&T(s><rai> nas 6 Xabs ovtos (cf. V. 37) in place of jnV DIM. 

37 a . Luc. omits. 

37^. M7 JIN] LXX, Luc. tt)v Kaphiav tov Xaov tovtov. 

38. iTliT PN] LXX, Luc. TrCp irapa Kvpiov, Targ. '* £Hp p KWK 
suggest /s ~riND $K } and this is adopted by Th., Klo., Kamp., on 
the supposition that HND has been lost through proximity to the 
similar ew. After '* LXX, Luc. add eVc rov ovpavov, as in Gen. 19. 24 

tra&n p '* nwo bw nnaa . 

'31 D"03Kn HKl] The different order of LXX, Luc, tM3Kil n«l 
ISyn nw following npyrD, is certainly wrong, since ron? must 
refer to D^»n flN. 

40. Drv] LXX, Luc. 7T/)6s roy Xaov. 

41. DlMn pon 7lp] 'There is a sound of M* r^ar of rain/ 
pen means the loud rushing noise of a heavy downpour, as heard 
by Elijah's 'prophetically sharpened ear' (Klo.). So Pesh. |u*>o^, 
Targ. D^inn^. Cf. Jer. 10. 13 ; 51. 16 DW3 D^D pEH IDD hp5>. 

42. r6y iiTiJNI ♦ . , 3NnK r6jw] On the contrasted order cf. 
ch. 5. 25 «0/fc. 

"Wi] ' And he crouched/ The meaning, here and in the only 

Q 2 

228 The First Book of Kings 

other occurrence II. 4. 34, 35, must be determined by the context. 
So Verss. in both passages. 

43 . D^JJE) JJ35^ 2CJ LXX Kai (TV €7Ti(TTpe\f/ov inraKi, Kai dnoarpeyj/ov 
iiTTiiKi. Kai dnea-Tpe-^ev to naihapiov inrdici. Luc. i EnicrTpe\p'ov kcu 
iirifiketyov enrdieis. Kai eVea-rpe^e to naiBdpiov e^rd/ctf. Here the 

first sentence of LXX appears to contain a doublet, while in Luc. 
the text has been worked over, and the verb of the second member 
altered into enlftXeyp-ov, in accordance with v. 43 a . The emphatic 
Kai <t\) of LXX has the appearance of originality, and supposing 
(with Klo.) nriS to be a corruption of nny, we may restore: — 
DWQ jnt? "W3n 2m D^ya J?26J> n^ nmjn '"Now return seven 

• t : - v t t - • t : - v ••. t - : 

times." And the lad returned seven times.' 

44. D"»D rpy] LXX, Luc. dvdyovaa vbtap a mistaken reading 

• — T _. — 

45. TO lyi l"D ly] 'In a very short while.' The repetition 
expresses both the brevity of the interval and its indeterminateness. 
Vulg. explains differently Cumque se verterel hue atque illuc, and 
so Pesh. jiaXo kiX Jj.3fcsj*> oo» «J^o. Similarly Targ. paraphrases 
rntEH ly ' while he was harnessing.' 

46. $>N nnTI '* T1] So Ezek. 33. 22; but bv instead of i>K is 
usual: — II. 3. 15; Ezek. 1. 3; 3. 22; 37. 1; 40. 1. The phrase 
describes the powerful access of prophetic inspiration. Cf. also 
Ezek. 8. 1 '1 ''jns* T Dfc> ^y i>£m ' And the hand of the Lord Yahwe 
fell upon me there'; Ezek. 3. 14 npm *by '* *M 'And the hand 
of Yahwe was strong upon me'; Isa. 8. n Til npTJl2 vN '* "ICN n3 
' Thus said Yahwe unto me with strength of hand.' 

0355*1] The word is otherwise quite unknown. All Verss. give 
the meaning ' gird.' 

19. Jezebel seeks to take vengeance upon Elijah for the death of 
her prophets. Elijah flees into the wilderness of fudah, and then 
journeys on to Horeb, where he receives Yahwe s further commission 
for the extirpation of Ba'al worship from Israel. 

19. 1. ^3Ptfi>] LXX adds tjj ywauA ovtov, i.e. Sn&X, which may 
have fallen out before the following HK. 

XVIII. 43 h —XIX. 4 22 9 

nn -)£*N bl HKl] 'And all the details of his slaying'; lit. 'and all 
that he had slain/ This, however, is extremely forced, and, since «?3 
is omitted by all Verss. except Targ., it may be supposed to be an 
erroneous insertion from the first half of the verse. So Th., Klo., 
Kamp., Benz., Kit. 

Dwajn bz] LXX, Luc. omit bn. 

2. LXX, Luc. preface Jezebel's speech with the words El av « 

'RXeioif (Luc. 'HXtos) Kai iya> (Luc. adds «>t) 'le£a/3eA, 1. e. HAN DK 
^?.r^ ^1 ^J?N '^4 J surely as you are Elijah and 1 am Jezebel! The 
force and character of the words speak for their genuineness. So Th. 

\\VW ru] Add s b with all Verss. On the phrase cf. ch.2.2$ note. 

DilD inx] With st. const, before the preposition, as in ch. 22. 13 ; 
1 Sam. 9. 3 ; al. (Da. § 35, Rem. 2). Against the view that this 
shorter form inK can ever represent st. absol. in ' the flow of speech' 
(Ew. § 267b), as appears from the vocalization of the Massoretes 
in four instances, cf. Dri. on 2 Sam. 17. 22. 

3. N"l!l] Read Ni*1 ' And he was afraid] w 7 ith all Verss. except 
Targ. So Th., Klo., Kamp., Benz., Kit. 

I^SJ ?K *p^] ' And he went for his life ' ; lit. on account of 
So II. 7. 7f. With b$, Gen. 19. 17 *pSfi bv tti>»n. 

4. nnN Dm] 'A broom/ This shrub, which bears in Ar. the 
same name ~jT, is the Retama roetam of modern botanists, 
the Genista roetam of older authors. It occurs with great frequency 
near Sinai and Petra, abundantly round the Dead Sea and in the 
ravines leading down to the Jordan valley, and occasionally in 
the wilderness of Judaea. The flower, a delicate white or purplish- 
pink blossom, appears in February in advance of the tiny foliage, 
and the shrub reaches a height of ten to twelve feet, affording 
a grateful shade. Tristram, pp. 359^; cf. Stanley, Sin. Pal., p. 80. 
On the use of *intf cf. p. 209. 

T\\ob 1^2J HK b*W^~\ 'And he asked that his soul might die.' 
So exactly Jon. 4. 8. Ew. § 336 15 calls the constr. ' a species 
of the Latin accusative with the infinitive/ 

'31 3113 i6 *5~\ Rightly explained by Th.: — 'As human I must 
one day die, and now it is death that I desire/ 

230 The First Book of Kings 

5. inx Dnn nnn] LXX eVel v-no <\>vtqv^ Luc. In6 to (fivrov cKei. 
Here the variation in order, and the fact that nnx Drn in the 
previous verse is simply transliterated, LXX 'VaO^ev, Luc. padafitlv, 
suggest that the original text read «c€i alone, and that the remaining 
words are a later insertion after MT. In MT. the indefinite Drn 
iriN is strange after the shrub has been already mentioned, and the 
words have the character of a gloss taken directly from v. 4 to 
explain D^ of the original text. We may therefore restore 33B*1 
DK> |^ v 1 ' And he lay and slept there! 

n? run] Isa. 21. 9 ; Song of Sol. 2. 8, 9I*. Cf. ch. 14. 6 note. 
"JN^D] LXX, Luc. Tis, but in V. 7 uyyeXor. 

6. vriBWniD] The word means 'the places or parts near his 
head,' and, used as an adverbial accusative, should be rendered 
1 At his head! So 1 Sam. 19. 13 ; 26. 7 ; al 

D^a^n nay] ' A cake of (i. e. baked on) hot stones.' Ar. uJLSj 
means a stone heated in the fire, to be dropped into milk for the 
purpose of making it boil. n ?¥") Isa. 6. 6 denotes a glowing ember. 

8 b ^".] The writer appears to know, and to be influenced by, 
the narrative of JE relating to Moses at Horeb. Thus, with the 
forty days' fast cf. Ex. 34. 28; with the Theophany cf. Ex. 33. 18 — 
34. 8, and especially v. 11 12V '*• nJiTl with Ex. 34. 6 Wfi by '' "UJH. 
The name Sin m the Hexateuch is peculiar to E, Ex. 3. 1 ; 17.6 ; 
33. 6, and to Deut., while the expression BTOtcn "\n, always with 
reference to Horeb, occurs elsewhere only in Ex. 3. 1 ; 18. 5; 
24. 13(E); 4. 27 (JE). 

Perhaps, however, he was dependent, not upon the written 
source, but upon oral tradition. Contrast the nnyD of Elijah with 
the n^fn n"}p3 in which Moses was placed, Ex. 33. 22. Our writer's 
tradition may have spoken of this latter as a nnyD, and nnyon v. 9, 
unless merely an example of the use of the definite article noticed 
ch. 13. 14, may mean ' the cave' thus rendered famous in former 

D\-6xn nn] LXX, Luc. omit mhto . 

9. ns ^b no] 'What hast thou here?' (to concern thee), so 'What 
doest thou here?' Cf. Judg. 18. 3; Isa. 22. 16; 52. st. 

XIX. j-2o 231 

10. 'jrVQ Uty] LXX, Luc. evKareXnrou ac, T°W, and so z/. 14, 
where, however, in LXX rrjv dia6r)Kr)v a-ov has been added by 
a later hand. 

11. 15'y r> rum] The participle picturesquely describes the 
Theophany as in course of occurrence, and is not, with LXX, 
Luc, to be rendered as a fut. instans, l Behold Yahwe shall pass 
by,' as if the words formed part of the preceding speech. 

pTffi rpVH ITn] The second adjective, as more remote from its 
subject, lapses into the masculine, and is then followed by masculine 
participles. So Jer. 20. 9 'tpffl "Og fVJJfc BfetS ; cf. Ezek. 2. 9 
'31 fcminj ^K nmfe 1J. 1 Sam. 15. 9, quoted by G-K. § 132 </; 
Da. § 32, 7&>w. 4, is certainly corrupt; cf. Dri. ad loc. 

12. npl niDOl ?1p] 'The sound of a light whisper ! LXX, Luc. 
(fxovrj avpas XenTfjs, and so Vulg. sibilus aurae tenuis ; have excellently 
grasped the sense both of substantive and adjective. riBBI is 
a gentle breeze Ps. 107. 29, or a murmur which can be compared 
with such a breeze Job 4. i6f. npl thin, Jine, and small, is only 
here used of a sound, but cf. the similar application of \em-6s. 
RV. marg. ' a sound of gentle stillness ' is unsatisfactory, stillness 
being incompatible both with ?1p and np*t> and with y£&?D of the 
following verse. 

At the close of the verse, Cod. A adds the weak gloss /cafceZ Kvptos. 

13. B^l] Hiph. only here. Qal particip. pass. 1 Sam. 21. 10; 
Isa. 25. 7. Cf. the similar action of Moses Ex. 3. 6 (E). 

15. btXth]- Cf. note on II. 8. 15. 

18. 'y\ TTWrrf] 'And I will spare in Israel seven thousand, 
even all the knees &c/ 

'31 nan by\] The kiss of homage offered to idols may be 
illustrated by Hos. 13. 2 Wfl D^JS &™ TOT to *z/zw of Bethel 
and Dan. Cf. Job 31. 27, which speaks of kissing the hand in 
worship of the heavenly bodies. 

20. ':i npVK IDWl] Cf. S. Luke 9. 61. LXX omits *Dxb) by 

n B?f v] With hatef-qamec under the doubled sibilant. So with 
the emphatic letters p, B ; nB|5^K Ruth 2. 2, 7 ; nrtjjg (for nnpi?) 

232 The First Book of Kings 

Gen. 2. 23; ftntpQ P s . 89. 45. Cf. G-K. § 10 h; Sta. 
§ 104- 

01 216? *p] Elijah disclaims any special significance for his 
action, unless the call correspond with Elisha's own free impulse. 
The words 216? j? do not merely grant Elisha's request, but give 
permission to return, if he will, to his ordinary pursuits. 

21. "mn D^3] 'He boiled them, the (pieces of) flesh.' The 
pronom. suffix anticipates the object, as commonly in Syriac. 

Cf. also ch. 21. 13 rto-riK , , , vrjsji; II. ig. 15 Kt. f\)®n m£?. 

fniDH nniN-riK Tnx. Cf. Da. § 29, Bern. 7, where a number of 
instances are cited from other books. LXX, Luc, however, omit 
iKOn, and it is thus possible that it may have come in as an 
explanatory gloss from the margin. 

20. Narrative of two campaigns of Ben-hadad II {Hadadezer) 
against Israel in successive years. In the first the Aramaeans besiege 
Samaria, and are beaten off by an unexpected sortie. In the second a 
pitched battle takes place at Aphek } the A ramaeans are defeated, and Ben- 
hadad falls into the hands ofAhab, who concludes a truce with him. 

1. Yin p] The second Aramaean king of this name mentioned 
in Kings. Cf. ch. 15. 18 note. This Ben-hadad appears in the 
Cuneiform inscriptions under the name Dad--id-ri, Dad-id-ri, i. e. 
"WT^. Cf. further v. 34 note; COT. i. 190/. 

'}) DWBl] Cf. the list of allied princes who are mentioned 
as taking the field with this Hadadezer at Qarqar against Shal- 
maneser II (Append. 3). Here, as in other cases (cited COT. loc. 
cit.), their total is given as twelve, perhaps a round number. 

2. nYyn] Luc, Pesh. omit. 

3. D^zman] LXX omits. 

5. Tirfe "o] *3 introduces the direct oration : cf. ch. 1. 13 note. 
TOZtt] LXX, Luc. omit. 

6. T^y] LXX, Luc, Pesh., Vulg. presuppose Bnw?, correctly. 
The Aramaeans were to take whatever seemed worth taking to 
them. So Th., Klo., Kamp., Benz., Kit. 

XIX. 2i— XX. ii 233 

7. "O^l] So 'A. Ka\ els vlovs fxov. LXX Kal Tvepi to>v vlcov pov ko\ 
tv (pi tcov Ovyarepw pov, Luc. kcu nep\ tgjv tzkpcov pov. 

8. rOND Nl^l SJDBTI bk] l Obey not, nor consent.' Continuation 
by K? with imperf. secures an even flow to the sentence, which 
would have been broken by reinforcement by the more energetic 
bx with jussive. So Am. 5. 5 a *GT) *6 b&ST}) b$"m fchTFri^ 

royn &6 V2f nxni. cf. Ew. § 350*. 

1 o. 7 ai p^y H3] With pi. verb in the mouth of a poly theist, as 
in ch. 19. 2. 

pSB^] ' Shall suffice.' The only occurrence of the verb. Subs. 
ipSp ' his sufficiency,' Job 20. 22 t. The root is common in Aram. 
in the same sense. 

D^wi>] 'For handfuls.' Ezek. 13. 19; Isa. 40. i2f. The boast 
implies that Samaria is unworthy of the prowess of a power like 
Aram, and at the same time promises its utter obliteration : — ' So 
innumerable are my followers that they will be unable to secure 
even a handful each of the dust of the ruined city/ Jos. {Ant. 
viii. 14, § 2) explains strangely : — aneikwv v\\rrfK6Tfpov t<ov Tdx&v ols 
Karacppovei X" > H ,a tovtois iireydpeiv avrov rrjv (TTpanav Kara dpdica 

"va"U] 'At my feet,' i.e. following me. So II. 3. 9 ; 1 Sam. 
25.27; 2 Sam. 15. 16, 17; Judg. 4. 10; Ex. 11. 8 (J); Deut. 11.6. 

11. 1"U*r] LXX, Luc. 'iKavovaOco (Luc. vplv) must have read 31; 
cf. ch. 19. 4; 12. 28. 

'ai bbnr\ s ?N] ' Let not him who is girding boast himself as he 
who is ungirding ' ; i. e. as Targ. rightly paraphrases n2 W tfb 
fWD p^DI nvn N"G:d N3"\pa nnJl mtOI 'Let not him who is 
girding himself and going down into the battle boast himself as 
the man who has conquered and is coming up from it/ "i;n 
refers to the buckling on of the sword ; cf. 1 Sam. 17. 39 ; 25. 13 ; 
Judg. 18. 11; al. nri2D may be illustrated by Isa. 45. 1 *$ffl 
nriDX MJO 'and the loins of kings will I ungird,' i.e. render 
them defenceless. LXX, Luc. pf} mvxdo-Oco 6 Kvprbs cos 6 6p66s 
interpret i;n from Rabb. Heb. "Wl lame, and then guess at nnDD 
as expressing the antithesis. 

234 The First Book of Kings 

12. Tjjn by 1W1 MW] Clearly an order for the renewal of 
the hostilities which had been suspended during the negotiations 
previously described. Render, ' Set yourselves in array \ and they set 
themselves in array against the city! So Ges., Ke., Kit., Sieg. u. Sta., 
RV. text. The expression covers every device which could be 
used to secure the downfall of the city *, and it is therefore incor- 
rect to postulate the ellipse of any special object after the verb, as 
is done by LXX, Luc. OlKodo^a-aTe x^P aKa - an d similarly Klo., Benz. 
'build battering rams/ Th., Kamp., RV. marg. ( place the engines' : 
cf. Ezek. 4. 2 ; 21. 27. For DV used, as in our passage, to denote 
military mobilization generally (and so without expressed obj.) 
cf. Ezek. 23. 24 MD ^bv Wty; 1 Sam. 15. 2 TJTO 1$ Db\ 

13. nn« n<33] Upon inx cf. p. 209. 
n«nfc<] LXX, Luc, Pesh. omit. 

'31 njTPl] Cf. #.28 with pi. verb DnyTI. The phrase is specially 
characteristic of Ezekiel (some sixty occurrences), and appears also 
six times in P 2 . Elsewhere it is found only in Ex. 10. 2 (JE); 
Isa. 49. 23, and +*flp£to 49. 26; 60. 16, + D3Vi*>K Joel 4. 17. 

14. nwion np *ijm] 'By the young men of the princes of 
the provinces.' These nwion np (' Landvogte,' Ew., Th., Klo., 
Kamp., Kit.) were probably appointed to the prefecture of special 
districts, perhaps in the same way as the B^U under Solomon 
ch. 4. 7_^. 3 j and bound, as a condition of their tenure, in times of 
emergency to provide the king with a certain number of warriors 

1 So Jos. {Ant. viii. 14, § 2) rightly expands the king's brief command: — 
6 5' (vOecos tovto irpoocTa£e ko.1 ir(pix^po.novv ttjv ttuXiv kcli x^ J f xaTa fiaWca9ai 
/cat fXTjbeva rponov diroXiirfiv iroKioptttas. 

2 In Ezek. the cases are : — nrn 25. 7; 35. 4; nrn 16. 62; 22. 16; WffT) 
6. 7,13; 7.4; 11. 10, 12; 12. T 2o7 13. 14; 14. 8; 15. 7; 20. 38,42,44; 25! 5; 
35. 9; 36. 11; 37. 6, 13: 13. 9; 23. 49; 24. 24 ('» >:in); 7. 9 (+n30); fn»Tn 

13. 21, 23; WTj 6. 10, 14; 7. 27; 12. 15, 16; 24. 27; 25. 11, 17; 26. 6; 28. 
22, 23; 29. 6, 9, 21; 30. 8, 19, 25, 26; 32. 15; 33. 29; 34. 27; 35. 15; 36. 23, 
38; 38.23; 39.6; 28. 24; 29. i6('»»rM); 28.26; 34.30; 39. 22, 28 ( + crrifw) ; 
39. 7 ( + tontoa M ; iip). In P: — cnrn Ex. 6. 7; 16. 12 ( + cp'ri^); irn 7. 5; 

14. 4, 18; 29^ 46 (+DrrrftN). 

3 So Wellh. Isr. u. Jud. Ges. 66 note. 

XX. 12-20 235 

out of their own retinues. In contrast to these Dyn 73 of v. 15 
denotes the standing army: cf. ch. 16. 15 note. LXX in v. 14 

*E«/ Tots natdapiois tcov dpxovroov tu>v x°P" )V (Luc. ^copco^), but V. 1 5 
tovs apxovras, ra naibdpia ra>v x- f and similarly V. 1 *] apxovTcs naihapia 
Ta>v x-, V. 1() ixpyovra ra iraibdpia apxovra tgov x-y as though V!J?? were 

a suspended j/. consir. (cf. 1 Sam. 28. 7; Isa. 23. 12; a/.y Da. 
§ 28, ifo/0. 6) and the phrase meant ' the young men, the princes of 
the provinces/ i.e. 'the young princes &c/ Luc. in v. 19 renders 
as in v. 14, but vv. 15, 17 show signs of having first exhibited the 
same rendering as LXX and then undergone emendation : — tovs 

ap^ovTas (ot apxovrcs) Ka\ to. naidapta tcov dpxdvTcov tcov ^wpcof. 'A. V. 1 4 
Ev iraia\v dpxdvTcov tcov tnapxicov, V. 1 5 tovs noudas dpxdvroov tcov in., 
V. 1*J iraibes dpxovTcov . . ., V. 1 9 deest. 

flBntan "lDtf 1 *»] 'Who shall join battle?' i.e. make the first 
advance. So 2 Chr. 13. 3. 

15. wh&) DW DTiKE] LXX omits &W. 

7fcOB» \D 73] LXX, Luc. rightly presuppose ?)$ V.?"^? 'all the 
mighty men,' the phrase being explanatory of Dyn 73. 

D S D7X njn&^J LXX e^rjKovra, Luc. i^r)Kovra x^ddas. 

16. nnnV2 IN^l] LXX Kcii e£i)X0«> pearjpPpias, Luc. *ai codes' 
6 (3ao-i\(vs /xer aircov p.(o-r]p{3pias, an expansion explanatory of the 
sing. verb. 

TD^ nn^] Ch. 16. 9. 

17. Tin p r&B»l] LXX, Luc. *al dnoaTfWovo-iv, the implied 
subj. being the outposts of the Aramaean host who observed the 
sortie, while the king was engaged at his carouse. The orig. text, 
if not ffipB^l, was perhaps impers. n^K^ 'and one sent,' rendered 
correctly by LXX, and with subj. erroneously supplied in MT. 

20. ib*n ^n )y)] 'And they smote each his man/ LXX, Luc. 

add k<h edfVTepcoo-cp Zkocttos top Trap avrov, and SO Ew. restores 

iB^K B*N W*1 c and they repeated &c./ the whole passage mean- 
ing ' and they slew each his man repeatedly! The repetition of 
1B*N B*K is, however, extremely awkward, and the addition is 
certainly a later gloss. Had the original writer wished to lay 
stress upon the fact that each man slew more than one of the 

236 The First Book of Kings 

opposing Aramaeans he would have added simply ^B*l or else H3n 
niBh. But the point of the narrative is that the first onslaughl 
was such that it immediately put the enemy to flight. 

20 b . 'y\ ttiw] The sense of the last three words is obscure. 
The best rendering is that of RV. text, 'And Ben-hadad king 
of Aram escaped on a horse with (lit. and) horsemen.' D*BHQ 
must be thought to be loosely connected on to DID by the 1 as 
forming a concomitant factor to the king's escape. Cf. Cod. A 
€(p* Innav aov 'unrevaiv riaiu, Vulg. in eqilO CUM eqnitiblis Sliis. But 
the text would be greatly improved by the addition of toy 
after QWB, as is suggested by Targ. p&jns jnn n^Dyi piDID by 
'upon horses, two horsemen being with him.' Klo. emends ~?V 


21. *pi] LXX, Luc, koL eXafop, i.e. ngj. The king and his 
reserve availed themselves of the horses and chariots which had 
been abandoned by the Aramaeans in their panic, and were thus 
(Th.) able to effect the 'great slaughter' which the main body 
of the army, following the fugitives on foot, might have failed to 
accomplish. MT. describes a senseless waste of energy. 

DIDH nx] LXX ndvTas tovs tmrovs. 

nsrn] Apparently an irregular abandonment of the constr. of 
imperf. with 1 consec. in favour of ) simplex with perf. Possibly, 
however, the vocalization is at fault, and the writer intended to use 
the infin. abs. H3n}; cf. ch. 9. 25; Judg. 7. 19; at. Da. § 88. 

22. pinnn "p] LXX, Luc, with omission of *]?, Kparaiov. In 
p^nnn the original pathah of the last syllable of the Hithpa'el is 
preserved ; cf. G-K. § 54 k. 

IWn nDVuni'] 'At the return of the year'; i.e. when spring 
comes round again after the winter, and warfare becomes prac- 
ticable. So v. 26. Cf. 2 Sam. 11. 1 where the phrase is explained 
D.\Dptpn DKif nyp <at the time when kings go forth (on campaign)'; 
2 Chr. 36. 10. 

23. f y\ DHn t6n] ' Gods of hills are their gods, therefore were 
they (the gods) too strong for us.' RV., in rendering WN as a 
sing, and making subj. of iprn to be the Israelites themselves, is 

XX. 20 h -2j 237 

incorrect. The Aramaeans, in accordance with their own ideas, 
ascribe a plurality of deities to Israel, and it is these gods, as well 
as their worshippers, against whom they are fighting, and whom 
they hope to conquer if they can decoy them from their fastnesses. 
LXX G(6s y lapar)\ followed by sing, verb eKparaiaxrev is an inten- 
tional alteration in order to avoid the use of phraseology offensive 
to the unity of God. So in v. 28 the Israelitish prophet, in quoting 
the words of the Aramaeans, naturally substitutes a singular : — \-17K 
fflrp Dnn ' A God of hills is Yahwe! 

DHVvN] LXX, Luc. add /cat ov Qe6s Koikddos (Luc. KotAdScoi'), a 

gloss made for the sake of strict conformity with v. 28. In v. 23, 
however, the words are certainly out of place, tn^\ but however, 
introducing the idea that the gods may not be gods of the plain 
as a suggestion not previously mentioned except by implied anti- 
thesis in nnn v6k. 

f V\ iS Dtf] 'Surely we shall be stronger than they/ So v. 25. 
The same form of asseveration is found in Josh. 14. 9 ; Isa. 5. 9 ; 
14. 24; Job 1. 11, and with perf. II. 9. 26; Jer. 15. 11 ; Job 22. 20; 
Ps. 131. 2. Cf. note on ch. 2. 23. 

24. 1£lpDD] 'From his place'; i.e. his appointed position in 
the line of battle. LXX, Luc. els top tottov avrcov (Luc. avTov), and 
so Jos. (Ant. viii. 14, § 3) dnoXdo-at irpbs ra otfceia, is inferior, and 
probably arose from the common confusion of D with 2. But 
neither UDIpDS (Th.) nor iDlpID^ (Klo.) could correctly stand with 
this signification, 'E"vK being the required phrase. 

Dins] ' Commanders ' or ' vicegerents/ These appear to be 
the same as the DW1 wh& 33"in *\& ch. 22. 31 ; cf. 20. 1. 
Giesebrecht, taking the term nna as Persian in origin, is obliged to 
regard this verse as an interpolation, and considers that it breaks 
the connexion, nnsi of v. 25 forming the right continuation to 
v. 23, and p Wi, #.25 end, being satisfied by v. 26 (a doubtful 
contention). But cf. note on ch. 10. 15. 

25. DniK ♦ , ♦ SjrfiKD] This form of the particle for the usual 
DfiK, SpM?, occurs repeatedly in these N. Pal. narratives up to 
II. ch. 8;—ch, 22. 7, 8, 24; II. 1. 15; 3. n, 12, 26; 6. 16; 8. 8 ; 

238 The First Book of Kings 

but can scarcely be counted dialectical, depending as it does upon 
vocalization and scriptio plena, and standing also beside the more 
ordinary form; cf. ch. 20. 23 ; 22. 4, 24 ; II. 3. 7 ; 6. 16, 32. The 
form rritf is found several times in Jer. and Ezek., but appears else- 
where only rarely. 

26. ilp2x] Several cities of this name are mentioned in O. T.; 
but this one, which occurs again in II. 13. 17, is doubtless the 
same as is mentioned in Josh. 12. 18; 1 Sam. 29. 1, in the neigh- 
bourhood of Jezreel. Assyr. Ap-ku ; COT. i. 194. 

27. ^1?^?] The same form occurs Num. 1. 47 ; 2. 33; 26. 62, 
and is intended as passive of ^njpsrin Judg. 20. 15, 17; 21. 9. 
Both forms, however, have precisely the same reflexive sense, ' set 
themselves for muster/ ' were mustered/ and probably Wright 
[Compar. Gramm. 208 n.) is correct in thinking the pronunciation 
as a passive ^psnn to be due to a misunderstanding of the Mas- 
soretes. *Ij3Snn, without doubling of the 2nd rad., stands alone 
in Heb., and appears to be a relic of the reflexive of the simple 
stem *l£Q, corresponding to Aram. 7|?ipnN,^Jj5L/* Aeth. taqalla, 
Ar. viii with transposition of 1st rad. and preform. J.£ls] 'iqlalala 
for 'it/iqalala, and so on the Moabite stone, //. 11, 15, 19, 32 Dfflvn 
from root Drv. Cf. Wright, loc. cit.; G-K. § 54 // Sta. § 162; 
and, for other views as to the form, Konig, Lehrg. I. i. p. 198. 

v3?3l] 'And were provisioned'; passive of the Pilpel which is 
found in ch. 17. 4, 9; 18. 13; al. So Vulg. et acceptis cibariis, 
LXX, Luc. omit. 1 simplex co-ordinates the two facts. Dri. Tenses, 

§ 132. 

CTV *B5JTI W3] The subs. Pptyn is elsewhere quite unknown. 
LXX, Luc, Vulg., Pesh., Targ. give the meaning 'like two small 
flocks of goats/ and this is generally adopted. Pji?n = ' strip of!/ 
and thus P| S DTI 'that which is stripped . off ' may possibly denote 
segregation (Heb. Lex. Ox/.), but the inference is precarious. Klo. 
emends CWV DBiprp *SB£l ' upon the bare height, after the manner 
of goats.' 

28. irofcOl '* "jta S\N "IDN^] The repetition of "JDK1 is certainly 
superfluous. Pesh. omits the first occurrence, thus making the 

XX. 26-}} 239 

passage to agree with vv. 13, 22; while LXX, Luc, Vulg. are 
without the second. This latter omission is correct, the addition 
in MT. being probably due, as is suggested by Pesh., to an 
attempt to gain agreement with the preceding passages. 
DnjTW] LXX Kai yvao-7), Luc. yvaxrei, as in v. 13. 

30. s^>K njDBn Dn^JJ] Pesh. ^1&^7 U-a^o ^$ttX, 25,000. 
"VjrQ nn] 'A chamber within a chamber/ i.e. 'an innermost 

chamber'; here, as in ch. 22. 25 (|| 2 Chr. 18. 24); II. 9. 2t, 
selected as most remote and private. Jos. (An/, viii. 14, § 4) 
explains as an underground house ; — eh vnoytiov oUov iupv^rj. 

31. 'y\ 110^1] LXX puts the suggestion into the mouth of 

Ben-hadad, reading Kai cittcv rois iraicnv avrov Oida k.t.\. ras -yjfv)(as 
WW. So Luc, with the different Oi'Sare. That this, however, is 
incorrect is shown by vv. 32, 33, where the servants without the 
king form the embassy. 

'31 *3 ♦ ♦ . '•D71D "o] For the second "O resumptive of the first, cf. 
ch. 1. 30 note. 

WfiWa] LXX, Luc, Vulg., Pesh., pi. 13*0*13 as in p. 32. 

*psj] Vulg., Pesh., though agreeing with MT. in placing the 
speech in the mouth of the servants, yet like LXX, Luc, pre- 
suppose pi. WniBte?. This is an easy alteration induced by the 
preceding pis. 'y\ flJWJ, but inferior to MT. in which the saving 
of the king's life is rightly made the object of the proposed plan. 

33. 1£TO D^JNni] Vulg. excellently, quod acceperunt viri pro 
omine ; i.e. they divined the successful issue of their mission from 
the favourable response \X\T\ TIN. Cf. Sta. Ges. i. 445/i For this 
use of the verb cf. Gen. 30. 27 ^b}3 '* WHJl VJ^na 'I have 
observed the omens, and Yahwe hath blessed me for thy sake/ 
The only explanation that can be placed upon the imperf. is that 
it emphasizes pictorially the coming into being of their consciousness 
of the king's mood; — 'and the men began to divine'; cf. Dri. 
Tenses, §277. The emendation of Gra. ^TJl joined with •nrtD*!, 
as in Isa. 5. 19, is unnecessary. 

IJDDil 1D?rPl] The verb occurs nowhere else, and ttBBH is 
untranslateable, RV. 'whether it were his mind' (marg. Heb. 'from 

240 The First Book of Kings 

him') being indefensible. The Verss. — LXX ko\ dveXtgav rbv 

\6yov dirb (LllC. kcu dv(\e£avTO rbv \6yov avrov (k) tov (rrofxaros avrov, 
Vulg. rapueruni verbum ex ore ejus, Pesh. oU-va ^o»oj.!^3o, Targ. 
rWD KniDftm — are unanimous both in presupposing a different 
division of the words ^3BO rfiD/TW-, and in supplying a plausible 
meaning for the verb ; — ' and they caught it from him? i. e. they at 
once took up and repeated the title of brother which he had con- 
ferred upon Ben-hadad. VJ7ITI being isolated, and its meaning 
purely conjectural, it is futile to dogmatize as to its being Qal (Sta. 
§ 529a) or shortened Hiph'il form like Vfp, ^TP- (G-K. § 53 n; 
Ko., Lehrg. I. i. p. 251). 

^'"V^!!] LXX, Luc. <a\ dvafic{3d£ovaiv avrov -rrpos avrov. Here the 

subj. of the verb being wrongly conceived as pi. inbyi (D'BOXn 
33 a ), jrpbs avrov appears to be the translator's explan. addit. ' unto 
him' (Aliab) which is thus rendered desirable to complete the 
sense. The view that LXX presupposes an orig. IvK *iySp (Th., 
Kamp.) is therefore improbable. 

34. nisn] 'Streets,' i.e. doubtless, as explained by Ke., Th., 
Ges., Heb. Lex. Ox/., &c, bazaars where trade might be freely 
carried on. Ew. ' fortified quarters ' is strangely alien to the term 

'31 ^Nl] The change of speaker is regarded as sufficiently 
marked by the content of his speech as a response to the pre- 
ceding: cf. II. 10. 15. 

n v "D2] RV. ( with this covenant,' i.e. at the price of it; 1 pretii ; 
cf. ch. 2. 23 note on NPfija. The fact of this alliance between 
Ahab and Hadadezer is strikingly confirmed by the monolith of 
Shalmaneser II, where the two kings are mentioned as leagued 
against the Assyrian at the battle of Qarqar: cf. Append. 3. 

infl/C^l] Luc. adds i< rrjs oiKias avrov Ka\ dnr/Xdev aV avrov. 

35. intf t^tf] Cf. p. 209. The identification by Jos. (Ant. viii. 
14, § 5) of this prophet with Micaiah of ch. 22 is by no means 
improbable : cf vv. 42, 43 with ch. 22. 8. 

D s N s 23rt ^:id] ' Sons of the prophets ' was the title of members 
of the prophetic guilds or schools which existed at Bethel, II. 2. 3 ; 

XX. 34-38 2 4 x 

Jericho, vv. 5, 15; Gilgal, 4. 38, and probably elsewhere, and were 
irr some sense presided over by Elijah and Elisha; cf. II. 2. 15-18; 
4. 1, 38 ff.; 6. iff.; 9. 1. Such guilds seem to have flourished 
under Samuel, 1 Sam. 19. 20 (Naioth), cf. 10. 5, 10 (Gibeah), and 
may, perhaps, have been founded by him; cf. 7. 15-17 where 
Bethel and Gilgal are included with Mizpah among the cities 
visited by Samuel in his yearly round from his centre, Ramah. 
The force of the term K'OJ p is well illustrated by Am. 7. 14, 
where Amos tells Amaziah of Bethel, N*aj p ub) "OJK W22 vb 
"OJK ' I was no prophet, neither was I a prophet's son,' i. e. I had not 
the advantage of any special training for the calling. 
'"• nm] Cf. ch. 13. 1 note. 

36. iTHtfn] ' The lion/ singled out for the part which he is to 
play, and already conjured up before the speaker's prophetic vision. 
Cf. especially ch. 22. 21 DVin, and see note on ch. 13. 14. 

37. yVQI ♦ ♦ ♦ li"D v )] 'And the man smote him, so as to wound 
him! Here the act denoted by jftB sharply limits the duration 
of that described by n^n VTD% as forming its end or result. So 
exactly Jer. 12. 17 TiNI WO W\T\T\ W HS Wroi 'I will pluck 
up that nation, so as to destroy it! The case cannot be classed, as 
by Da. (§ 86 c ; Jer. 12. 17 is made to fall under § 87), among 
cases where ' the inf. abs. after its verb suggests an indefinitely 
prolonged state of the action, and therefore expresses continuance, 
prevalence, &c.'; this being precisely what in the present instance 
it does not do. Cases where the second infin. expresses concomi- 
tance of indefinite duration, Judg. 14. 9; II. 2. n, or simple addi- 
tion of an event in due sequence (but not as the result aimed at by 
the previous action), Isa. 19. 22, are different in character. 

38. "{?Eb] LXX, Luc. to> /3ao-iXeZ 'lo-paj?\. 

"IDfcO] The word ISN occurs only here and in ^.41, but the 
meaning ' covering ' or ' bandage' given by LXX, Luc. reXn^wvi, 
Targ. NiayD3, has the support of Assyr. in which apdru = ' to 
attire,' especially with a head-covering ; epartu = ' garment/ See 
Friedr. Delitzsch, Assyr. Handworlerbuch, s.v. I. 1BK, and Pro- 
legomena, 54; Zimmern, Babylonische Busspsalmen, 95; Barth, 

242 The First Book of Kings 

Etym. Sludien, 19. Vulg., Pesh. 'A., 2. vocalize "lBN c ashes.' For 
use of art. "ISN3 cf. ch. 1. 1 note on D^I33. 

40. nuni n^n nbty l^V] 'Thy servant was a doer 0/ hither and 
thither* (rum n:n as in II. 2. 8, 14 ; Josh. 8. 20+), an impossibly 
harsh construction. Vocalization ntty $/. abs. gives the rendering 
'zew busy hither and thither'; but that a man posing as having 
been set to guard a captive should represent himself as deliberately 
engaged in other matters seems scarcely probable. LXX nfpie- 
PXtyaro, Luc. 7repie/3Xt7reTo, Vulg. me verterem, Pesh. UslS-so *d, 
Targ. 'ODDE, point to an orig. HiQ 'was turning (looking) hither 
and thither,' and are followed by Th., Klo., Heb. Lex. Oxf Cf. 
Ex. 2. 12 nbj nb fa*i. 

'J1 1BBPB p] ' Such (//'/. so) is thy verdict ; thou thyself hast 
decided/ For sense of verb ntfin cf. esp. Niph. participle in the 
phrase nynnjl TV3 ' a consumption and a strict decision,' i. e. a 
consumption finally decided; Isa. 10. 23; 28. 22; Dan. 9. 27. 

42. s D"in b*n] 'The man of my ban'; i.e. the man devoted by 
me to destruction. Cf. Isa. 34. 5 ^?in Dy referring to Edom. 

TD] LXX, Luc, Vulg. suggest TJJD, and so Th., Klo., Kamp., 
Benz., Kit; but MT. is supported by 1 Sam. 19. 9; 2G. 23; 
2 Chr. 25. 20; Isa. 28. 2 ; Ezek. 12. 7, where T3 occurs without 
specific suffix l . An expression first used, as in Prov. 6. 5 ?}f$*) 
^J*? "'???, with vague and general reference, may then come to be 
employed where closer specification might be expected. Cf. 
colloquial Eng. in hand, out of hand. 

43. irvn bv] Cf. ch. l. 38 »^ on pra by. 

P]yT1 ID] So ch. 21. 4. 'Chafing and sullen* "ip, used again 
in fern. ch. 21. 5 HID ~]nn HT n», is connected with "HD ' be refrac- 
tory.' The meaning of the adj. *\V\ is well illustrated by the use 
of the participle B^yT which in Gen. 40. 6 denotes an appearance 
dejected and gloomy as produced by perplexing thoughts (cf. Joseph's 

1 Cf. the renderings of LXX, Vulg. in I Sam. 19. 9 rats x*pd v clvtov, manu 
sua; 26. 23 fh x"/** 5 A 10 ", in manum meam; 2 Chr. 25. 20 Luc. ds x*tp as '!<*><**, 
in mantis hostium; where, as in our passage, the translators are at pains to 
make the reference precise, but presuppose no different original to MT. 

XX. 4 o— XXI. 4 243 

question in v. 7 DVn D s jn DD^B VHD), in Dan. 1. io a countenance 
haggard through spare and coarse diet. The phrase is further 
elucidated by the description of the king's conduct in ch. 21. 4 b . 

21. Ahab covets the vineyard of Naboth the Jezreelite, and obtains 
it by the judicial murder of the owner, planned and executed by 
Jezebel. The prophet Elijah announces Ya hives sentence upon Ahab 
and his house because of the deed. 

I a . LXX kcu dpntXoov eis r\v r<u Na/3ou#ai tw 'icrparfkeiT]], i. e. E"?.?1 

^Njnm nnab rrn nn«: probably original. The introductory 
formula of MT., copied from ch. 17. 17 but here somewhat ill- 
fitting, was probably added by the scribe who interposed this ch. 
between chh. 20 and 22; cf. p. 210. The words are found in 
Luc, but that they are there a later addition is shown by the 
presence also of <al before dpnekav, as in LXX. On ins D"0 cf. 
p. 209. 

I*>. 'K byn !*K] LXX napa rfj SXffl 'A X ad/3, i. e. 'K $ 5>3fK. MT. 
is to some extent favoured by v. 2 MV2 ?¥$. 

2. nt "iTlD PjDD] 'The money- value of this one'; lit. 'the money 
of the price of this/ sjD3 is ,$■/. consir. before TTID as in Job 28. 15 
iTTTID PJD3 ? and is not, with R.V., to be taken as an accus. of limita- 
tion, 'the worth of it in money! LXX, Luc, expanding nt into 

(Luc. tov} dpneXfovos aov rovTOVy then repeat kcu eorai fiot els ktjttov 

3. rWB b nWn] So 1 Sam. 24. 7; 26. n; and 2 Sam. 23. 17 
Luc, Pesh., Targ. (cf. || 1 Chr. 11. 19 t6nk> "6 nWn). HITO 
LXX napa 6eov fiov. Luc napa Kvpiov 6cov pov a combination of 
MT. and LXX. 

4. ^XJTI ♦ ♦ ♦ frO' 1 ')] LXX kcu cyevero to nvcvpa 'A X ac/3 rerapaypevov, 

probably an alteration for exact agreement with v. 5. Luc. em- 
bodies the two readings, following MT. in v. 4 a , and placing 
LXX reading at the beginning of v. 4 b . On Pjytl "id cf. ch. 20. 
43 note. 

VOS n&t 3D ,,, i] Cf. II. 20. 2 a . Vulg., as in this passage, makes 

R 2 

244 The First Book of Kings 

the addition ad parietem. LXX, Luc. ko.1 uwcKiikvtycv seem to have 
read P3J1 for 3D ,, 1. 

5. Pit n»] C/5. 14. 6 note. 

6. "DIN S D] Not, as RV. ' Because I spake/ but simply 'I spake/ 
^3 introducing the direct narration. Cf. ch. 1. 13 note. The use 
of the imperf. is here somewhat strange, but may perhaps be 
explained as laying pictorial stress upon the commencement of the 
king's overtures, a usage resembling the Eng. historical present ; 
'I speak' or 'begin to speak' when immediately negotiations are 
cut short by a definite refusal. Cf. Dri. Tenses, § 27 7; Da. § 45, 
Rem. 2, quoting Hitzig. The suggestion of a frequentative force 
for the imperf. (Dri. toe. cit.) is less probable, there being no hint 
of this in the preceding narrative. 

^"D Dtf] LXX, Luc. K\r)povon'iav Trarfpaiv /uuv, an alteration after v. 3. 

7. nny nnx] 'Dost thou now govern Israel?' On the interroga- 
tive force of the sentence cf. ch. 1. 24 note. 

lib 3^1] ' And let thy heart be cheerful.' Cf. note on 3^> •QIB 
ch. 8. 66. 

8. D^QDH] Kt. B^BDn i s correct; 'the letters' already men- 
tioned, v. 8 a . 

Dnnn] 'The nobles/ lit. freeborn'; Kr.*L, Aram, pin "13, 
]5)i^ ii». The word doubtless belongs to the N. Pal. dialect (cf. 
p. 209), other occurrences in O. T. being late; — seven times in 
Neh. of the magnates of Judah, and so in Jer. 27. 20; 39. 6 (both 
passages omitted in LXX, and probably later interpolations ; cf. 
Dri. Introd. pp. 248, 254/*.), ofEdomite nobles Isa. 34. 12 (exilic); 
Dnin p as in Aram., Eccl. 10. i7t. 

f y\ WiD ">&>**] ' Who were in his city, who presided with Naboth.' 
So v. 11 I^SD D'Qtyfl "i^K ' who were those who presided in his 
city/ Naboth himself was one of the elders and nobles in whose 
hands the civil government of the city lay. That 2W here has 
the sense of presiding, especially as judges, is rightly recognized by 
Th., and by Klo. who renders ' Beisitzer.' For this use of the 
verb, cf. Isa. 28. 6 BS#Brri>y 3$i^ < for him who sits (presides) 
over the judgement'; Am. 6. 3 DCn ri3SJ> ' the seat of violence (i. e. 

XXL j-io 245 

of unjust judgement)'; and of Yah we Ps. 9. 8 where the clause 
answering to a# used absolutely is ^D3 D5^e6 $3; c f. Ps. 29. 10; 
Joel 4. 12. RV. ' and that dwelt with Naboth' makes the sentence 
simply a repetition of thfe statement r^jn 1BW. LXX, Luc. 
wrongly omit this former clause, while Pesh. combines with the 
following: lasu ja^* J^wa^ ^skJ* 'who dwelt in the city 
with Naboth.' 

9. ETC 1N">p] An extraordinary day of humiliation to avert the 
wrath of Yahwe which for some cause (supposed to be as yet 
unascertained) was assumed to be threatening the community. 
Such a special fast is mentioned as proclaimed by Jehoshaphat, 
2 Chr. 20. 1-4. Cf. Th., Sta. Ges. i. 527. 

'ai UWi] Not as the suspected culprit, but as a man of marked 
position and piety who would naturally take the lead upon such 
an occasion; so Jos. (Ant. viii. 13, § 8) km noirjaafxevovs eKKkrjo-iap 

irpoKaBiaai fi€v avrcov Ndficodov, eivai yap clvtqv yevovs inKpavovs. The 

prominence of his position would thus the more excite the popular 
indignation (Th.), when the crime had been fastened upon him. 

10. D^EON QW] ' Two men/ as at least necessary to secure 
a conviction; cf. Deut. 17. 6; 19. 15; Num. 35. 30; S. Matt. 
26. 60/ 

?JJv3 ^a] 'Villains.' The derivation and exact meaning of 
?JJv2 are highly obscure. There are two rival explanations, both 
of which regard the word, according to its Massoretic vocalization, 
as a compound, (i) y? not+ ?T- which is supposed to mean worth 
or use (cf. Hiph'il 5>W). Thus ^b? = ' worthlessness,' feb *?.? 
'base fellows' (cf. Heb. Lex. Ox/., s. v.). (ii) 4a not+^T- for fl^p 
that which comes up; — 'not coming up,' and so 'unsuccessful' or 
< ne'er-do-well' (Kimhi tybf. Sal n^f fca, followed by Hupfeld 
among moderns). It is no objection to either of these explanations 
that the use of the term proves the conception to be not negative 
but positive — malignity or dangerous wickedness (Cheyne, as cited 
below), since instances can be quoted from all languages in which 
terms originally negative have gained later a very definite positive 
significance ; cf. e. g. do-ejQfc, Germ. ' Unheil,' Old Eng. ' naughty.'^ 

246 The First Book of Kings 

But a real difficulty in the way of the acceptance of either is the 
fact that the use of such a compound term in ordinary phraseology 
is without a parallel ; expressions such as HDvZl ' nothingness,' 
Job 26. 7 ; DST*! 5 ? *?.? 30. 8 ; njn *b f b 38. 2 being late poet- 
ical creations, and therefore not to the point. 75?*??, then, is 
probably to be classed with njB?¥ (for flTOX) as exhibiting merely 
a fancy vocalization based upon relatively late tradition. 

The view of Cheyne is that 75P73 is to be identified with the 
Babylono-Assyrian goddess Belili, as representing the underworld, 
and that in later times the word may have been popularly associated 
with the derivation fifVl 7? in the sense ' the depth which lets no 
man return/ The chief passage cited in favour of this explanation 
is Ps. 18. 5 b ?y*?? vD3, rendered ' streams of the underworld,' in 
juxtaposition to njO \pnrt v . 5 a , ?^f \?3n v. 6 a {Expositor, June 
1895, pp. 435-439; Expository Times, June 1897, pp. 423// 
Nov. 1897, pp. 91^"./ Apr. 1898, p. 332). The identification of 
7J7v3 with Belili is, however, denied by Baudissin and Jensen, 
on the grounds that there is no evidence to show that the earih- 
goddess Belili was ever regarded as a deity ruling the underworld ; 
that there is no O. T. passage in which the meaning ' underworld ' 
for 7jlv2 is clearly present ; and that there is no analogous O. T. 
expression in which men are brought into connexion with the 
underworld in order to mark them out as destructive or wicked 
{Expository Times, Oct. 1897, pp. 40-45; March 1898, pp. 283/*.). 
If 7y v2 be not a compound term, it is natural to refer it to the 
root y?2 l swallow up, engulf,' and to regard the 7 as 7 formative, 
cases of which are seen in 7JD3, 70^, ?£"]?, and perhaps '9"$. 
The s may then conceivably mark the word as a diminutive, 
according to the common Ar. usage (Wright, Ar. Gramm. i. § 269), 
to be traced also in Syr. in the words |^»^,v, JLJoiw, JlJu* 
(Duval, Gramm. Syr. § 235), and in Heb. "VJJJ., and perhaps also 
in pBW and |fon?N 2 Sam. 13. 20 (cf. Dri. ad loc). Thus an 
original bulai'al might become ?Sy^, a form resembling P^Sip, 
P^P^, which may be thought to stand for shufaifan, 'umatndn, 
^pon the analogy of vulgar Ar. k'fl/a/i, ' little basket,' for kufaifah 

XXL u h , 12 247 

(Wright, Compar. Gramm. p. 89). 7$Jv2 will then denote 'engulf- 
ing ruin ' or 'perdition' the diminutive marking the word as used 
in contempt and antipathy. Such a significance attached to the 
root yS?2 may be seen in Ps. 52. 6 SOT"*iaT73, and the phrase 
^Vv2 p may be paralleled by 6 vlos rrjs aTraXeias S. John 17. 12 ; 
2 Thess. 2. 3. 

After 5>jpi>3 ^n LXX omits all that follows in MT. down to 
?JJv2 "02 of v. 13, apparently through homoioteleuton. 

ri2~n] 'Thou hast cursed'; lit. 'blessed,' and so v. 13; Job 1. 5, 
11; 2. 5, 9; Ps. 10. 3 1. A sense so strangely opposed to the 
usual meaning of the verb is scarcely to be regarded as obtained 
from the idea * greet at departing' (ck. 8. 66; Gen. 47. 10), so 
1 say farewell/ and then ' renounce ' (Ges. Thes., Ke., Dillmann on 
Job, &c, and so RV. marg.\ there being no particle of evidence 
for such a transition in meaning ; nor does it seem probable that 
the notion is that of ' a blessing overdone and so really a curse 
as in vulgar English as well as in the Shemitic cognates' (Heb. 
Lex. Ox/.). Rather, the word is an euphemism deliberately sub- 
stituted for its direct antithesis, viz. the most fearful form of curse 
such as it were a sin even to mention in direct terms. Cf. among 
the Greeks the title EvpeviBes, 'the gracious goddesses/ applied 
euphemistically to the 'Epivves or Furies, and the name 6 Evgivos 
given to the Black sea as being agevos z^hospitable ;■ — ' Dictus ab 
antiquis Axenus illefuit} Ovid, Trist. 4. 4, 56. 

*p£1 Dwtf] The cursing of God and the king is prohibited in 
the Book of the Covenant, Ex. 22. 27 "pin WW!) b^pn *6 DVl^K 

ir6pDl] The same penalty (verb DP) is imposed for blasphemy 
in Lev. 24. 10-16 (H). 

n b . 'jl 2irD 1BW3] Luc. omits. The words are redundant 
after the statement immediately preceding, and may therefore be 
a gloss. 

12. U'OTl] Not to be explained as a perf. with 1 consec, nor 
can any reason be assigned for the use of 1 simplex. The form is 
an unintentional lapse into the imperat. form used in v. 9, and 

248 The First Book of Kings 

we may correct M^fa. That the passage is not a mere gloss 
(Klo.) appears from the suffix of VIM v. 13, which points back to 
the name riDJ of this verse. 

13. LXX, Luc. omit DJH im J1U3 DK ^ytan HWK. But the 
last two words at least give a touch to the narrative not to be 
dispensed with. 

ttdj rut • « • imjn] Cf. ^. 19. 21 »<?/<? on n^an D^n. 

15. 'V\ Wll LXX icai iyevcTO cos rJKovcrcv 'le£a/3eA, Kai e?7r«> Trpoy 'A., 

i.e. '«"!>« TOKfol bafK yb^3 W. This less burdened sentence 
has to some extent the support of Luc, where the words of MT., 
though present, are marked as a gloss by the strange Ke^worai for 
7pD; and of Pesh. which varies from MT., abbreviating I^so? 
ia*j, i.e. 'J nn -3. 

16. After #. l6 a LXX adds ko\ Biepprj^ev ra ipdria eavrov koi ncpic- 
/3aXero (tclkkoV koi cyevfro peraTavra, k.t.X. So Luc. This, however, IS 

scarcely consistent with #.27 MT.; since it is improbable that Ahab 
first made a show of mourning at Naboth's death, then proceeded 
to take possession of his estate, and finally, upon Elijah's rebuke, 
secured a remand of the threatened vengeance through a repetition 
of the same tokens of remorse, this time, it must be supposed, 
sincere. Hence LXX varies from MT. in v. 27, making this 
statement to refer back to the former show of repentance narrated 

by the Version in V. 16 : — Ka\ vnep rov \6yov cos Karevvyr) 'A. dnb 
npocrconov rov Kvpiov, Ka\ inopevero kKoicov mat ftteppr]£(v rov %iTcova avrov 
koi e£coaaro o-clkkov in\ to acopa avrov Ka\ evrjarevafv' koi nfpie(3d\ero 
aaKKOV iv rfj fjpfpa r) indra^ev N. rov ^aparjXdrijv, ko\ (nopfvOrj. /cat 

eyevero prjua Kvpiov ff.r.X. So substantially Luc. But all this stands 
self-condemned. It is impossible that Ahab's remand should have 
been granted as an afterthought on account of his first exhibition 
of repentance (v. 16 LXX), which was clearly insincere and had 
not in the first place served in any way to qualify the penalty 
pronounced by Elijah. MT., therefore, in making the king display 
no sign of remorse, real or assumed, until after the prophet's 
threatenings, is certainly correct; and the fact that LXX text is 
here spurious and late is recognized by Th., who points out that 

XXL i)-20 249 

Jos. {Ant. viii. 13, § 8) was acquainted with a narrative in no way 
different from MT. 

18. 'y\ run] On omission of subj. with run cf. II. 6. 13 note. 
igff. The account of this interview has been amplified by R D . 

Cf. Abijah's prophecy against Jeroboam, ch. 14. 7-16 notes, and, 
beside the phrases there enumerated as characteristic, notice vv. 20, 

25 '> wyn y-in jwyb (-o»nn) T^nn, cf. II. 17. 17 R D t; v. 26 
D"»Wan, cf. *•£. 15. 12 zw/*; 'ai K>mn -ibw, cf. ^. 14. 24 «^. The 

original elements of the narrative, so far as they can be dis- 
tinguished, are to be found in v. I9 a , v. 20 to YlNSD, vv. 27-29, 
and probably also v. i9 b . Less certain is the somewhat awkwardly 
placed statement as to Jezebel v. 23, which would follow more 
easily after v. 24, since #.24 clearly forms the direct continuation 
to v. 22. 

19. Dwan] In the first place LXX, Luc. read al ves kcu ol kvvcs 
(so ch. 22. 38), but that the addition is of the nature of a gloss 
is rendered most probable by its omission in the second place : ol 
kvv€s simply, as in MT. 

nnx DJ *pn n«] ' Thy blood, even thine! or ' thy blood also.' 
For this re-enforcement of the suff. by the pers. pron., cf. the 
exactly similar case 2 Sam. 17. 5 ton DJ V£)l no nyEfc^l 'and let us 
hear what is in his mouth also/ Cf. ch. 1. 26 note with references. 
At the end of the verse LXX, Luc. add ko\ al nopvai \ovaovrai iv rw 
aifiari <rov, adopted by Th. as presupposing ^"J? ^JVDI^ MfajrA. 
The reference, however, implies not the vineyard of Jezreel but the 
pool of Samaria, and is therefore doubtless a gloss derived from 
ch. 22. 38. 

20. *]13Dnn |y] Luc. hi on 7T€7rpa(rai pdrT]v, LXX diori fidrr^v 
7rt7rpao-at, i. e. K]$2 "p3BHn jy < because thou hast sold thyself to no 
purpose V a pointed addition in view of what follows. For N1£*5? 
cf. Jer. 2. 30; 4. 30 ; 46. 11. The suggestion of Th., D3n, is less 
probable, since this would rather signify 'for nought,' i. e. without 
expecting a return. 

ft> ♦ ♦ ♦ ni^yP] LXX, Luc. add (Luc. rov) 7rapopylo~ai avrov, i. e. 
iD^L^, correctly. Cf.II.i7.17; 2Chr.33.6; Deut.4.25; 9. 18. 

250 The First Book of Kings 

a 1. nwi "Wi] Cf. ch. 14. 10 »0/<?. 

23. 'jl D^Dil] Cf. II. 9. 10, 36. 

7l"Q] RV. ' by the rampart/ and so LXX, Luc. h ru npoTeixlapaTi. 
Vulg., Pesh., Targ., however, presuppose Pjna '/'» /fo district' of 
Jezreel, according to II. 9. 10, 36, 37, and this ought certainly to 
be adopted. The prediction was not fulfilled ' by the rampart,' 
but outside the palace within the city, p?n is only here in this 
connexion used of the tract of land surrounding or appertaining 
to a town, being elsewhere employed of the territory or estate of 
a tribe or family. 

25. 'a! nnon "IBW] Possibly with reminiscence of Deut. 13. 7 

'ai nnriK d\-6n rrajw futj ->dk7 , , . p^n nt?« , , . irw *a. 

nripn as though from verb y doubled, in place of nrvpn. 

27. On the variations of LXX, Luc. in this verse, cf. z>. 16 note. 
DN "piTl] 'And went about quietly,'' i.e. in the manner of one 

in penitence and grief. Pesh. «» «°i.», Targ. C|IT explain 'barefoot'; 
cf. 2 Sam. 15. 30 ; Vulg. demisso capiie: LXX, Luc. omit. EK is a 
subs., quietness or gentleness, used adverbially. Elsewhere always 
with 7 expressing condition; — Isa. 8. 6 ; 2 Sam. 18. 5 ; Job 15. 11; 
with suff. ^Kp Gen. 33. 14. Ar. ]o\ means to creak (of a saddle), 
or to make a low moaning or plaintive sound (of a camel). So Isa. 
19. 3 1 t^BK are whisperers, i.e. wizards of some description. 

28. U^nn 1JT7N 7N] LXX, Luc. cv x«pl (Luc. toO) fcwXou auroC 

29. im 7y] LXX, Luc. omit. 

22. 1-38. Continuation of ch. 20. -4//W' j*z>*» years of peace 
between Israel and Aram, Ahab, with the help of fehoshaphat of 
fudah, determines to recover Rama of Gilead from the Aramaeans. 
He falls in the battle which takes place. 

Ch. 22. 2-37 a = 2 Chr. 18. 2-34. 

1. DW w7Vf\ After the 'covenant' described as concluded 
ch. 20. 34. The disastrous issue to which this led at Qarqar, 
where the confederate kings were defeated with great loss by 

XXI. 2i— XXII. 7 251 

Shalmaneser (Append. 3), must have weakened the bonds of 
alliance, and led to a rapprochement between Israel and judah. 
This new alliance made feasible the scheme to recover by force 
from the Aramaeans one of the most important cities which Ben-hadad 
had failed to cede according to compact. Cf. COT. i. 189/! 

3. *iy?3 fifr)] Always with script, defect, except 2 Chr. 22. 5 
'j D1D1. Luc. in all occurrences transliterates 'Papad r., while 
LXX varies between 'PepfiaO r. and 'Pf/i^obtf F. Thus there is some 
presumption in favour of a vocalization ^Vp? ftYTs^ Rama of Gileadl 
the city being so called in distinction from other places of the 
same name west of Jordan ; and in II. 8. 29 (|| 2 Chr. 22. 6) Hen 
actually occurs. So Sta., Wellh. The form Ramoth, however, is 
substantiated as an existing form by the occurrence of the si. absol. 
1^32 nb-J Josh. 21. 36; T^All (nb&O) ntoWJ Deut. 4. 43; Josh. 
20. 8 ; 1 Chr. 6. 65. The site of this Rama is doubtful. By 
most identification is sought with the modern Rs-Salt, which would 
have formed a convenient point of vantage for an advance upon 
Samaria from an E.S.E. position. Dillmann (after Hitzig, Langer) 
on Gen. 31. 54 prefers the site El-faVud^ six miles north of 

6. 'I by l^n] Chr/i bx i?m. Cf. ch. 1. 38 note. 

}m] LXX, Luc. KaX (Luc. ore) SiSovs fioxret, i.e. j£»? flfOI. Cf. 

Num. 21. 2; Judg. 11. 30; 2 Sam. 5. 19. 

•OIK] II 2 Chr. 18. 5 D*»r6Nn. According to Th-. many Codd. 
read prtfl*, and this probably represents the original text, as in 
vv. 11, 12. The alteration probably arose (Th.) from the supposi- 
tion suggested by Jehoshaphat's question v. 7, that the 400 were 
prophets of BcCal. 

7. '31 na pKn] Render with AV. 'Is there not here a prophet 
of the Lord besides?' i.e. yet one more prophet of Yahwe in 
addition to these His (professed) prophets. The reason for 
Jehoshaphat's distrust of the 400 prophets can only be inferred. 
Jos. {Ant. viii. 15, § 4) a-vve\s £k t5zv Xoycov 'icoo-cKparos, on yj/cvdoirpo- 
<f)r)Tai Tvyxdvovaiv, and similarly Ber., 'He shrewdly conjectured that 
Ahab had only interrogated the prophets who were prepared to 

252 The First Book of Kings 

give him a favourable answer/ RV. 'Is there not here besides 
a prophet of the Lord?' is an unwarrantable dislocation of "ny, 
intended apparently to imply that the speaker regarded the 400 
not as prophets of Yahwe but of a strange god. This sense, not 
to be obtained from MT., is, with omission ofl)]}, given by LXX, 
Luc., Vulg., Pesh., ' Is there not here a prophet of Yahwe?' But 
against this is Ahab's reply (v. 8) which presupposes that the 400 
prophesied in the name of Yahwe, as is stated in vv. 11, 12. 

This passage again points the inference (already drawn ch. 18. 
3i a note) that there were two forms of Yahwe-worship existent in 
the northern kingdom — that represented by the cult of the calves, 
and that of which such prophets as Elijah, Elisha, and Micaiah 
were the exponents; and that the view that the former was a 
perversion of the true religion was not merely the opinion of later 
(Deuteronomic) times, but was shared by the contemporary adherents 
of the purer form of religion. The 400 prophets cannot be thought 
to have belonged to the class which Jezebel used rigorous meas- 
ures to extirpate (ch. 18. 4; 19. 10, 14; II. 9. 7), but must have 
been representatives of a form of Yahwe-religion which for some 
reason escaped attack during her persecution; and the reason 
for this escape may be assumed to have been that this professed 
Yahwe-worship could tolerate ] the existence side by side with it 
of a definitely extraneous cult, even if it had not itself assimilated 
certain Canaanite elements 2 . 

On the other hand, the reason for Jezebel's vindictiveness against 
a certain section of Yahwe-worshippers must have been that these, 
by emphasis of Yahwe s exclusive claim (Ex. 20. 3), came into 
sharp collision with the form of religion which she desired to 

1 Cf. the indifferent attitude of the populace gathered at Mt. Carmel to the 
two diverse cults; ch. 18. 21. 

2 It may accordingly be conjectured that in II. 3. 13 Elisha's words to 
Joram -pn wna bwi ~p3N W33 bx "jS form not a pleonastic reference to the 
Ba'al prophets only, but couple together the perverted Yahwe prophets, de- 
scribed as the prophets of Ahab, and the prophets of the Phoenician Ba'al 
who were under the special patronage of Jezebel ; the former, as the latter, 
being really opposed to the pure religion of Yahwe. 

XXII. 8-iy 253 

naturalize. Such were those mentioned in ch. 19. 18 — not merely 
an isolated prophet here and there, but a considerable body of the 
people whose number is reckoned as 7,000. 

8. TOW] Chr. *OW; 'probably more correct etymological^'; Th. 

10. 0H2Q D'rata] 'Clad in robes' i.e. in robes of state. Cf. 
v. 30 y*])2 WX> * put thou on thy robes,' in contrast to the preceding 

pannn . 

pin] ' In a threshing-floor: Chr. pan MPV1 with explan. ref. 
of previous cats*. Scarcely possible. RV. paraph, 'in an open 
place' is impermissible, there being no ground for assigning this 
general signification to pa ; and the same remark applies to the 
renderings of Vulg. in area; Luc. iv 68a) 1 ; LXX, Luc. in Chr. iv 
evpox&pco. In LXX (Kgs.) evoiihoi answers to the whole D'OTPD 
p33 DHJ3, i. e. p33 is unrepresented, and may thus be regarded 
as mere dittography of D^W. The emendations of Ew. ?B03 < in 
armour' Th., Ber. E^T)? ' embroidered' (?) have nothing to recom- 
mend them. 

n. 7P3 "O^p] An emblem of offensive power; cf. Deut. 33. 17 ; 
Am. 6. 13; Jer. 48. 25; Dan. 8. 3/ 

12. '31 f]"0l] ' Yahwe shall give (it),' with obj. understood as in 

VV. 6, 15. LXX, Luc. Wrongly Supply as Obj. Kai rov fiaariXea 

13. DW3Jn *H:n] LXX, Luc. AaXoOo-t names oi irpoQrjrai, in Chr. 
c\d\r)<rap k.t.X., i.e. 'JH V12FJ 'the prophets have, with one consent, 
spoken good &c.'; superior to the somewhat harsh MT. 'the 
words of the prophets &c. are good.' So Th., Kamp., Benz., Kit. 
Klo. DHW?, less simple. 

inx ns] So Josh. 9. 2. An accus. defining the manner of *"£H. 

OHD irjK] Cf. fA. 19. 2 note. 

17. TPK"i -1W1] After "ibki LXX inserts ov* oura>r, Luc. Our©?, 
i.e. f?7 as in v. 19; 'I saw then all Israel &c.'; M*», i.e. in case 
you wish really to hear the truth. Adopted by Klo. 

1 But perhaps this is a corruption of \v a\tu. In Pesh. (Kgs. and Chr.) 
J?td is clearly an error for Jj?Jo, which answers to MT. 

254 The First Book of Kings 

'31 D^N N^] Luc. in place of *6 reads Et, i.e. ^ or sb, and 
this is followed by Klo., ' If these had any master, they would 
return, &c.,' a reading incomparably poor by the side o"f MT. 
LXX Ov Kvpios tovtois Qeos; presupposes a false repetition of n?N? 
as DVTittcb. 

19. '31 yi2W p?] The strange rendering of LXX, Luc. o^x o{5ro)$-, 
ovk eyu>' aKove prjixa Kvplov' ov)( ovtu>s' ddov k.t.X. represents at the 
beginning a doublet of pj, first read as p *0, and then explained 
by the gloss o£< ey», ' Not I ' (am responsible, but Yahwe). The 
second ox>x ovtws, which should not be followed by a stop, is an 
imitation of WO pb, v. 17. 

y»B>] Chr. WV>V, and so here 7 Codd. Kenn. 

DWil #yf\ 'The host of heaven'; an expression not used 
elsewhere in pre-exilic writings in the special sense of spiritual 
beings or angels. Cf., however, Josh. 5. 13 ff. (JE) where the 'man' 
who appears to Joshua describes himself as POT K!l¥ "ib>. In Isa. 
34. 4 (prob. exilic) the phrase seems to describe the angels corre- 
sponding to or acting as guardians of ' all the nations '(z>. 2), this 
being clearly the case in 24. 21 with the expression D11EPI ND¥ l . 

Elsewhere generally '£71 fcOV denotes the stars; — II. 17. 16; 
21. 3, 5 (|| 2 Chr. 33. 3, 5); 23. 4,5; Deut.4.19; 17. 3; Jer.8.2; 
19. 13; Zeph. 1. 5; cf. Gen. 2. 1; Ps. 33. 6; Isa. 40. 26; 45. 12. 
It is a late usage in which the term is used indefinitely to 
denote visible heavenly bodies and invisible agencies ; Neh. 9. 6 ; 
Dan. 8. 10; cf. Ps. 103. 21; 148. 2. 

20. '}) Pins'* '•D] For the doctrine that Yahwe, in His displeasure, 
incites men to their own ruin or injury, cf. Ex. 4. 2it>; 10. 1, 20, 
27; II.9, 10 (J, E, orJE); 7.3; 9. 12 (P); Deut. 2. 30 hardening 
of the heart ascribed to Yahwe (cf. Isa. 6. 10); Judg. 9. 23 Yahwe 
sends an evil spirit between Abimelech and the men of Shechem ; 
2 Sam. 24. 1 incites David to a pernicious action; Isa. 19. 2, 14 
stirs up Egypt against Egypt and mingles a spirit of perverseness 

1 Cf. for this doctrine Dan. 10. 13, 20, 21; 12. 1 ; Ecclus. 17. 17; and Deut. 
32. 8 LXX (reading ta for forrar). 

XXII. 19-26 255 

in the midst of her; Ezek. 14. 9 deceives the false prophet to his 
own ruin (the same verb as in our passage T^t 1 )- 

2NriN] LXX, Luc., Vulg. presuppose btiTW* "]bD nxnx, and 
so Chr. 

'J1 nt HDtf'l] On the contrasted order cf. ch. 5. 25 note. 

21. nnn] 'The spirit/ vividly pictured in the speaker's imagina- 
tion through the part which he fulfilled. Cf. ch. 20. 36 note. 

22. The variation of Luc. after v. 2 2 a ml dnaTrjaa) avrov. Km 
elnev Awrjaa is probably due merely to the dislocation of cl-rrcv in 

the Greek text. LXX as MT. Kal elnev 'AnaTrjaus Kal ye dvvr)o~ct. 

24. "\2V nt *n] The interrog. HT '•N is never elsewhere used with 
a verb, and Chr., in supplying ^Ti^.L 1 before "Oy, conforms to the usual 
constr. So Th., Klo., Kamp., Benz., Kit. On "pin FIT ^ cf. ch. 1 3. 1 2 

note. LXX Uoiov rrvfvp,a Kvpiov to Xa\rj(rav iv aroi suggests D^ *^)p$ 

*J3 "ttipn HIM*, i.e. not as rendered, 'What kind of spirit &C. 1 ?' 
but ' where is the spirit of Yahwe that speaketh in thee?' a direct 
challenge to Micaiah to avenge the insult, implying that, if he fails 
to do so, the spirit by which he speaks is a ip.£> nn. To this 
Micaiah replies, ' Behold thou shalt see {where it is ; i. e. the chal- 
lenge shall be accepted ; not now, but) in that day §c! This is 
superior to the obscure sentence of MT., and probably represents 
the original text. Luc. exhibits a combination of LXX and MT. 

26. WOVm '» flK Hp] LXX, Luc, Pesh., Vulg. support pi. inp 
Vqvm '» J1K, the reading of Chr. So Th., Klo. Sta., however, 
points out that in v. 27 LXX elnov, Luc. fi7r«, like MT. ^IP^, 
favour an original sing, in v. 26. The substitution of pi. for sing, 
may be explained as due to the influence of pi. imperat. #.27 
inTONrn , ♦ ♦ 1^K\ These refer to two persons pDN and BWV, but 
the address of v. 26 is probably to the Hritf D"HD of vv. gff. ZA TW. 
V. i73#- 

plDX 7N] LXX TTpos Se/x^p, Luc. npos 2epp.f)p. Chr. LXX npbs 
'EfjiTjp, Cod. A, Luc. npos Sepprjp. The forms with 2 probably 

1 Adopted by Sta. Ges. i. 532 : ' Was fiir ein Geist Jahwes hat denn aus dir 
gesprochen ? ' 

256 The First Book of Kings 

exhibit a repetition of the last letter of npos, and LXX Chr. repre- 
sents the original form in the Greek. Accordingly Sta. favours the 
reading TOIjHNt, 'E^p being the LXX form for MT. "^ in Jer. 
20. 1 ; Ezr. 2. 37, 59 ; 10. 20 ; Neh. 3. 29 ; 7. 40 ; 11. 13; 1 Chr. 
9. 12 ; 24. 14. 

27. 'jtan "ttDN ro] LXX, Luc. omit. 

DT fix] With great contempt: — ' This fellow' So exactly, with 
flK, 1 Sam. 21. 16; 2 Sam. 13. 17 (nNT DX) ; cf. ck.20. 7; II. 5. 7; 
1 Sam. 10. 27; 25. 21; Ex. 10. 7. 

'ai f*n? Dr6] ' Bread in scant measure and water in scant meas- 
ure ' ; lit. ' bread — affliction and water — affliction/ a case of apposi- 
tion. So Isa. 30. 20. Cf. Dri. Tenses, § 189. 1. 

28. 'ai IjflDP nEfcOl] LXX, Luc. omit. The words are clearly 
a gloss derived from Mic. 1. 2, and inserted for the purpose of 
identifying Micaiah with Micah the Morashtite. The names ^yo 
and HD^D are really identical, and the prophet of the later century 
bears the longer name rWB in Jer. 26. 18 Kt. The pi. D s cy 
occurs many scores of times with the signification of foreign na/ions, 
seldom or never of Israel K 

30. riDntas N31 ^snnn] ' Let me disguise myself and enter the 
battle ! ' The infin. absol. presents the bare idea of the verb in 
exclamatory and excited speech. Cf. II. 4. 43 infol] ^ 3 ? * "H?$ ^ 
' Thus saith Yahwe, Ye shall eat and leave overt* II. 3. 16 ; Hos. 
4. 2; al; Da. § 88*>; Ew. § 328c. 

TH22] LXX, Luc. top IpaTto-fiov ynov, an easy (but false) correction 
deduced from the fact that Ahab himself was disguised. 

31. rtt¥ D~iX *p£l] 'Now the king of Aram had commanded! 
On order of sentence cf. ch. 14. 5 note. 

r y\ 23")n HB> DS] The military commanders who filled the place 
previously occupied by the thirty-two vassal princes. Cf. ch. 20. 24 

32. vb$ nD^l] 'They turned aside against him'; somewhat 

1 Supposed cases are Deut. 33. 3 where the better reading seems to be toy 
LXX ; Gen. 28. 3; 48. 4 the promise to Jacob. With suffix Judg. 5. 14 ; Hos. 
10. 14. Cf. Dri. on Deut. toe. cit. 

XXII. 2J-3S 257 

harsh. LXX, Luc. kq\ {vLVKkoxrav avrov agree with Chr. Ivy tobjl 
1 they surrounded him' a reading certainly to be preferred. So Th., 
Kb. by nnD as in Job 16. 13. 

34. 1DD?] Lit. 'in his simplicity' (7 of norm), i.e» without being 
able to assign a reason for the selection of his mark. So AV., RV. 
suitably ' at a venture ' ; Luc. dfaX&s, ' artlessly.' That this is the 
meaning of the phrase is rendered clear by the context of its only 
other occurrence, 2 Sam. 15. n B*K ttHKO to^n tf7BhK-nM 
W?3 tyT N?1 D^nb D^p'rTl DWp D?K>W» 'And with Absalom 
there went 200 men from Jerusalem, summoned and going in 
their simplicity, and they knew not anything ' (of the projected con- 
spiracy). Cf. also Gen. 20. 5, 6 "CQp-Dro. Vulg. in incertum 
sagittam dirigens, Pesh. o»^=>CLaX (with doublet K.»Joq..ooL id. MT.), 
and so Targ. iTOTp7 ' straight in front of him/ seem to have 
imagined that the phrase denoted the letting fly of an aimless shaft. 
LXX, guessing, evaroxas. 

'l) D^pmn pi] ' Between the attachments and between the coat 
of mail.' The subs. PJ^ only elsewhere occurs in Isa. 41. 7, where 
it means joining or soldering. So Heb. Lex. Ox/., following Th., 
Ber. al., explains Q^pain f the jointed attachment or appendage to 
the rigid breast-armour, which covered the abdomen/ Other 
explanations have merely the nature of guesses : — LXX, Luc. dva 

\Ltaov tov npevfiovos kcu dva. fieaov tov 6<s>pa.Kos '. Vulg. inter pulmonem 

et stomachum ; Ew. the soft parts which connect the chest with 
the bottom of the back, so, ' between the groin and breast- 
bone'; Ges. Thes. ' arm-pits / lit. joints of shoulder; Klo. * helmet- 

YV IBn] So II. 9. 23 with pi. VT as Kt. 

runftn] 'The army' in action, as in Judg. 4. 15, 16. 

^Hvnn '•D] RV. 'For I am sore wounded.' So 2 Chr. 35. 23. 

35. nBr6»n <T7yni] 'And the battle waxed hotter 1 ; lit. went 
up or increased, the figure being perhaps drawn from a river 
which gathers force as it rises (Ke., Th., Ber.) ; cf. Isa. 8.7; 
Jer. 46. 7, 8. 

lEVft rpn] ' Was propped up.' The participle with subs, verb 


258 The First Book of Kings 

expresses the duration of the action; Dri. Tenses, § 135. 5. Chr. 
act. TDJJD HM < kept himself standing.' 

After v. 35 a LXX, Luc. add and npa>\ Zcos canepas, i. e. "ljjSin"|D 
^vXt"* 1 ^? an( ^ ^ s * s P art i a ^y supported by Chr. ir.yn ly. In 
z/. 35b LXX, Luc, which place liyn n»1 #/kr 33"»n ♦ ♦ ♦ pT), are 

my3 nD ,,, i] Chr. ^£#n ^^ 3 Wp ™?*1, either a summary con- 
clusion formed by combining Kgs. v. 36 a £Wn Km, or else the 
writer's eye passed to DEI of z>. 37, and '31 r\yb represents a corrupt 
reading of JTOP Kim. 

p£?l] M«</ the blood of the wound flowed &c/ This intrans. 
sense occurs only once besides, Job 38. 38 p^2 " J ?V ^P.?? 'when 
dust floweth into the mass.' Imperf. Qal always elsewhere takes 
the form p*P. 

36. ruifl "Wl] 'And there passed the cry.' The verb, if not 
an error for "Qym, is masc. as coming first in the sentence; cf. ch. 
11. 3 note on DUM h W. LXX, Luc, Vulg., Pesh., Targ. interpret 
ni"in as the herald. 

37. ^tan HD^l] LXX, LUC on Tidvr]KCv 6 fiaatkeis, i.e. ?)JQn HO *3 

ybr Mf foflg" m dead'; certainly correct. The words are part of 
the njH, and assign a reason for v. 36 b . So Th., Klo., Kamp., 
Benz., Kit. On the confusion of 3 and 1, cf. ch. 12. 30 note. 

NUl] LXX, Luc Kal ^X^oi/, i.e. 'NtW, subj. being the same as 
the following ropl ; correctly. So Th., Klo., Kamp., Benz., Kit. 
Targ., feeling the difficulty of sing. fcOTi, paraphrases \*ViTlfcO 'and 
they brought him.' 

38. cp^l] Impers. ' one washed,' and so ' the chariot was 

Wn nutni] 'And the harlots washed themselves (there),' sc in 
the pool into which the blood had drained. LXX, Luc. add i» ™ 
m/iart (Luc airov). This is the only meaning of which the sen- 
tence is capable. The other Verss., probably for the sake of 
avoiding an objectionable statement, give to HUM another inter- 
pretation and make it the obj. of ivm; — Vulg. et habenas laverunt, 
Pesh. o^»7 oa-Jo (transposed with 'Jl Ip^l), and so Targ. UD1 

XXII. 36-49 259 

IDLD^ N^T 'and they washed the (Pesh. his) armour.' But ])] weapon 
or military equipment of Rabb. Heb. and Aram, never occurs in 
Bib. Heb. ; and verb pm is used exclusively of washing the body, 
whether one's own person (without obj.) or some part of it (obj. E?33, 
"T?> al>) or some one else (Ex. 29. 4; 40. 12; Lev. 8. 6P; Ezek. 
16. 9t), or of washing the flesh portions of a sacrifice (Ex. 29. 17; 
Lev. 1. 9, 13; 8. 21; 9. 14 Pt), never of washing any kind of 
inanimate object. 

'n nm] Cf. ch. 13. 26 note. 

22. 39, 40. Summary of Akao's reign. 

39. )um rva] 'The house of ivory.' The ]wn TQ of Am. 3. 15 
perhaps contains an allusion to this. Cf. Ps. 45. 9 ]& \io*H ' palaces 
of ivory.' Jer. 22. 15 speaks of Ahab's fame as a builder, upon 
the reading of Cod. A 'A x <m/3 for p« :— nsriNn rTTTTTIO nfiK *3 ijiorin 
1 Shalt thou reign because thou competest with Ahab ? ' (in mag- 
nificence of palace architecture; cf. vv. 13, 14). 

22. 41-51. Jehoshaphat, king of Judah. 

Ch. 22. 41-51 forms part of the material of 2 Chr. 20. 31-37. 
R D frames a collection of short notices from the Annals. 
44. r l\ niEQn *]«] Cf. ch. 3. 2, 3 note. 

47. Wlpr\] Cf. ch. 14. 24 »0&. 

48, 49. ';i I^Dl] Highly obscure as the text stands. RV. 'And 
there was no king in Edom : a deputy was king,' agrees with 
Targ. 1 , and so Ke., Th., Kamp. But that a mere deputy, ostensibly 
appointed by Jehoshaphat, should be dignified with the title of 
king is incredible. Vulg. nee erat tunc rex constilutus in Edom, 
Pesh. vsl-o? V30?J^ fcs-*^ la^jaao give an intelligible sense : 'And 
there was no king in Edom appointed as king,' i. e. regularly con- 
stituted as such; but against this it may be urged (Sta.) that 3V3 

1 Strictly speaking, Targ. Mbo Ha^-raD'H pnb'M wno Dvwa rvb vcfnt\ 'And 
there was no king in Edom appointed, but a general was king,' exhibits a 
double rendering of 3S3, the former ' appointed' agreeing with Vulg., Pesh. 

S 2 

260 The First and Second Books of Kings 

of the appointment of a king is unparalleled. LXX, Luc. simply 
transliterate 2VJ, and fail to afford any elucidation. 

Probably, therefore, the text has suffered some corruption ; and 
this inference is confirmed by the condition of v. 49 a , where nsyy 
must be corrected nb*y upon the authority of Q're, several Codd., 
and all Verss., and the reference of ^n tfh) is, at best, highly 

Sta. (Z'ATW. 1885, p. 178) by clever emendation obtains for the 
two verses a text which is at once lucid and but little divergent from 
MT. Connecting v. 48 with v. 49 he reads : 3*M1 DHX:i pK !|^S 

maeo *a mbn n^i nn^ nTBiK nnb^» trtshn rvox nfc>y DapiiT Tibon 

f; : • • t^t t : n" t • v v t :~ -*t: t t t t ; 'v v - 

nna p^ya ( or inj:g) njjxn 'Now there was no king in Edom. 
And the deputy of king Jehoshaphat made a ship of Tarshish to 
go to Ophir for gold ; but it went not, for the ship (his ship) was 
wrecked at Ezion-geber.' For the constr. 'in" 1 -pEH 3*W cf. 2 Sam. 
16. 6; 19. 17; ch. 1. 38; 5. 7 ; 10. 13; II. 19. 5, and so y» 
D S TO?S 1 Sam. 13. 3. So Benz., Kit. Klo. agrees with Sta. as far 
as regards v. 48 and its connexion with v. 49. while in this latter 
verse he combines Q're and Kt. ' made ten ships/ and finds the 
reference of *pn to be to the projector of the expedition. 
Upon WVnn nVJN cf. ch. 10. 22 note. 

22. 52-54. Ahaziah, king of Israel. 

54- /SDH] LXX, Luc. pi. to7s BaaXelfx. 

'}) ?Da] Luc. napa ttclvtcls tovs ytvo/xevovs ffiTrpoa-dev ovtov is a 

correction in imitation of ch. 14. 9 ; 16. 25, 30, 33, but here 
inappropriate, since the editor would scarcely represent this king 
as exceeding his father in wickedness : cf. ch. 16. 30, 31 ; 21. 25, 26; 

R D . LXX Kara navra ra yevofxeva (yLTvpoaOiv avrov, i. e. doubtless 

VJSp V»n T^S ?b3 is as good as, but not superior to MT., and 
may be a correction in view of the fact that the sins of Jeroboam 
as well as those of Ahab are mentioned 2. 53. 

II. 1. 1. This verse clearly belongs to the series of short notices 
referring to the reign of Ahaziah immediately preceding, I. 22. 
52-54. The division of the Hebrew text of Kings into two books 

XXII. 54—1- 2 2 6i 

is not found in the MSS. nor in the early printed editions. It first 
occurs in the great Rabbinic Bible of Daniel Bomberg, published 
at Venice 1516-17, where an asterisk between I. 22. 54 and II. 1. 1 
calls attention to a marginal note : — '^S>D 1BD &wbn D^nniD JtO 
: ^yr\ ' Here the non-Jews (i. e. Christians) begin the fourth book 
of Kings/ A similar note is found between 1 and 2 Sam. Cf. 
Ginsburg, Introd. to the Massoretico-criiical edit, of the Heb. Bible, 
pp. 45, 930/; Thus the division in MT. appears to have been 
an innovation from LXX, Vulg. While in LXX no known MS. 
presents an undivided text of 1, 2 Kgs.; 3, 4 Kgs.; Chr.; it is 
noticeable that in Cod. B the first verse of each second book 
appears also at the close of each first book, a fact which shows 
that the divider of the books was desirous of indicating the inner 
connexion existingP'between the first and second divisions in each 
case. Cf. the manner in which in MT.Ezr. 1. i-3 a (to 75P1) repeats 
2 Chr. 36. 22, 23, of which it originally formed the unbroken 

'31 3K10 W&)] Cf. ch. 3. 4/*. According to the inscription 
of Mesha' king of Moab [Append. 1) the rebellion took place during 
the reign of Omri's son. Ahab is, however, nowhere mentioned 
by name in the inscription. 

1. 2-18. Ahaziah, after an accidental fall through a lattice, 
appeals to the oracle of Bdal-zebub, the god of Ekron, in order to 
learn whether he will recover. Elijah predicts his death, on account 
of his unfaithfulness to Yahwe. 

2. r\22Wn Ijn] ' Out through (lit. away from) the lattice.' So 
LXX 81a tov &iKTva>Tov, A. nepi tov Kiy^XiScoTov, Vulg. per cancellos, 
Targ. MWlD p. For the other uses of nanp cf. I. 7. 17 note. 
Luc. presents a slightly different form of v. 2 a : *<u avefiq 'O^. els to 
diKTVcoTov vnepaop avrov to iv 2apape!q kcu etrctre kcu r)pp<bo~TT)(r€ — inferior 

to MT. 

'31 iTnK DK] Cf. ch. 8. 8, 9. 

DT 'bnti] The constr. nj ^n (for the normal n$ \bnn) is regular 
in Rabbinic Heb., but extremely uncommon in Bib. Heb. Other 

262 The Second Book of Kings 

occurrences, cited by Ko. Syntax, § 334 /3, are Mn Di" 1 Mic. 7. i2 a 
(text doubtful), m\ faa p s . 80. 15. LXX, Luc, Vulg., Pesh., Targ. 
presuppose a reading nt ^yH ' this #y> sickness/ both here and in 
ch. 8. 8, 9. This constr., in which the demonstr. pronoun without 
the article follows a subs, with possessive suffix,, is perfectly 
regular; cf. v. 13 n^X T1??J I. 8. 59; 10. 8; 22. 23; al; Da. 
§32 (2), i?^. 3; Ew. § 293; G-K. § 126 y. 

At the end of the verse LXX, Luc. add kcu (nopevdrjo-av eVfpwr^o-ai 
(LXX oV avrov), i. e. taK© (h^ ojg, an addition which forms 
a suitable introduction to z>. 3 a , and which may be compared 
with v. 4 b . 

3. "^\^ LXX emXco-cv . . . Xeyav, Luc. cXaXrjae . . . Xeycov. Prob- 
ably LXX is a corruption of Luc. The latter presupposes the 
reading of MT., Xc'ycov being merely the translator's addition : cf. 
I. 13. 12 note. 

P"IDK> *]/»] So I. 21. it- Luc. 'Oxo&ov fiaaiKws 'lapar)\ h 2ap.apciq. 

px ^nron] For the double negative, cf. note on I. 10. 21. 

5. n? nD] Upon the enclitic HT, cf. I. 14. 6 note. 

6. nta nn«] LXX, Luc. presuppose sj.?n nnK ; c f. p. 3. MT., 
as the easier reading, appears to be a correction. A correction in 
the Greek would probably have run vp.c2s nopcveaOe, i. e. D^pn DPiK } 
in strict agreement with v. 3. 

6 b . pi>] LXX, Luc. add rode Xey« Kupioy as in v. 4. At the 
end of the verse Luc. has a gloss, derived, in the main, from I. 21. 
(20) 21. 

7. DDCD] ' Description/ i. e. the summary of distinctive charac- 
teristics. Cf. Judg. 13. 12 1V3n DQtfD nW'nn 'What shall be the 
description of the child ? ' 

9 b . IvN "DTI ♦ ♦ . ?JW] The text is somewhat expanded in 

Luc. : Ka\ (nopevOrjaav npos avrov. avrot Be (Kadrjro enl rrjs Kopvcprjs 
rov opovs. kcu avefirj 6 fjyovpevos k<u of nevrTjKovra avrov ko\ rfXQov €Q)S 
rov dvdpunrov tov $€ov. <a\ eXdXrjae rrpos avrov 6 nevrTjKovrap^os tcai 
flnev x.r.X. 

2^ njffl] Omission of the pronominal subject of the participle 
is not infrequent after Han, which calls pointed attention to a 

/. 3-ij 263 

subject closely preceding. Cf. Gen. 24. 30; 37. 15; al.; Dri. 
Tenses, § 135 (6); Da. § 100 a . Such a use of nan without expres- 
sion of suffix of reference is idiomatic in other cases also ; cf. e. g. 
ch. 6. 13; I. 2. 29; 21. 18. 

15Y] LXX UaKojiv o-c, probably an alteration of eXaX^o-e; cf. 
v. 3 »0/e. Luc. rdde Xe'yei, in accordance with v. 11 "M?K nb. 

10. DKl] '^1/z^ z/1' The 1, by emphasis of 'if,' imparts a grim 
sarcasm to the prophet's words; the implication being, 'You glibly 
term me " man of God," while overlooking my power to withstand 
the king's command.' Cf. I. 2. 22 note. In v. 12 1 is omitted. 

11. fjpl] Luc, Cod. A are correct in reading ko.\ dui^, i.e. ?JW 
as in vv. 9, 13. So Th., Kamp., Benz., Kit. 

12. bfrfw] LXX, Luc, Pesh., 3 Codd. read v6k. So Th., 
Kamp., Benz., Kit. 

13. twh&~\ Luc., Vulg., Targ. ^bf , the reference being (as in 
clause b) to the captain; cf.">ntf 'another' (second) v. 1 1. SoTh.,Klo., 
Kamp., Benz., Kit. MT. DTO^ has arisen by attraction to Won — 
< a third fifty'; pi. as in 1 Sam. 19. 21 &pbp D^p < a third set of 
messengers.' LXX omits; Pesh. ^1^1 'for the third time.' 

N3^ 7JW] LXX, Luc. Ka\ rjXdev, Vulg. qui cum venisset, omit the 
former verb, while Pesh. >a\mo is without the latter. The subj. 
'J1 ~\W y following upon the second verb, occupies an awkward 
though not impossible position (cf. I. 10. 29**), and is omitted by 
Vulg. So Klo., Kamp., Benz. 

D"TOn H7K T^y] LXX, Vulg. omit the somewhat redundant 

14. DiTTOn nsi] LXX omits. 

16. "N?N IV] 'Forasmuch as' is answered by p7 'therefore,' 
and the interjected question )1212 ♦ ♦ ♦ *?3!Dn destroys the con- 
struction of the sentence, and is rightly lacking in LXX, Luc. So 
Klo., Kamp., Benz., Kit. The words are a gloss from vv. 3, 6. 

17. D"W *]7D^] Add Vnx with Luc, e. 6 ddeXQds avroO, a speci- 
fication presupposed by the statement of clause b. So Klo., Kamp., 

rnirp , ♦ , JW2] This synchronism breaks the connexion between 

264 The Second Book of Kijigs 

the statements preceding and following, and also conflicts with the 
synchronism of ch. 3. i a , which occupies the regular position in 
R D, s framework. As standing in MT. it is an erroneous insertion, 
and forms part of a distinct synchronistic system, which appears 
in Luc, but of which this notice and that of I. 16. 23 are the only 
traces in MT. See Introduction. 

2. 1 -1 8. The translation of Elijah to heaven, and the gift of a double 
portion of his spirit to Elisha, his disciple and successor. 

1. iYTtfpB] The hatefqamec facilitates the pronunciation of the 
emphatic sibilant D. Cf. Ko. Lehrg. I. i. 262 ; and notes on I. 13-7; 
19. 20. 

?5?jn] It is the merit of Th. to have first noticed that this 
Gilgal, from which Elijah and Elisha went down (VTJ5 v. 2) to 
Bethel, cannot have been the Gilgal between Jericho and the 
Jordan, Josh. 4. 19; al. ; and to have identified the place with 
filjilia, south-west of Seilun, and ' near the high road between 
Bethel and Shecnem'; cf. Smith, Hist. Geogr. 494. Rob. {BR. 
ii. 265/I) describes the locality of filjilia, but fails to perceive 
the Biblical identification. 

2. *]^S3 Til] The vocalization *0 is adopted by the punctuators 
for the sake of drawing artificial distinction between the sacred 
oath nirV *n and the non-sacred. Cf. vv. 4, 6 ; 4. 30 ; 1 Sam. 20. 3; 
25. 26; 1. 26; 17. 55; 2 Sam. 11. n; 14. 19; ny-]S *n Gen. 42. 
15, 16; ^n >jhK *n 2 Sam. 15. 21 ; intf-rca TU TH n TvJ^K "^ 

Am. 8. 14. 

3. ?N JV2 "t^K] ' Who were at Bethel/ The accusative of place, 
in answer to the question where? can thus be used in the case of 
proper names compounded with IV2; so exactly 2 Sam. 2. 32 n^S 
nrb rV3; cf. Hos. 12. 5; Da. § 69a. In contrast we have WP3 
' in Jericho/ v. 5. 

^nn] According to norm we should expect *$nn. Another 
instance of the imperat. of a verb D gutt. vocalized after the analogy 
of the perf. is found in Jer. 49. 8, 30 *pl?y.$ } ^PV? ; so infin. constr. 

^W J er - 31 - 3 1 - 

II 1-14 265 

8. DOT] 'And rolled (it) up.' The verb, which only occurs 
here in Bibl. Heb., is found in Rabbinic Heb. with the same 
significance. Other occurrences of the root in Bibl. Heb. are found 
in Ezek. 27. 24 rfan *0^7| 'wrappings of blue' (so Aram. KB^I, 
l-aa*^^); Ps. 139. 16 *™?\ 'my unformed substance' {embryo; so 
New Heb. id.; Aram. KD&a), 

9. 'y\ NJ \T] ' Let there be now a share of two in thy spirit 
upon me ! ' Elisha claims the right of a firstborn son among the 
disciples of Elijah. D"0B> ^D, as in Deut. 21. 17, lit. 'mouth (mouth- 
ful) of two/ is a share twice as large as that which is given to 
any one of the later-born sons. The explanation of Ew. ' two- 
thirds ' is quite unwarranted 1 . In Zech. 13. 8 the expression has 
this meaning only through being brought into relationship with 
TV&bfn 'the third part.' 

10. l"lj5P] With dropping of 12 preformative, for nj5PO. So ?3N 
Ex. 3. 2 ; ijtf Judg. 13. 8 ; Site Isa. 18. 2, 7 ; r&ta Ezek. 26. 17 
(accent HjVl). Ew. § 617b ; G-K. § 52 j. 

11. 'jii rata nen w] Cf. 1. 13. 20 »^. 

12. 'ai 13s] So f^. 13. 14, the words of king Joash to Elisha 
upon his death-bed. The expression seems to mean that Elijah, 
as after him Elisha, stands for Yahwe's invisible forces which 
should be Israel's true safeguard (cf. ch. 6. 16 /.), and to convey 
the apprehension lest this safeguard should be lost to the nation 
with the removal of the prophet. In the present case the use of 
the words naturally connects itself with the vision. 

14. After the statement DW DN ftt^l in the first half-verse, Luc. 
inserts koI ov SiypeOr), Vulg. et non sunt divisae — regarded by Hoo. 
as part of the original text, but more probably a gloss to explain 

1 Ew.'s words are {Hist. iv. p. 81), ' But although he had inherited Elijah's 
mantle, and many might esteem him equally great, yet it was always an 
essential feature of the representation of him that he had only received two- 
thirds of Elijah's spirit, and had indeed with difficulty obtained even that. 
In fact, in this sharp expression tradition expressed the most correct and 
striking judgement of his value, taken as a whole.' In contrast to this depre- 
ciatory estimate, cf. the words and action of the prophets, v. 15. 

266 The Second Book of Kings 

the repeated mention of the striking of the water which follows in 
clause b. Such a repeated reference to a single event, after an 
intervening clause or clauses, H3*1 ♦ ♦ ♦ npK s l ♦ ♦ ♦ nj*^ may be 
paralleled by Gen. 27. 23^-27** WttJI • ♦ ♦ ">?N S ! , ♦ , TOW. 

MVP STK] LXX, Luc, Vulg. omit m.T. 

N1H ?]N] The accentuation connects Kin *|K closely with '31 roi , 
after the principal break in the verse, thus implying that the words 
mean ' and he also (like Elijah in v. 8) smote the waters, &c.' Had 
this meaning, however, been intended, we should certainly have 
read either KVT*|K 113*1 ( c f. Deut. 2. 11, 20; Lev. 26. 24, 28), or 
nsn WH"S|K (cf. Lev. 26. 16, 41). As the text stands we must 
therefore (with Ke.) alter the accentuation, and, placing the prin- 
cipal break after Kin , render, ' Where is Yahwe, the God of Elijah, 
even he?' But this explanation is, as Th. notices, open to the 
objections that such an emphasis appears to be superfluous, and 
that P|N (denoting properly addition) cannot be shown to have 
simply the force of a strengthened Da. While Pesh., Targ. support 
MT., Vulg. etiam nunc, 2. ko.\ vvv, and perhaps LXX translit. 
a$<£o> (cf. ch. 10. 10), suggest NiDK, connecting with the preceding 
interrogation, 'Where is Yahwe, the God of Israel, now ? This 
reading is followed by Th., Kamp., Benz., Kit, and some older 
commentators. It is true that WEN, when used elsewhere with the 
interrog. "i?K (Judg. 9. 38; Isa. 19. 12; Job 17. 15), immediately 
follows this particle, but cases can be cited in which the word, when 
used after other interrog. particles, occurs further on in the sentence ; 
cf. Ex. 33. 16 'X KteX V1\) np; Hos. 13. 10 K1SK *JS)bD »HK. 

If this emendation be not accepted, the only alternative seems 
to be to omit Nin *)K with Luc, regarding the letters as an 
erroneous repetition of the preceding I1T7N. 

JJB^N "UJW] Luc. kci\ di^XBe dia grjpas, as in V. 8. 

15. Klo., followed by Kamp., Benz., Kit., omits UTT 1 ! as an 
erroneous insertion after the pattern of vv. 3, 5. IMD implies that 
the prophets were not in Jericho, but were standing near at 
hand as spectators of the scene — a fact which is clear from 
this verse and v. 7. 

II 15-24 267 

1 6. '31 iroiw] After iroiw LXX adds iu T&i 'lopbdvy fj, i.e. 
itf H)"]*! ' and hath cast him into the Jordan, or upon one of the 
mountains, &c.' So Th., Klo. In view of the scene of Elijah's 
disappearance, the suggestion is very natural, and appropriately 
comes first. 

nwan] Kt. Tfofim as in Ezek. 6. 3, and in suff. form TC^U 
Ezek. 35. 8. Q're ni^an as in Ezek. 7. 16; 32. 5; 36. 4, 6. LXX, 
Luc. t&v fiowav, i. e. fiiJDan, inferior to MT. 

2. 19-25. Elisha '•heats' the unwholesome water of Jericho (19- 
22), and vindicates his prophetic authority against the insults of 
children at Bethel (23-25). 

19. rfa^B pxiTi] 'And the land casts her young.' So Th., 
RV. pxn is used of the inhabitants of the district, as in Lev. 
19. 29; i Sam. 14. 29; 17. 46; 2 Sam. 15. 23; #/. ?|$ as in 
Ex. 23. 26; Job 21. 10; Gen. 31. 38. Ges., Ke., Klo., Kamp., 
Benz., Kit. render, 'and the land causes untimely births'; but 
against this explanation it is to be noticed, with Th., that the 
misfortune is referred in v. 21 directly (B$ft) to the water. 

a 1. ,, riN3")] Vocalized after the analogy of a verb n'v as in Jer. 
51. 9 ttKS"}. Cf. note on I. 17. 14. An actual n"? form occurs 
in v. 22 Vfgl. So nriS-U Jer. 51. 9, and Pi'el W1J1 8. 11 for W&IJ 
6. 14. 

n^a^lDl] ' Nor any that casts her young.' It is more natural to 
take JVSW as a participle (as in v. 19) than to regard it, with Ges., 
Ke., Klo., Kamp., RV., as a subs, 'miscarriage.' 

23. '31 r\by NVT)] On the constr. cf. I. 1. 14 note. 

tt 1D?pn^] 'And reviled him.' The incident perhaps illustrates 
the unpopularity of Yahwe's true prophets in the chief centre 
of the calf-worship; cf. Am. 7. 10 ff. Luc. koI i\L6a£ov avroV, 

i.e. vnfypps. 

24. mypniT)] 'And rent'; lit. 'cleft' or ' tore open,' as in ch. 8. 12 ; 
15. 16. 

268 The Second Book of Kings 

3. Jehoram, king of Israel. His campaign against Moab in 
alliance with the kings of Judah and Edo?n. 

2. rDJTC?] LXX, Luc. ras aTf)\as, Vulg. statuas understand as 
pi. rQJfJ?, and so Klo., Kamp., Benz., Kit. In the passage with 
reference to Jehoram (|| vv. 1-3) which follows in LXX, Luc. after 
ch. 1. 18 there is the addition ko\ awerpi^ev avrds, i.e. B 1 ?.??*!. As 
Th. notices, the pillar (sing.) of MT. is probably intended to be 
brought into connexion with the statement of I. 16. 32. From 
the narrative of ch. 10. \% ff. it is clear that Jehoram made no 
organized attempt to root out the worship of Ba'al-Melqart, such 
as is suggested by the reading of the pi. A3M?, nor is such an 
attempt to be thought probable while Jezebel was still living and 
in possession of power. 

3. niXttrQ] Read sing, flNlsna, in agreement with the suffix of 
H3^D following. So in ch. 13. 2, 6, 11 ; 17. 22. So Klo. 

pnn] Cf. I. 11. 2 note. 

rtJDD "ID tib] So, with reference to the sins of Jeroboam, ch. 13. 
2,6,11; H.24; 15.9,24,28; 17. 22 : with nnKO 10. 29 ; with 
^TO 10. 31 ; 15. 1.8. The phrase occurs in a favourable reference 
I. 15. 5; 22. 43 (}»); ch. 18. 6 (nnso). 

4. *ip:] 'A sheep-master/ or breeder of the kind of sheep called 
in Ar. HI, a breed of small size and ugly appearance *, but highly 
esteemed on account of its wool. Amos, before his prophetic call, 
was one of the D^i?' 3 at Tekoa'. 

nwi] 'And he used to render'; frequentative. So Targ. adds 
an explanatory N^n tot? 'year by year.' LXX adds the gloss 
iv Tjj tTravaardafi, regarding the tribute as the single payment of an 
indemnity after the rebellion. 

"U3¥] An accusative more closely defining the manner in w ? hich 
Mesha' paid the rams, viz. ' in wool,' i.e. the fleeces of 100,000 
rams. Cf. Dri. Tenses, § 194. 

5. '« miM W] Cf. ch. I. i, with note. 


1 Lane (Lex. 2836) quotes the saying sll}\ T^* Jil * more abject than the 
sheep called naqad.' 

///. 2-i6 269 

7. DDW 1 ] Luc, here and in v. 9 'Oxo£ms, i.e. ^JjPiN, in ac- 
cordance with the different system of synchronism which appears 
in this Version. See In/rod. In vv. ix, 12 bis, 14, the title 
6 Paaiktvs 'lovfta takes the place of the proper name. 

8. ^IIT] n? *k] Cf. I. 13. 12 710/*. 

9. DiT^ra n^N] For the idiom cf. I. 20. 10. 

X2 b . B3BW] Add iTW ^» with LXX, Luc, Vulg., Pesh., 
2 Codd. 

13. i?) J? n»] Cf. I. 17. 18 note. 

'31 lb~\ Cf. I. 22. 7 footnote. LXX wrongly omits *pK WIM i?Kl. 

7K] ' Nay !' 7N is thus used absolutely in deprecation, ch. 4. 16 ; 
Judg. 19. 23; Gen. 19. 18; Ruth 1. 13; 2 Sam. 13. 16 (following 
Luc. fxrj, dde\(f)e, i. e. *ntf '£ J cf- Dri. <?</ toe). 

14. nai? Tnoy new] Cf. 1. 1.7. 1 «0/*. 

15. n s m] As the text stands, nvn introduces the statement of 
a single event in the past, and cannot be explained as a perf. 
with 1 consec. On the other hand, the occurrence in our narrative 
of the perf. with weak 1, in place of the normal Wl, is inconceiv- 
able. Thus Klo. is probably correct in conjecturing that ppfll 
1 and it shall come to pass ' is the continuation of Elisha's speech, 
and that all that originally followed has fallen out through the 
scribe's eye confusing Hjni with WV, which introduced the state- 
ment f.a.3pn |3?3 of clause <5. The view that an omission has taken 
place is favoured (apart from the difficulty of n\T)) by the fact that 
in MT. there is no mention of the bringing of a minstrel — an 
almost indispensable detail which is found in Luc after clause a; — 
kcli Vkafiov alra yj/dWovTa. Klo. suggests the following restoration : 
' "And it shall come to pass, when the hand of Yah we comes upon 
me, that I will declare unto thee that which Yahwe saith." And 
they brought him a minstrel; and it came to pass, &c'; i.e. njrrt 

16. ':i rit^v] 'I will make this torrent-bed nothing but cisterns!' 
Every depression, deep or shallow, in the dry bed of the Wady 
is to suddenly become a receptacle for water. The infin. absol. 
rOT takes the place of the finite verb (HPty ^H) J n the sudden 

270 The Second Book of Kings 

rush of the oracle upon the prophet, ' when the speaker is too full 
of his subject to mention the action in any other than an ejacu- 
latory manner, and as briefly as possible' (Ew. § 32 8 a ). So exactly, 
in another oracle by Elisha, ch. 4. 43 ' Thus saith Yahwe, Eating 
and leaving over !' i. e. ' There shall be eating &c./ or l Ye shall eat 
&c.'; cf. I. 22. 30 note. This explanation of the infin. abs. >"OT 
is implied by Pesh. JL>©» JL*j ..^Vj, Targ. pin \hr\1 nnyn* 1 ' This 
torrent bed shall be made &c.'; so Ew. § 328° end ; Hist. iv. p. 88. 

On the other hand, LXX, Luc. Uoirja-aTe, Vulg. Facile regard 
nbty as equivalent to an imperative: 'Make this torrent-bed full of 
cisterns!' So RV., and most moderns. This explanation is, 
however, less in accord with v. i7 a , which seems to preclude the 
necessity of human intervention; and is also opposed by vv. 22, 23, 
where the phenomenon described must have been produced by 
the sun shining upon natural and so irregular and wide-spreading 
pools of water, and not upon artificial and so (presumably) sym- 
metrically shaped trenches. For the repetition DUJ D"Q3 cf. Gen. 
14. 10; G-K. § 123 e; Ew. 313**. 

17. M'OpBl] Luc. Ka\ ai 7rap6/*j3oXal v//a>i>, i. e. DS^npi, is certainly 
correct ; cf. v. 9 b . So Klo., Kamp., Benz., Kit. 

18. jroi . . . l ;pn] 'And this shall be a light thing, &c, and he 
shall give &c.,' i. e. 'And this being a light thing, &c, he shall 
(further) give &c.' Cf. Isa. 49. 6. 

19. TirQD "Vy 731] LXX, Luc. omit, and the words are regarded by 
Klo., Kamp., Benz., Kit. as a variant of the preceding 1V2D "Vy 73. 

13N3n] LXX dxpeivacTe, and so R V. ( ye shall mar! 3SD , how- 
ever, has always elsewhere the meaning to be in pain, Hiph'il to 
pain, and the use of the verb in this passage is unparalleled. Klo. 
emends naKljl ' ye shall destroy.' 

20. nroon ni^ya] Cf. I. 18. 29 note. 

21. iyD£> nw» bl)] 'Now all Moab had heard! So v. 22 BWTT1 
nnit ' and the sun had risen! For the order, expressing the plu- 
perfect, cf. note of I. 14. 5. 

23. D"otan innm mm] Render, with RV. marg., ' The kings 
have surely fought together.' So Verss. ^inn infin. abs. Pu'al 

III. IJ-2$ 27I 

should probably be vocalized as Niph'al 2"inn. The verb Tin slay, 
occurs again in Qal, Jer. 50. 2 1, 27 1, and is frequent in Syr. (in Pesh. 
generally as a rendering of H2n; so e.g. #.24 bis). Ar. t^a. 111. 
Klo. regards Targ. ItfnjrVK nN"0rPK and Luc. ipia-avres yap fjpio-av 
(cf. ch. 14. 10) as presupposing an original ^ann niariil; but this 
emendation, though adopted by Kamp., Benz., is scarcely necessary. 

24. nttni PQ U*l] In place of the impossible MT., LXX, Luc. 

read kol cI<tt}\$ov €l<nropcv6fievot. ko\ tv7ttovtcs } i.e. ITQni fcO 1i<!l*T[ ' and 
they went forward smiting Moab as they went/ an emendation 
certainly to be adopted with Th., Klo., Kamp., Benz., Kit. fiton 
appears to be a rare case of the infin. absol. with the termination n 
as in the infin. constr. ; so T\)r\V Isa. 22. 13; rriPK Hos. 10. 4; 
TlViy Hab. 3. 13 ; and perhaps rivM 2 Sam. 6. 20. Cf. Ko. Lehrg. 
I. i. p. 536. Cases of the infin. constr. used in place of the infin. 
absol. are quoted by Da. § 86, Rem. 3. 

25. 1DW] ' They kept on overthrowing/ i. e. one after another. 
The imperfects are frequentative ; cf. Dri. Tenses^ §113/3: 'a 
graphic picture of the way in which the people occupied them- 
selves during their sojourn in Moab/ 

')) TMBtfl ny] RV. ' until in Kir-hareseth (only) they left the 
stones thereof.' Had this meaning, however, been intended, the in- 
dispensable only (PI) must have preceded n^*in 1*p3, and the 
statement would naturally have followed immediately after the first 
clause of the verse, 1D*"iiT DHjjrn, to which it must be referred. 
LXX, Vulg., Pesh. presuppose the same text as MT., while in 
Luc, Targ. the addition of a negative before "VNB>n 'until there 
was not left, &c./ is clearly an attempt at emendation, and limits 
to one city the thorough demolition which the context suggests to 
have been carried out in the case of all. Luc, however, has an 
additional statement preceding f V\ T»KB>n ly, viz. <a\ egeo-eio-av tov 
Mood/3, i. e. probably, as Klo. suggests, 2NiD"nK 1T3J1 1 . This seems 

1 The Hithpa'el of 113, rrnYJnm, is rendered by LXX ociodrjatTai in Isa. 
24. ao. For the use of WW in our passage, cf. Qal wander about ox flee away, 
Gen. 4. 12, 14; Jer. 49. 30; 50. 3, 8 ; Hiph'il drive about or scare, ch. 21. 8; 
Ps. 36. ia. 

272 The Second Book of Kings 

to make plain the reference of TWri *iy. That which was left 
in Kir-hareseth after the ruthless expulsion of the Moabites from 
their territory, which is expressed by the strong term et-eo-uo-av, 
was not the stones of the city, but, as is clear from vv. 26 f, the king 
of Moab and his immediate followers. We may thus restore: 1*M5 
f 3\ nbnn Tj-o n*ja TK0iT"iy 3NtoTlK 'and they harried Moab 
until her sons were left in Kir-hareseth, and the slingers encom- 
passed and smote it/ 

"VWrriy] TKpn, as in ch. 10. 11 ; Num. 21. 35; Deut. 3. 3; 
Josh. 8. 22; 10. 33; 11. 8 after ^3"^, and in Deut. 28. 55 
after y2to?, may be regarded either as an impersonal perfect (under- 
stand subj. "VWBten; cf. note on ftt?J I. 1. 6), or as an infin. constr. 
vocalized with Hireq in place of Pathah. Elsewhere in Kgs. we 

find rvprny 1. 11. 16; n^rny 1. 15. 29; ch. 10. 17. In this 

latter case the suffix indicates that the Massoretes recognized an 
infin. constr. form with Hireq under the preformative n ; and this 
is substantiated by the occurrence elsewhere of such forms as 
^WHy Deut. 7. 24; 28. 48; Josh. 11. 14; rvfrpPI nrjK Lev. 
14. 43. Dri. {Deut. pp. 48, 105) rejects the hypothesis of Ko. 
(Lehrg. I. i. p. 212) that such a form can have really existed after 
the analogy of the perfect, and thinks it probable that the punctua- 
tion does not represent an original and true tradition, and that — n 
should therefore be throughout restored for — H. 

D£Hn "Vp] The stronghold of Moab, mentioned again under 
the same name, Isa. 16. 7, and called fenn "Vp 16. 11 ; Jer. 48. 
31, 36; SNto "Vp Isa. 15. 1. Targ. in Isa. and Jer. renders by 
fcOTD, TO, i. e. the modern El-Kerak (' the fortress '), which gives 
its name to the surrounding district south-east of the Dead Sea. 
Cf. Rob. BR. ii. 166. 

27. ibw "i^N] ' Who was to reign.' Cf. Dri. Tenses, § 393. 

'y\ hv\l PJVp \Tl] 'And there came great wrath against Israel.' 
The ' great wrath ' is that of Chemosh the Moabite deity, whom 
the writer supposes to have been induced by means of the costly 
offering to succour his worshipper and repulse the foe. Cf. Sta. 
Ges. i. p. 430 ; Wellh. Prolegomena, p. 23 note; Montefiore, Hibbert 

III. 27 — IV. 4 273 

Lectures, p. 35. Cf. the inscription of the Moabite stone, //. §ff., 
where Mesha' traces the affliction of Moab at the hand of Israel 
to the fact that ' Chemosh was angry with his land/ while so soon 
as the god overcomes his inertia the fortunes of his country change, 
and Moab is successful against Israel {Append. 1). 

pN^] Luc, Vulg., Pesh. presuppose &?")^P, correctly. So Klo., 
Kamp., Benz., Kit., Oort. 

4. 1-7. Elisha makes miraculous provision for the wife of one of 
the sons of the prophets. 

1. f V\ 112y] Targ. expands the verse for the purpose of iden- 
tifying the woman's husband with Obadiah of I. 18. zff-> tne 
ground of connexion probably being the resemblance of the state- 
ment '* n« K"V iTil T-DJfl to I. 18. 3 b , I2 b . 

2. ^7] On the form of suff. 2 fem. sing, here and in vv. 3, 7, 
cf. p. 208. 

p& *pDK DN *3] The Snag "key. ^IDN is rendered by Pesh. 
)1^»o{(y>v>, Targ. jo», and so RV. 'pot/ Th.'s explanation, 
* unctio, i. e. quantum ad unctionem sufficit,' is more probably correct, 
as ^0i< may thus, in accordance with its vocalization, be regarded 
as stat. absol. in apposition to JB5P, 'an anointing measure — oil/ 
i.e. 'enough oil for an anointing/ Cf. Dri. Tenses, § 194. 

LXX dXX' rj o aXeLyJAOfxai eXatov, and probably Vulg. parum olei, quo 
ungar, regard TpDN as 1st sing, imperf. Qal of "])D, as though the 
sentence could be equivalent to (ta) SpDK lfc>K JE#n Dip?. Luc. 
dXX' ^ d-y-yftoi/ e'haiov ... 6 dXfi'\^o/xoi exhibits a double rendering. 

4. ^y npy»V] 'And shalt pour into! For this use of bv (lit. 
upon, from above) cf. Nah. 3. 12 ^aitf '•a 5>y l^DJI 'shall fall z«/0 
the mouth of the eater/ 

After v. 4 a Luc. adds ral avro ol< dnoo-Trjo-eTai, i.e. 'and it (the 
oil) shall not stay/ Cf. v. 6 b j»pn W1 ' and the oil stayed/ only 
when the vessels were exhausted. 

"•y^Dn] So, of removing heavy objects, I. 5. 31; Eccles. 10. 9 


274 The Second Book of Kings 

5- iriKD ^ni] Luc. adds <a\ inofaev ovtws, i.e. I? &yn\, adopted 
by Klo., Kamp., Benz. 

'jl DWD Dn] On the constr. cf. I. 1. 14 note. 

np^D] Kt. should probably be vocalized fip^E Hiph'il, there 
being no occurrence of a Pi'el . 

6. Hi! ?N] LXX, Luc. pi. npos tovs vlovs avrrjs, 'EyyiaaTt k.t.\., 

probably a correction after v. 5. 

7. w nn Wa nNl] All Verss. supply the needful copula before 
^D"03. Instances of the verb, when following a compound subj., 
agreeing with the principal member of the subj. are collected by 
Ew. § 340°. Cf. e.g. Ex. 21. 4 b . As Klo. notices, the consonants 
of MT. can be vocalized '■jnn \p^irriNl « and do thou keep thy 
sons alive &c.' 

4. 8-37. Elisha restores to life the son of the Shunammite woman. 

8. 'y\ DVn \T1] 'And there came a day when Elisha passed 
over &c.' Lit. ' and the day was,' day being defined on account 
of the events which happened upon it, according to the idiom 
noticed, I. 13. 14 note. The phrase occurs elsewhere, vv. 11, 18; 

1 Sam. 1. 4; 14. 1; Job 1. 6, 13; 2. 1. 

The other explanation, which regards D1\"l as used adverbially, 
' and it came to pass, on a day, that &c.,' is less probably correct. 
Cf. Dri. on 1 Sam. 1. 4. 

DW] Cf. I. 1. 3 note. 

T\2V H»] For the idiom cf. I. 14. 28 note. 

13. i? nwyb no] 'What (is one) to do for thee?' and so, 
'What is to be done for thee?' The idiom occurs again Isa. 5. 4; 

2 Chr. 25. 9; Est. 1. 15; 6. 6. 

'Jl "\2lb B»il] Cf. Dri. Tenses, § 202 (1). 

'31 iDNni] An assertion of independence. She has no need of 
patronage, being 'a great woman' {v. 8) within her own clan. 

14. 72$] Cf. I. 1. 43 note. 

15- ni> fcOp *OOi] LXX omits. 

16. 'y\ IJJID?] 'At this season, next spring.' rvn DJD means 

IV. j-28 275 

lit. 'about the time (when it is) reviving.' The phrase occurs 
again Gen. 18. 10, 14 (J), in the latter verse in conjunction 

with nytob. Cf. Gen. 17. 21 (P) Tqmn ru^a ron iyic£ < a t 

this time, next year. y 

*m] Cf. p. 208. 

17. n^K] Read ^K3 with LXX, Luc. Z>s, Pesh. ? r ^ So 
Klo., Kamp., Benz., Kit. 

19. iriNP] Vulg. 7b//f, */ due eum, Pesh. **o»j^2>o? ^oa*,, 
Targ. W^INl VQD seem to presuppose the addition tafcOani. 

Cf. V. 20 a . 

20. 3^1] LXX ku\ iKotfir)0 n , i.e. 3|P*!. 
23. inJ?n tin] Cf. p. 208. 

T\2W fc^l BHn b6] ' Not a new moon nor a Sabbath/ i. e. not 
a festive day. Cf. Am. 8. 5 and 1 Sam. 20. 5 with Dri.'s note. 
The universality of the festival of the new moon is illustrated by 
Dillmann on Lev. 23 (p. 578). 

25. N"Qni "pni] LXX devpo Kai nopevarj Kai eXeva-r}, inferior to 
MT. Luc. exhibits a combination of the two readings. 

pn] Identical in form with Ar. relative jJl, just as the fuller 
form ^w\ answers to Ar. t£jJI. t?n is equivalent to njn or fitfon, 
with the additional demonstrative element la. The form is used 
only here with a fern, subs., but occurs elsewhere with a masc. 
subs. ch. 23. 17; Judg. 6. 20; 1 Sam. 14. 1 ; 17. 26; Zech. 2. 8. 
It should doubtless be restored with LXX tpn ^J")Xn in 1 Sam. 
20. 19 (cf. Dri. ad loc). Without a subs. Dan. 8. 16. 

26. After V. 2 6 a Luc. adds Ka\ '4bpap.ev els cmavTT)Q-iv avrrjs Kai elnev 
"Elprjvr) aoi' elpfjvr] rw dvbpi aov' elprjvr) ro> iraibaplco. 

27. 'ai WT\\ Klo. compares the action of our Lord's disciples, 
S. Matt. 19. 13, 14. 

*JBD] LXX after an e/iov makes the worthless addition 

Kai aov. 

28. nbwri] 'Deceive' (lit. 'mislead'). rfe is frequent in 
Aram, in the sense ' go astray ' or ' act in error/ occurring 
in Targ. as the equivalent of Heb. && or HJB\ Cf. Aph'el, 

t 2 

276 The Second Book of Kings 

Ps. 119. 10 T»mpa» ^hvr\ t6 'Cause me not to go astray 
from thy commandments/ The only other occurrence of the 
verb in Bib. Heb. is late, 2 Chr. 29. 11, and in our passage so 
marked an Aramaism must be regarded as dialectical (cf. pp. 208 f. 
and note on ch. 6. 11). In 2 Sam. 6. 7 a subs. ?& occurs, which 
has been explained as equivalent to Aram. V?W 'error,' but here 
the text is probably at fault. Cf. Dri. ad loc. 

29. ';i 8¥Dn raj Cf. S. Luke 10. 4. 

30. "]^Si TTl] Cf. ch. 2. 2 note. 

34. vby "Wl] 'And crouched upon him.' So v. 35; cf. I. 18. 
42t. The verb appears to describe the drawing up of the 
prophet's limbs that they might coincide with the short limbs 
of the child. Cf. I. 17. 2i a . 

35. 'X\ r\m nntf] 'Backwards and forwards'; lit. 'once here 
and once there.' For nnx f e m. 'once' (for nnN Dya Josh. 6. 3, 
11, 14) cf. ch. 6. 10; Ps. 89. 36; al. 

■niw] A ana£ Xey., rendered ' sneezed/ in accordance with Targ. 
Job 41. 10, where Ti'HT represents Heb. WlB^By 'his sneezings/ 
So apparently Targ. in our passage ppDrvxi (cf. Job 41. 10 Edit. 
Rcgia s 1ppD). Vulg. et oscitavit, Pesh. jdosIIo give the meaning 
'yawned/ LXX omits ~\~\)V) together with the letters V of the 
preceding vbv, thus reading DTOQ V2f"lV ^r\"bv W) *al 
<TvveKap.^cv in\ to iraihapiov (cos (tvtcikis. Thus Gra. is probably 
correct in regarding TTiW as having arisen through dittography 
from "van. 

In the text of Luc. nai rju^pio-aro in\ to naibuptov seems to repre- 
sent a marginal variant for LXX rendering of 1?Vl ?V "W1, while 

Kal €venv€vo~ev fV avrov l . . . <a\ 8iCKLvrj0rj to naiftdpiop is a Second 

marginal reading answering to MT. nyan ♦ ♦ ♦ "W1 . 

37. v6r» 5>V feni] So exactly 1 Sam. 25. 24. In Est. 8. 3 the 
phrase is v)p_ -3£)b» . 

1 Cf. the conjectural rendering of LXX, Luc. for norm in I. 17. 21 Kal 
kv«pvor}oev. Kal \vttyvot)aev els (Jn) avTov occurs also as a various rendering 
of vby vr^i in v. 34. Cf. Field. 

IV. 2()~4 2 277 

4. 38-44. Elisha makes wholesome a pot of poisoned broth 
(38-41), and miraculously increases a small supply of provisions 

38. rtafan] Cf. ch. 2. 1 note. 

r6n:n] LXX omits. 

39. rntf] Probably ' herbs '; Vulg. herbas agresles, Targ. pj1p"V. 
So several authorities in Isa. 26. 19. There is a root mN = ' pluck' 
which occurs Song 5. 1 ; Ps. 80. 13, and as Th. and Klo. notice, 
the translit. apiooB of LXX, Luc. suggests the form rfr'JK which 
might be derived from this root. 

"IJTP] Luc, Vulg., Pesh. sing. 3HJ, probably correctly. 

41. inpi] ' Then take/ Cf. Ps. 4. 4. 

■jiw] LXX, Luc, Pesh., Targ. wbfr)) ' and cast.' 

IDfcOl] LXX, Luc. Ka\ 6C7T6I/ 'E. npos Ti€^€i (LXX to naibdpiov). 

After HM tfb) we should perhaps add Ity, with LXX, Luc. en 
(LXX doublet <•««), Vulg. amplius. 

42. 7\uhv byi] LXX BaiBo-apeiaa, Luc B^<9o-aXto-a, i.e. H^pK^n^, 
according to Eusebius (Baida-apia-dB) fifteen Roman miles north of 
Diospolis (Lydda). The modern ruin Kafr Tilt (cij = vbv) 
seems to correspond with this situation. Cf. Buhl, p. 214. 

7E"D] Probably ' garden-fruit.' So Lev. 2. 14; 23. 14, in each 
case in the enumeration of firstfruits. ?ft"0 generally means 
' garden-land/ RV. ' fresh ears of corn ' follows Vulg. frumentum 
novum, Pesh. )J^»*9, Targ. pawa. 

wp¥l] The word is a ana£ Xey. RV. ' in his sack ' agrees with 
Vulg. in pera sua in giving a meaning demanded by the context. 
Pesh. Jjouaas, Targ. rVBwl interpret 'garment/ LXX, Luc. 
omit, but Cod. A transliterates /3aKeAA<:'0, and hence Lagarde 
{Armen. Stud. § 333) infers that, in place of 1J7p¥3, we should read 
r\yb\>2 , fiyPi? = n V?i? being explained by Ar. L*JJ sack, used for 
provisions, &c Hale'vy, however {Revue des ittudes fuives, xi. 68), 
takes ftancXked to have been a marginal note transcribing the Aram, 
term (i"6 *H) r\?*\>2 ' in his basket ' : — ' NrPIp is a very frequent word 
in the Rabbinic literature ; its Arabic equivalent ri^p is still at the 

278 The Second Book of Kings 

present day very popular in the sense of jar, a large measure 
of capacity, which probably takes its origin from the Greek 

43. mini tatf] Cf. ch. 3. 16; I. 22. 30 notes. 

44. DiTJai? JrVl] LXX, Luc. omit. 

5. Elisha heals Nd avian, the Aramaean, of his leprosy. 

It is an open question who is the nameless king of Israel to 
whom reference is made in vv. 5-8 ; and the same difficulty arises 
in connexion with the sections 6. 8-23; 6. 24 — 7. 20; 8. 1-6. 
Probably R D , to judge by the position in which he has incorporated 
the narratives in Kings, assumed that the king in question was in 
every case Jehoram; but, since Elisha's death did not take place 
until the reign of Joash {ch. 13. i^ff.), we have, after the reign 
of Jehoram, a period of 28 (Jehu) +17 (Jehoahaz) + x (Joash) 
years during which he may be supposed to have been active. 

There is not, however, any evidence sufficient to determine the 
question. Kue. (§ 25. 12) cites the expression rttnion p in 6. 32 
as an indication that the king thus characterized by Elisha is not 
Jehoram but Jehoahaz, the ' murderer ' being Jehu, the father of 
the latter (cf. chh. 9, 10; Hos. 1. 4); but it is scarcely possible 
that Elisha would so stigmatize Jehu on account of a course of 
action of which he was himself the instigator (ch. 9. 1 ff.). Sup- 
posing ninion p to contain literally a reference to the father of 
the king in question, the reference is more naturally to Ahab (cf. 
the use of T\T\ in I. 21. 19); but, as a matter of fact, the title 
explains itself as called forth by the hostile menace of the king 
himself against Elisha (6. 31 ; cf. note on n!PDn p 6. 32). 

Thus, failing direct evidence, all that can be said is that in the 
single case of the narrative 6. 1-23 the friendly terms upon which 
Elisha stands to the king (cf. vv. 9, 21 f.) create a slight presump- 
tion against identification with Jehoram, to whom, in 3. 13, 14, he 
openly expresses his hostility, and in favour of some member 
of the dynasty which the prophet had been instrumental in placing 
upon the throne of Israel. 

IV 43— V- & 279 

Upon the time-relationship of 5. 1-27 to 6. 24 — 7. 20; 8. 1-6, 
cf. note on 6. 25. 

1. D^a NBO] So Isa. 3. 3 ; 9. 14; job 22. 8. 

'ft K^NPIl] Luc. simply ko\ 6 avOpconos rjv Xenpos, omitting ^Tl "1133, 
which is probably to be regarded, with Benz., as a marginal gloss 
upon the preceding Wl* B*N. 

2. D^TVU ISV^] ' Had gone forth in (lit. as) marauding bands.' 
Cf. Dri. Tenses, § 161 (3). 

3. Y^N 'Would that!' Only again Ps. 119. 5, with vocalization 
Y^N. In our passage the punctuators seem to have regarded the 
word as a subs. plur. constr., and this view is taken by Pesh. 
Ux> Lc£k ^jJL* yi tt^fi^. uOKisc^, Targ. bw DK Win niB 
fcOUJ Dip ' Oh, the benefits of my lord if he would go to the 
prophet !' Cf. the vocalization *?.6?K. 

X'QJn ^Q7J LXX ivoiTTlOV TOV 7rpo(f>r)TOV TOV Ocov. 

After v. 3 b Luc. adds ko\ derjQelr) tov irpocrwirov alrov, i. e. n?ni 
WfTlK. Cf. I. 13. 6 note. 

4. '31 Kl^] 'And he went in, &c.' The subject, as Vulg. 
rightly divines, is Na'aman (RV. marg.), and not some one un- 
named, 'and one went in' (RV. text, Pesh.). LXX, Luc, Targ., 
against gender, take Na'aman's wife as subject : ' And she went in 
and told her lord/ and this necessitates in Luc. the addition kcu 
dvrjyyeiXe r<S fiacri\e~i, which is duplicated at the commencement 

of V. 5 in the form Kal avqyyekrj tco ^ac^tX€t. 

nam nwa] Ch. 9. 12 ; Josh. 7. 20 (JE); 2 Sam. 17. 15 (twice) t. 
Cf. m\ nt| I. 14. 5 note. 

6. -mdk^ ♦ ♦ ♦ fcCl] On the constr. cf. note on I. 16. 16. 

nnyi] ' And now/ The main point of the letter, to which that 
which precedes leads up, is all that is quoted. Cf. note on I. 1. 20. 

7. n?] Cf. I. 22. 27 note. 

'jn m in] Cf. I. 20. 7. 

fUNno] ' Seeks occasion against.' So Verss. Lit. ' causes him- 
self to meet.' 

8. vnbttn b*n wb&] LXX omits Wrbtin B»K, while Luc. 
omits y^N. 

280 The Second Book of Kings 

io. "inDl] On the idiomatic use of the imperative with 1 cf. note 
on I. 1. i2. 

n. IDyi] LXX, Luc. omit. 

'}) ^Jnl] LUC. KCl\ €m6f)(T€l TtjV X iL P a QVTOV e7rt r 0V \cTTpOV KCLt CL1T0- 

avvd£ei ai/To dno rrjs crapKos fiov. 

DIpDH bx] b$ in place of by, cf. I. 13. 29 note. 

12. m2N] Read HJBN with Q're, Pesh., Targ., i.e. probably 
' the constant ' (perennial) river. Cf. the use of the verb px in 
Isa. 33. 16. 

The Amana is identified with the modern Nahr Baradd, called 
by the Greeks Chrysorroas, which flows down from the gorges of 
the Anti-Libanus (cf. Song 4. 8) ; the Parpar is probably the Nahr 
el-A'waj, the only other important stream in the district. Cf. Rob. 
B.R. iii. 447; Baed. 183, 345. 

13. "ON] Probably to be regarded, with Th., Kamp., Benz., Kit., 
Oort, as a corruption of BK, which is scarcely to be dispensed with. 
Klo. emends N? *6n . LXX omits. 

'y\ bTti "Hi] The order — object, subject, verb — is very rare. Cf. 
ch. 6. 22 ; Dri. Tenses, 208 (2). 

16. Nth Vn»y X\X] Cf. I. 17. I note. 

17. vb\\ 'And (if) not.' So 2 Sam. 13. 26. B*} ch. 10. 15; 
cf. Judg. 6. 13. 

f ?\ fcO )n s ] The request is made upon the view that Yahwe, the 
national God of Israel, can only be worshipped aright upon the soil 
of Israel's land. Cf. the writer's Outlines of 0. T. Theology, p. 35. 

18. "Qli>] LXX, Luc, Pesh. presuppose *^y\ l But in this 
matter &c.,' correctly. So Th., Klo., Kamp., Benz. 

}D~i] The Assyrian Rammdnu, 'the Thunderer,' the storm- or 
weather-god, apparently identical with TV]; cf. I. 15. 18 note; 
Schrader, COT. i. p. 196 ; Baethgen, Semit. Relig. p. 75. 

WnntPra] On the form cf. p. 208. LXX, Luc. iv t<5 npoo-Kwclv 
avrov, Vulg. adorante eo, i. e. frninfl^na (tojnPl^rm)- ought probably 
to be followed, with Th., Klo., Kamp., Benz., Kit. 

19. pN TTCD] RV. 'a litde way'; marg. 'some way.' The 
expression occurs again Gen. 35. 16; 48. 7!; RV. 'some way.' 

V. 10-21 28 1 

The distance denoted by rn33 (or n")23) is quite indeterminate. 
Pesh. in all passages JLm^o^ 'a parasang'; LXX, Luc. as one 
rendering in Gen. 48. 7 innodpofios, an expression perhaps equiva- 
lent to the Ar. U »JA\ loy^, i. e. as far as a horse can gallop ; Targ. 
21*13, explained as a piece of land of about an acre's extent (Aram. 
3~D, o;3, Ar. c_j£ = 'to plough'), a rendering apparently obtained 
by transposition of 1 and "1. In Assyrian, kibrdtu denotes a region 
of the earth or heaven ; cf. e. g. sar kibrat arbd-i, ' king of the 
four regions' (quarters of the earth); Delitzsch, Assyr. Hand- 
ivorterbuch, 315. ffDD also occurs in a Phoenician inscription 
from Ma'sub, apparently with the same significance as in Assyr., 
in the expression WDW N¥E r\~\22 ' region of the sunrise ' ; cf. 
Hale'vy, Revue des Etudes Juives, xii (1886), p. 109; Lidzbarski, 
Nordsemit. Epigraphik, p. 419. E. Hoffmann, however (Abhand- 
lungen der Gottinger Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften, xxxvi(i89o), 
pp. 24/*.), explains the word in Phoen. and Heb. as meaning the 
tract of country which lies between the eye and the horizon ; 
as much as one can see, rather than the direction in which one 
sees (' Sehweite, nicht Sehrichtung '). 

20. *T\T\ DK *o] ' / will surely run! V\)T\ is a perfect of 
certitude; cf. Jer. 51. 14 'tf CHK ^nK^rDK *3 ^333 ntox * $*¥* 
1 Yahwe Sebha'oth hath sworn by himself, Surely I will fill thee 
with men, &c.'; Judg. 15. 7 M3 WBTB* '3 nrit| ffc^FT&K 'If 
ye act thus, / will surely be avenged of you.' The particles DK ^ 
are connected closely together with a strong asseverative force, 
as is clear from the two passages above cited, and also from 
1 Sam. 26. 10; 2 Sam. 15. 21 Kt. (in both cases after the oath 
'1 Tl); Ruth 3. 12 Kt. (after &J»K <3); 1 Sam. 21. 6. Cf. Dri. 
Tenses, § 139, #0/* 1 ; Ew. § 356^; Ko. Syntax, § 391 r. The view 
which takes "O separately, as introducing the terms of the oath 
(cf. note on I. 2. 23), overlooks the fact that DK following could 
only, in such a case, introduce a negation, and not an assertion 
{t6 DN). 

21. mmDn bv® ^l] 'And he lighted down from the chariot. 
Cf. Gen. 24. 64 S>D3n !>JflG> feni. 

282 The Second Book of Kings 

DvB>n] 'Is (all) well?' Vulg. Recte ne sunt omnia? or, under- 
standing *\K2, as in I. 2. 13, 'Is it well?' i.e. 'Does thy coming 
portend no evil tidings?' Cf. ch. 9. 11, 17, 22, 31. 

22. n? nny] On nr cf. I. 14. 6 »<?/* on n? n»i>. 

23. 'ai 7Wn] 'Consent, take two talents/ or, as we should say, 
' Consent to take &c.' Cf. ch. 6. 3 ^ KJ ^in ; Judg. 19. 6 "5>*tin 
Jyl KJ j 2 Sam. 7. 29. When the verb* is used of an action under- 
taken at one's own instance, and not at the suggestion of another, 
'Resolve' is a suitable rendering: cf. Gen. 18. 27, 31 ; Deut. 1. 5. 

M piS v l] 'And he urged him.' jna is used in the Same sense 
in 1 Sam. 28. 23; 13. 25, 27, but the ordinary significance of this 
verb is to break out or spread abroad, and it is probable that we 
ought, with most critics, to substitute the verb "i¥B which occurs 
commonly with the meaning urge ox press upon: — v. 16; ch. 2. 17; 
Gen. 19. 3, 9; 33. 11; Judg. 19. 7t. 

DWn] ' Bags.' The word only occurs again in Heb. Isa. 3. 22, 
where it is mentioned as an article of feminine adornment. In 
Ar. aL^X. denotes a bag or pouch made of leather, rag, or other 

24. 72yn] Probably l the citadel! The universal explanation, 
however, among modern interpreters, seems to be ' the hill ' or 
' mound.' The verb ?£>y means to swell, and occurs twice in 
Heb., once in Pu'al '"yey ' is puffed up,' Hab. 2. 4, and once in 
Hiph'il v^S^I ' and acted arrogantly' (internal Hiph'il). The subs. 
/SV is used to denote a swelling, i. e. tumour, 1 Sam. 5. 6 ; al. 
(so in Ar.). When used in a topographical sense, the inference 
is generally drawn that ?%$ denotes a natural swelling of the 
earth's surface, i. e. conceivably, a low conical hill. But the 
connexion in which the term appears points with much greater 
probability to an artificial ' swelling/ i. e. a bulging, or rounded keep, 
or enceinte. 

An ?S'y i s mentioned as existing in three different localities : — 
(i) at Jerusalem ; (ii) presumably at Samaria (here only) ; (iii) in 
the territory of Mesha', king of Moab (Moabite stone, //. 21/^). 
In each case reference is made to ba'yri the 'ophel, well known as 

V. 22-26 283 

such, and so on a prima facie view not a hill marked out merely 
by its unimportant physical characteristics 1 . Accordingly, the 
*ophel at Jerusalem is a fortified place with walls, 2 Chr. 27. 3; 
Neh. 3. 27; is mentioned in close connexion with Tfian TUCn 
KV1M 'the great projecting tower/ Neh. 3. 27; and in parallelism 
with "ny iHSD ' tower of the flock,' Mic. 4. 8. In the same way 

Mesha' says Tin -pHi myp *n» ijki ^ayn n»n ♦ , . Tin ^ki 
nninJE ' And I built the wall of the 'ophel, and I built its gates, 
and I built its towers/ 

25. vriN bit n»jm] 'And stood by his lord.' Cf. ch. 11. 14 
Titerrta nnslsnni anfrni. 

fNE>] Kt. |N occurs again 1 Sam. 10. 14 and 27. 10 according to 
Pesh., Targ. (in place of ?N), and in the expression |N"*W Job 8. 2. 

26. i?n *J? *6] LXX, Luc. add ^ra aov, i.e. ^V. The 
meaning of the expression is, 'Was not I present in spirit?' Ew.'s 
explanation, which makes ^p an affectionate designation of Gehazi, 
is strangely forced. 

'J1 nyn] 'Was it a time to take silver, &c.?' The miracle had 
served to emphasize before a representative of the rival nation the 
unique power of Israel's God (cf. vv. 15, 18), and the dignity of 
His prophet (cf. vv. 8 b , 10, 16) ; Gehazi's rapacity, representing itself 
as directed by Elisha, must have tended to weaken the impres- 
sion. Klo., Kamp., Benz., Kit., Oort follow LXX <a\ vvv e\afcs rb 

dpyvptov, kcu vvv e\a(3es to. iparia, k.t.A., Luc. kcu vvv i'\a(3es to dpyvpiov 
icai ra ifxaria kcu Xij^et ev avrcp, k.t.X. 2 , Vulg. nunc igitur accepisti 

argentum, et accepisti, Sfc, and read ^M>\ ^SPTTti* J?0i2? nrijn 
'y\ 0^15? 'And now thou hast taken the silver, and wilt take 

1 The kind of hill which bsy might be expected to describe, upon the 
supposition that the term was so used, would scarcely be outstanding and 
conspicuous, but rather with a low and rounded top, the less likely to attract 
attention as boyn if covered, wholly or partly, by buildings. And, again upon 
such a supposition, it is somewhat strange that the term is not more frequently 
employed, and that of hills not in towns but in the open country. 

2 The position of teal tcl i/zciTta has clearly been ignorantly altered in Luc. 
in order to agree with w. 22, 23. 

284 The Second Book of Kings 

garments, &c/ ; ??£/] being a perfect with 1 consec, describing the 
use to which Gehazi was already planning to put the money 1 . 
This emendation, though yielding a good sequence, is scarcely 
superior to MT. 

6. 1-7. Elisha causes iron to float. 

2. b*n] LXX, Luc. dvrjp els, owing to the influence of the 
following nntf mip. So Pesh. )*~ ]**. j^^. 

3. *inxn] ' The one ' who, as a matter of fact, did so speak, but 
according to Eng. idiom simply i one! Cf. note on I. 13. 14 with 
the instance 1 Sam. 9. 9 there quoted. 

/Kin] Cf. ch. 5. 23 note. 

4. &W1] ' The timber/ in its natural condition, destined to 
become the ni~np (prepared) 'beams ' of v. 2. 

5. mipn ♦ ♦ ♦ \T\] As Kamp. remarks, a man cuts down tree- 
trunks (CVJ? v. 4) and not beams. Klo/s emendation DVign, 
favoured by Kamp., Benz., Kit., Oort, is worthy of notice. Render, 
' as one was swinging his axe! This use of ^BH cannot, however, 
be paralleled, while that implied by the reading of MT. has the 
support of ch. 3. 19. 

?D3 Srun nxi] The use of ns to introduce a new subject is 
sporadic, most of the certified instances belonging to the later and 
inferior style. Cf. Jer. 36. 22 nKrrriM . . ♦ ^hn rvn 3B* ?£©rn 
rQy'3D Vjsb. Other cases are cited by G-K. § 117 m; Ew. § 277 d . 
G-K., however, considers that in our passage 'the riK is probably 
derived from a text which read the Hiph'il instead of 7M.' 

Klo. regards HK as a substantive ' axe-head,' a suggestion which 
is favoured by Kamp., Benz., Kit., Ko. Syntax, § 270 a. 

6. ]? D^nl Luc. MeT(a>pi(Tov Kai Xo/3e aeavra. 

6. 8-23. Etisha blinds and captures an Aramaean army. 

8. ^D?N ^/S Dlpft] ' Place of so and so,' i. e. ' such and such a 
place/ So exactly 1 Sam. 21. 3, and, in addressing a person 

1 rirrj^V) might in this sense be very idiomatically retained : ' and art for 
taking.' Cf. Gen. 30. 15 ; Dri. Tenses, § 204. 

VI. i-ii 285 

unnamed, Ruth 4. 1. *0/D, upon comparison of Ar. ^1, Aram. 
^k3, is usually connected with the verb n?D in the sense distinct, 
specific ; *0D7N with D?X ( to be dumb,' as meaning one whose name 
is withheld. In Dan. 8. 13 the contraction ^Ey3 occurs, and this 
form appears to be presupposed by Luc. (pcXfxovui in our passage. 

T)Jnn] Apparently 'my camp.' So Targ. Kr^D 1V3, and 
perhaps LXX 7rapf/i/3a\o>. But the form is very strange (cf. Ko. 
Lehrg. I. ii. p. 192) and the context desiderates reference not to 
a camp but to an ambush. Accordingly, Luc. reads iroi^doajxcv 
euedpov, xal enolrjo-av, Vulg. ponamus insidias, Pesh. OA^ijo CII.N5D 
' place an ambush and conceal yourselves.' Thus Th., followed 
by Kamp., Benz., Kit., Heb. Lex. Ox/., emends ^nfi ' conceal 
yourselves' (cf. ch. 7. 12; I. 22. 25); Oort ttanrtfl; Klo. «?nni 'let 
us conceal ourselves/ This latter, as agreeing with Luc, Vulg., 
may be adopted 1 . Probably, with Luc, we should add ^3nn*l, 
a suitable introduction to v. 9. 

9. DViru] An inexplicable form. RV. ' coming down/ i. e. 
Q^rft, a very pronounced Aramaism. We may safely follow 
Verss., and all moderns, in reading D^sro or D^anj ' concealed/ 

10. "11DIW1 mTiTni] Perfects with 1 consec. in a frequentative 
sense, after the summary statement rvB^I . Cf. Dri. Tenses, § 114a. 

n. btr\W *]bo b$ tibfip *D] < Who of ours is for the king of 
Israel?' On the use of the relative W cf. p. 208. The sense of 
PK ' towards,' and so ' in support of, may be illustrated by Hos. 
3. 3 ; Jer. 15. 1 ; Ezek. 36. 9 ; Hag. 2. 17. So Pesh., Targ. LXX, 
Luc, however, in place of ))bWD presuppose a verb betray, irpo- 
bibaxrlv /ie. Similarly, Vet. Lat. prodet me, Vulg. proditor mei. 
Accordingly Bo., retaining the consonants of MT., vocalizes V?#D 
'who hath misled us' (cf. note on rbwr\ ch. 4. 28). Change of one 
letter gives ^.?i£, which is adopted by Klo., Kamp., Benz. Kit. 
supposes that h?*? has fallen out after ^?$B, upon the view that 
the response (v. 12) presupposes the suggestion that there is a 

1 Possibly, if Luc. is correct in reading ^nbs for ^q^n '^D, the initial 3 of 
Nnnro has been absorbed into »:nb«. 

286 The Second Book of Kings 

traitor in the camp, ' one of ours.' But this is sufficiently implied 
by *b )Tan N'tal, i.e. substantially, ' One of you must know.' 

12. train n«] LXX, Luc., Vulg. on?^?" 1 "^- 

'y\ "Din 1BW] For the expression cf. Eccles. 10. 20. 

13. row] Kt. row is probably correct. Cf. p. 209. 

fmi ron] It is idiomatic to omit expression of the subject with 
1*131, when it may be readily inferred from the context. Cf. v. 20; 
I. 21. 18; Dri. Tenses, § 135 (6), note 4. So, with participle, 
6. 25 note. 

jm] LXX, Luc A<»0a«/i, i.e. BVH; cf. B^Jj; by the side of 
P^y. Dothan is the modern Tell Ddtdn, a green hill with a few 
ruins about ten miles north of Samaria. Cf. Eusebius, Onom.; 
Baed. 261; Buhl, 24/!, 102. 

15. 'y\ COUn] MT. is somewhat confused. The subj. of tw\, 
in accordance with 15k, must be Elisha, but following as it does 
upon what precedes, it can scarcely be different from that of D3K>1, 
viz. in accordance with MT., m^D. Again, the servant is called 
rWD in i5 a , njH in i5 b , and the expression Dlp^ . . ♦ Mt^l 'and 
he got up early to arise,' is at best extremely harsh. Klo. happily 
restores order by emending riinijrp for J"W& (cf. Ex. 32. 6 ; Judg. 
6. 38 ; 1 Sam. 5. 3), and substituting lp3"l for Blpp after Luc. to 
7J-/3GH 1 , Vulg. diluculo : — 'And the man of God arose early on the 
morrow in the morning, and went forth, &c.' So Kamp., Benz., 
and substantially Kit. 2 

17. 1JJM WV riX] LXX, Luc. tovs 6(f)da\fiovs avrov. 

18. Illl] Vulg. supplies the subj. Hostes vero descenderunt . 
1 They came down ' from the hills surrounding the small valley in 
the midst of which Tell Dotdn lies. 

DIUD] 'Blindness/ Only again Gen. 19. n. The word is 
perhaps a Shaph'el formation from 1*0, sanwara, ' make blind ' (lit. 
' bright,' euphemistically). Cf. Ko. Lehrg. I. ii. 404. 

19. nf] So again for flNT Ezek. 40. 45; Eccl. 2. 2, 24 ; 5. 15, 18 ; 

1 Luc. has also dvaaTrjvai, clearly as a gloss derived from LXX. 

2 Kit. reads 'jn rnrrao *TTJ , a reading which he apparently refers to Klo. 

VI. 12-24 2 ^7 

7. 23; 9. 13, and in the phrase TO] nfs I. 14. 5; Judg. 18. 4; 
2 Sam. 11. 2 5t. The form resembles Aram. N*J, and may be 
dialectical. Cf. p. 208. 

20. 'i\ nam] Cf. #.13 «0/?. 

21. fDK PDNn] Cf., for the repetition, Ezek. 14. 3 b , which should 
perhaps be vocalized Dm B*TJK ^TJNJ}. Most critics, however, 
restore an infin. absol. BhW, and so in our passage LXX Ei 
7rara|ay 7rara|a), Pesh. .cu/ )^:tt/ [uioaao suggest the reading 

nsK rrann. * 

22. 'jn JV3B> lEWi] Klo. inserts a negative n!> after Luc. ow 
ot»/c TJxt ia ^ TeV(7as • • • ov (read <rv LXX) rimreisj ' Wilt thou slay 
those whom thou hast not captured with thy sword and with thy 
bow?' So Benz., Kit. This is probably correct rather than MT. 
which is scarcely consonant with the frequent practice of the D'ln, 
sanctioned and even enforced by members of the prophetic school ; 
cf. e.g. I. 20. 42 ; 1 Sam. 15. 3, 33. Kamp. favours MT. 

23. 'y\ rroi] The context demands the meaning 'And he made 
them a great feast'; and so Vulg., Pesh., Targ. ; but ma with 
this meaning is not elsewhere found in Heb. Perhaps the root 
is the same as Assyr. karic, ' bring,' kiretu, ' feast ' (to which guests 
are brought or invited). So in the Balawat inscription, ki-re-ti 
iskun, 'he made a feast '; Delitzsch, Assyr. Handw'drterbuch, p. 352. 
Klo. emends r\y]Vp rpp_ ' And he laid a spread/ after LXX, Luc. 
km 7rape0T]K€v avrols -napaBecnv, but this expression so used is un- 
paralleled in Heb. 1 More probably the Greek represents a free 
guess at the unknown words. 

6. 24 — 7. 20. Samaria is besieged by the Aramaeans, and reduced 
to great straits through famine. The city is relieved through a panic 
which seizes the besieging army. 

24. nn p] Cf. note on I. 15. 18. If this narrative be wrongly 
assigned to the reign of Jehoram (cf. p. 278), the reference will 
be to the successor of Hazael (cf. ch. 13. 24). 

1 The regular phrase is \r\yv tps . Cf. Isa. 21. 5 ; Ps. 23. 5; 78. 19; Prov. 9. 2. 

288 The Second Book of Kings 

25. 71*13 Hjn NT 1 !] It is not quite clear whether the writer 
regards the famine as simply due to the rigour of the siege, or as 
in a measure independent of it. The fact that the king of Israel 
considers Elisha as the main cause of the calamity (v. 31) favours 
the latter supposition, and the same inference is perhaps to be 
drawn from the reference to the opening of 'the windows of 
heaven,' ch. 7.2. In this case the famine is probably the same 
as that mentioned in ch. 8. 1-6, which lasted seven years (v. 2). 
Ch. 8. 1-6 represents Gehazi as still holding the position of Elisha's 
favoured servant; therefore 8. 1-6; 6. 24 — 7. 20 are presumably 
earlier than 5. 1-27 which relates the smiting of Gehazi with 

t?~\)t rum] Expression of the subject is omitted in accordance 
with idiom. See cases cited by Dri. Tenses, § 135 (6), and cf. note 
on v. 13. 

"ViDn EWi] Th. quotes a parallel from Plutarch, Artaxerx. 24 : 

ra vno^vyia [tovov KariKOTVTiv, oxxre ovov K€^>a\r)v fioXis 8pa%[ia>u e^rjuovra 
oiviov civai. 

D*0DB>3] LXX, Luc. TTfVT^Kovra. 

Dpn] The kab is only here mentioned in the OT., but occurs 
in New Heb. both as a dry and fluid measure. Josephus repre- 
sents 2£ri yip by £e<TTT]s, a measure which is known to be equiva- 
lent to the Heb. 37. The fourth part of a kab was therefore about 
a pint. Cf. Benz. Archdologie, 182; Nowack, Archaologie, i. 202^". 

DWin] The Verss. follow Kt., and, reading as two words 
B^ H") *jn, render 'doves' dung.' Q're E^f! is of unknown 
derivation. The strangeness of such an article as used for food has 
aroused suspicion. Thus Ges. Thes. cites the view of Bochart that 
1 doves' dung ' may have been the popular name for some vegetable 
product (roasted chick peas) just as in Ar. the name JLJI j^i. 
' sparrows' dung ' is applied to the herb kali, and in German assa- 
foetida is named Tenfelsdreck. Klo. emends D*3V"]n 'sour wine' 
(?Num. 6. 4), Cheyne {Expositor, 1899, p. 32) DWin 'carob pods/ 
a word well known in New Heb. and Syriac, and restored by the 

VI. 2J-)2 289 

same writer also in ch. 18. 27 = Isa. 36. 12 (DftWtn for Dn*"in), 
Isa. 1. 20 (taari DWn for fetfn nnrj); c f. S. Luke 15. 16. 

It is, however, by no means certain that MT., Kt., in its 
literal acceptation, is incorrect. A parallel in Jos. Bell. Jud. 
v. 13, §7 depicts the extremities to which men may be brought 

by a prolonged siege : — \Lzra ravra 5* a>s ovdi TTor)\oyeiv e#' olov t 
rjv 7r€piT€ixi<r0€i(TT]i; rrjs 7rdXeo)f, 7rpof\0e7v Tivas els toctovtov dvdyKrjs, wore 
ras dfxdpas ipevvSiVTas Kai naXaiop ovBov (3oa>v 7rpoa<pep€<r0ai ra eK 
tovt<ov aKvftaXa, koi to p.rjS' o\f/ei (poprjrov ndXat tot€ yevecOai rpo(pf)v. 

Again, Post (in Hastings, BD. i. 629) quotes, on the authority 
of Houghton, a statement from a Spanish author that in the year 
1 3 1 6 so great a famine distressed the English that ' men ate their 
own children, dogs, mice, and pigeons* dung! 

26. '31 rwin] Cf. 2 Sam. 14. 4 b . Similarly v. 2 8 a is exactly 
paralleled by 2 Sam. 14. 5 a . 

27. '31 ■JSW b$] Difficult. As the text stands, it is best to 
render, 'If Yahwe help thee not, whence shall I help thee?' lit. 
1 Let not Yahwe help thee, whence &c.?' a case of the jussive used 
in the protasis of a hypothetical sentence. So Dri. Tenses, § 152(3); 
G-K. § 109 h. The alternative is to regard 7N as used absolutely 
in deprecation : ' Nay ! let Yahwe help thee.' Cf. note on 
ch. 3. 13. 

Pesh. is noticeable as suggesting the reading Fy for ?K : &o\o 
l-;-ao <+3s>±2lj o£± 'And he said to her, Let Yahwe deliver thee!' 
Is it, however, possible (in view of the dialectical peculiarities of 
these narratives ; pp. 208/i) that we should find in 7K the Aram. 
*b* 'except'} 

29. H32 Htf fcOnmj Luc. adds Ka\ ovk iba>Kev avTov tva (pdyaifxcp 
Kai avTov. 

30. "\2V NI'Ti] Luc. Kai avros eioT^jcee, i. e. "1$? WT1J, probably 
correct. So Klo., Kamp., Benz., Kit. 

31. '31 nw na] Cf. I. 2. 23 note. 

32. '31 D'Oprni] Cf. Ezek. 8. 1 ; 20. 1. Luc. Ka\ nav™ ol tt P €- 


Vftbft BW r£>B*l] RV. ' And [the king] sent a man from before 


290 The Second Book of Kings 

him.' So Luc. inserts 6 ftao-iKtvs. The sentence is probably a 
clumsy interpolation to explain the following reference *]xfen and 
TOW *3. Wellh. (C 360) drastically removes all reference to the 
messenger by excision both of this sentence and of V"inN , ♦♦ N23 MH, 
and emendation of 1N7DH in its first occurrence to ^J^l 1 , as also 
in v. 33. 

DiLD] Read D"3£?* with Luc, Vulg., Pesh. 

HM n¥"iftn p] As is remarked by Klo., Benz., Kit., the expres- 
sion does not refer literally to the king's father (Ahab ? cf. p, 278), 
but characterizes the king himself. ' Mordersohn ' = ' Mordbube.' 
Cf. 1 Sam. 20. 30 (reading rvniEn rngrfS; c f. Dri. ad he.); Isa. 

57. q rmm siwo xnt naaV ^3, 

«J v : • - ,m t j — v t ; •• ■ 

'ft Dnvn^l] ' And press him with the door,' i. e., as we should 
say, ' Shut the door in his face! 

33. 1K7DH] Read ^©n with Ew., Wellh., Gr'a., Klo., Kamp., Kit., 
Benz., Oort. Mention of the king's arrival is presupposed by 
ch. 7. 2 (cf. 0. 17 VJK "HJEn WJJD, and the words of v. 33b are 
only explicable if placed in the king's mouth. 

nmn n«r] Cf. note on Dvn n? I. 14. 14. 

7. 1. riND] A sea contained about a peck, and was equivalent 
to six measures of the kab (ch. 6. 25), and twenty-four of the log. 
Cf. Benz. Archaologie, 181^*. 

bp&2 tt"W DTlKDl] LXX omits through homoioteleuton. 

2. E»7E>n] Cf. I. 9. 22 note. 

""pEP] Read 'ijjsn with several Codd., all Verss. and modern 

IT 1 bv ]vw~] Cf.*£. 5. 18. 

E*W3 nmx] ' Windows or sluices (LXX, Luc. Karappdicras) in 
the heavens,' through which the rain was thought to be poured 
down; Gen. 7. 11; 8. 2; Mai. 3. 10; cf. Isa. 24. 18. The point 
of the speech seems to be that, even if Yahwe were at once to 
send rain, it would be impossible for such a state of plenty to come 
about by to-morrow. 

6. DTinn "07B] The kings of the Hittites are mentioned again 
in I. 10. 29 as providing themselves with horses from M 'usri (cf. 

VI. H—VIL 10 291 

note ad loc). The Hittite kingdom lay in north Syria, having its 
capital at Kadesh on the Orontes. In 2 Sam. 24. 6 David's 
northern boundary is said to have extended as far as 'the land 
of the Hittites to Kadesh V The land of the Hittites is also 
mentioned in Judg. 1. 26, and in Judg. 3. 3 ''Ann ought probably 
to be substituted for ^.nn : ' the Hittites who inhabit the hill- 
country of the Lebanon ' (cf. Moore, ad loc). DTinn ymtt 73 Josh. 
1. 4 is perhaps a later gloss, identifying the Hittites with the 
Canaanites. On the Hittites as they figure in the Egyptian 
and cuneiform inscriptions, cf. Sayce in Hastings, DB. ii. 
Z9°ff'* -Dri. Authority, 83^. 

tfnSB "ota WS\ Probably we should vocalize BjnVO or D*}??, 
and render, 'and the kings of Musri/ An alliance of the Hittites 
with Egypt would have been highly improbable, and could scarcely 
have suggested itself to the Aramaeans, while an alliance of the 
two north Syrian kingdoms for the purpose of turning their flank 
was a danger well calculated to cause a panic. On Musri, cf. 
I. 10. 28 note. 

7. wn ncwo rwn»n] RV. ' even the camp as it was/ But runo 
is always elsewhere masc. We may read HDH "iK>N3 njnEfl with 
Luc. on rja-av iv rfj irapenfiokrj : cf. v. io b . The reading runD3 is 
also presupposed by LXX, Vulg., Pesh. 

DK>£ti 5>tf] Cf. I. 19. 3 note. 

8 a . UWl] LXX omits. 

9. tWV 13WK p *6] 'We are not doing right! Cf. ch. 17. 9 
p-&6 -rata anm. 

1 .. .. -. • t : 

ply] 'Punishment/ So Gen. 4. 13. Cf. Num. 14. 34; Isa. 
53. 11; at. 

10. "lJJtP] PI. ^$7 is demanded by the following &r6, and by 
Dng#n v . 11. So Th., Kamp., Kit., Oort. 

D^pin] LXX, Luc. at aKripai avra>v, i.e. Dnvnfcfl, correctly. So 
Klo., Kamp., Benz. Kit. &\i>nkn. 

1 Reading mihp D'nnn y"i«, after Luc. ct? 7771/ XeTTteiV KaSiJs, for the senseless 
*ttnn D\-inn yi« of MT. cif. Dri. a^ fo. 

U 2 

2Q2, The Second Book of Kings 

ii. Knpn] Read W$*l with LXX, Luc, Targ. Vulg. Ierunt 
ergo, Pesh. c^ifi© also presuppose a plural. 

-12. rnEVQ] Cases in which the n of the article remains un- 
syncopated after an inseparable preposition are cited by G-K. 
§ 35 n. The occurrences are 'almost exclusively in the later 

13. 'avinp^] The text is seriously corrupted. The general 
resource is to regard the first fi2 ViNtpj "IB*** as a doublet of 
DnNtwn, and to reject the second fl3 r\xm "WK down to btiW 
as an error occasioned by repetition of the former. But even 
so the point of the remark, ' Lo, they are as all the multitude of 
Israel that are consumed/ is obscure. What we should expect 
is some statement such as that of the lepers in v. 4, viz. that, 
whatever may be the fate of the scouts, they will be no worse 
off than those who remain in the beleaguered city. Possibly 
therefore the text may have originally run: — *nj"*1 D*#JK W\^ 

riKBo "itjw htrw* iton-^aa Dan vrp"DK Dn&nyan D-D^n-p nmn 

-. .. ... -; •• t ; • • -; t: t • :• • • t s * ~ ■ — I ■ t • -; 

WR nfc>K bvr\f] tfPLp?? Dan vn&O-DM nb < Send men, and let 
them take five of the horses which survive ; if they live, lo, they 
are as all the multitude of Israel that survive here, and if they 
perish, lo, they are as all the multitude of Israel that are con- 
sumed/ The reading nb for H3 is suggested by LXX &>5f, while 
the alternative '31 nUfcO DM appears in Targ. K.n [VD* DM 
1DD1 btOW WJOn bn |WK; cf. Pesh. o^iii yl 'If they be 
taken, &c.' 

14. D^DID 23n] LXX iniftaTas tirnav, Luc. dvaftdras mircov, i.e. 

D k p1D *5*3*1 'mounted men'; cf. ch. 9. 18. Scouts would naturally 
be sent out on horseback rather than in chariots. 

15. DTSnro] Kt. BTSnna " s correct. The Niph'al is used else- 
where, 1 Sam. 23. 26; Ps. 48. 6 ; 104. 7. 

16. '* ""DID] Luc. adds ov cXdXqo-ev 'EXto-o-aU. 

17. "Un "WK , , , "im -|£>ta] Scarcely original. Probably we 
have a combination of two different readings — nan nE>N3 simply, 
and nsn "ny« ♦ ♦ ♦ nrr]3. The former has the support of Vulg., 
Pesh., and is probably correct. 

VII. ii— VIII ii 293 

8. i-6. Elisha again assists the Shunammiie woman. 

i. '31 n^KH bti] Ch. 4. 8-37. 

^I^n "i^fcO , nw] Dri. on Deut. 1. 46 calls the mode of expression 
' the idem per idem idiom, often employed in the Semitic languages, 
when a writer is either unable or has no occasion to speak 
explicitly.' Cf. also Dri. on 1 Sam. 23. 13, where instances in 
Ar. are quoted from Lagarde, Psalterium Hieronymi (1874), 156 /.; 
Dri. Tenses, § 38 /3 note. 

7 31 N3 Ml] 'And, moreover, it shall come &c/ N2 is the 
participle, used as a futurum instans. 

2. Luc. omits Dpni, and adds, after DTlttvQ pfcG, kclO* m (foev 

avrji 6 avdpanos rov 0€ov. 

3. '£> pN»] LXX adds els ttjv noXiv. 

5. ]"l£n Dtf] Luc. top vlov avTTJs top Te6vr]K.6Ta i LXX vlbv Te6vT)KOTa } 

inferior to MT. 

8. 7-15. Elisha! s interview with Hazael at Damascus. 

8. nr vntt] Cf. ch. 1. 2 note. 

10. N?] All Verss. agree with Q're S? } which is certainly original. 
Cf. v. 14. Probably the alteration to the negative was due to a 
desire to remove from Elisha the imputation of falsehood. 

^fcOm] Perf. with 1 simplex, co-ordinated with the preceding. 

ii. '31 IDJPl] 'And he steadied his countenance, and set (it on 
him) till he was ashamed.' So RV. ' And he settled his countenance 
steadfastly (upon him), until he was ashamed/ The Hiph'il 
^£.y.£ is here applied to a concentration of the gaze upon a single 
object to the exclusion of all extraneous distraction. After Bb> T s l 
we should expect VJK (cf. Ezek. 6. 2 ; 13. 17 ; at.) or Ivy (Ezek. 
29. 2 ; 35. 2). The subject of E>2"*iy is naturally Hazael. Elisha 
looked him out of countenance. 

A variety of explanations of the passage have been suggested. 

LXX (vocalizing lEV'l) kol TrapscrTT) tg) 7rpo(roo7ra) avrov, kol edrjKev eeos 
al(rxu pT )*> expanded by Luc. Kal earrj 'A^aqX Kara npocrcmov avrov, nai 
7rape6rjK€V evoomou ovtov to. dcopa ecus yo-)(vvcTO. Vulg. Stetitque cum 

eo, et conturbatus est (i. e. D$!l) usque ad suffusionem vultus. Targ. 

294 The Second Book of Kings 

•0D ^y T 1 ^ Wbt* W "inDKI ' And he turned away his face and 
delayed a very long time/ Pesh. omits. Benz., Kit., reading 
Dfe^l or Dfi?J! (cf. Vulg.), explain, 'And he stared immoveably before 
him, and became horrified in the extreme/ understanding the first 
statement as referring to the setting in of the prophetic ecstasy, while 
the second depicts the effect produced upon the prophet by his 
vision. But the sense given to W2 *iy ' aufs ausserste' (ch. 2. 17; 
Judg. 3. 25) is improbable, since the naming of the subject in 
the following sentence DTPNn B*N *p^ seems to be intended to 
contrast with the implied different subject of VI (viz. Hazael), and is 
out of place if the subject of 6?2 be the same as that of *]yi, DB*1, 
TOjn. Gra. emends nnDJI for *Wl (cf. Targ.) and th)) for DB»1, 
' And he hid his face and was silent, &c/ Klo.'s explanation is 
strangely impossible. 

13. *a] Cf. I. 1. 13 note. 

'jl *p3y no] ' What is thy servant, the dog, that he should do 
this great thing ? ' LXX, Luc. 6 kvwv 6 rcdvrjKas, as in 2 Sam. 9. 8 ; 
cf. 1 Sam. 24. 15; 2 Sam. 16. 9. So Klo., Oort, Winckler. 

15. naaon] RV.' coverlet.' Cf. D^jn T*3| 1 Sam. 19. 13, 16, spread 
by Michal over the head of Teraphim in David's bed. The word 
is a anag Xry., and seems to denote something of intertwined or 
woven workmanship. ""H?? Am. 9. 9 = ' sieve.' 

?Nn?n *pB s l] Shalmaneser II mentions two campaigns against 
1 Ha-za- '-ilu of Damascus '; in the eighteenth year of his reign (b.c 
842 ; cf. Append. 4), and again in the twenty-first year (b.c. 839). 

8. 16-24. fehoram, king of Judah. 

Ch. 8. 17-23 = 2 Chr. 21. 5-io a . R D vv. 16-19, 23. 

1 6 a . mi.T "]i>0 DSBW] Rightly omitted by LXX, Pesh. The 
words have come in through error from the latter half of the 

17. rw fMDB>] Q're corrects to BW, in accordance with the 
almost invariable rule that numerals from 2 to 10 take the 
object numbered in the pi. Other exceptions, cited by G-K. 
§ 134 *, are ch. 22. 1 (nj$* T\pf uncorrected); 25. 17 (Q're pi.); 

Ex. 16. 22; Ezek. 45. I. LXX TeaaapaKovTa errj. 

VIII. Ij-2I h 295 

19. rvwrb '* rDK «h] So (without prep, b) cn.13. 23; Deut. 10. 10. 
■P3] Cf. I. 11. 36 »<?/<?. 

V33?] But the lamp was not given for the sons, since the sons 
are themselves the lamp. || 2 Chr. 21. 7, Luc, Vulg., Targ., feeling 
the difficulty, read ^J? s ^ ; but this does not really effect any 
improvement. LXX omits. No doubt Klo., Kamp., Benz., Kit., Oort 
are right in emending VJSp ; ' to give him a lamp before Him all 
the days/ Cf. I. 11. 36 tff^fX^ *$?. 

20. Wn] Cf. I. 16. 34 note. 

21. rwyx] The place is unknown. Ew. would read ^V$? 'to 
Zo'ar,' but against this it is to be noticed with Buhl (Edomiter, 
p. 64 f) that LXX, Luc. in our passage transliterate 2u<ap, 2t&>p, 
while "iyy is always represented by ^yap, 2iya>p; the inference 
being that y in "VJJ = c, while in "ly'tf it = d. Th. suggests 

nyyb> < to Se'ir.' || 2 Chr. vnfer&j. 

2 1 13 . The half-verse seems to be seriously corrupt. 

(1) The constr. '}) Dp WH \T1 is inexplicable. Accents connect 
\T1 closely with Dp ton (cf. || 2 Chr. 21. 9 Dp \Tl); but the idea of 
duration usually conveyed by the constr. of participle with substantive 
verb (Dri. Tenses, § 135. 5) is out of harmony with the sense of the 
passage. The alternative, adopted by LXX, Luc, Pesh., Targ., is 
to make a break after vn, and to treat n? s ? Dp Nin as a cir- 
cumstantial clause, Dp being a perfect. Upon this view, however, 
the analogy of the cases cited by Dri. Tenses ■, § 165, demands 
a change of subject in the (presumed) principal sentence which 
follows : — ' And it came to pass, whilst he arose by night [some 
one else acted in such a way]/ 

(2) As the text stands, the statement is made that Joram, the 
subject of 03% smote 23"in r\W T)X. These, however, as is clear 
from v. 2i a , belonged to his own forces. The least correction, 
therefore, that can be made is to follow Kit. in reading *$& ifiNI 
33^ 'And the captains of the chariots were with him/ 

(3) Verse 22 makes it plain that Joram's attempt to re-subjugate 
Edom was futile. What we therefore desiderate in v. 2i b is 
probably an account of the falling of Joram and his army into 

296 The Second Book of Kings 

an ambush laid by the Edomites, from which escape was only 
made by cutting a way through the surrounding enemy and beating 
a hurried retreat. As to the precise wording of such a narrative 
the passage in its present state affords no sufficient clue. 

22. nm Dvn ny] Cf. I. 8. 8 note. 

m] Cf. I. 3. 16 note. 

n^] Cf. ch. 19. 8, from which it appears that the city was 
of strategical importance, probably lying south-wett of Judah upon 
the way to Egypt. Eusebius places Libna among the cities in 
the neighbourhood of Eleutheropolis. Cf. Buhl, p. 193. 

fconn run] Cf. I. 14. 1 note. 

8. 25-29. Ahaziah, king 0/ Judah. 

Ch. 8. 26-29 forms the basis of 2 Chr. 22. 2-6. R D vv. 25-27. 

25. TTWy DW] Ch. 9. 29 mpy nn«. So in the present 
passage, Luc, Pesh. 

26. Dwi nn^y] || 2 Chr. dwi n^yrw. 

HEy ru] Luc. corrects Bvyar-qp 'Axaa/3, in accordance with 
v. 18. T\2, however, probably has here the more general sense 
of ' descendant! Cf. I. 15. 2. 

27. f V\ inn -O] LXX omits. || 2 Chr. JPBhnb fflfgt rWH iBK *3. 

28. iyi?a nrra] Cf. II. 22. 3 »<?/<?. 

D^tf] We should naturally expect D^l^n. || 2 Chr. has 
the strange B*E>!n, which LXX, Luc. represent by ol rogorai, i.e. 
D N "ten 'the archers'; cf. 1 Sam. 31. 3; 2 Sam. 11. 24. This 
reading is very probably original. So Klo. 

29. inD 1 ] The use of the imperf. seems to be inexplicable; cf. 
Ew. § 346°, note 2 ; Dri. Tenses, § 27 7. \\ 2 Chr. ^J}. 

Dnrw] LXX and |[ 2 Chr. omit. 

9. 1 — 10. 28. Jehu t an officer of the host of Israel, is anointed 
king at the command of Elisha. He destroys the whole house of 
A had, and extirpates Bdal-worship fro?n Israel. 

9. 2. NVT] fa-u-a apal Hu-um-ri-i, i.e. 'Jehu son of Omri' (cf. 
I. 16. 23 note), is twice mentioned in the cuneiform inscriptions 
of Shalmaneser II, as bringing tribute to the Assyrian king. The 

VIII. 22 — IX. ii 297 

first inscription is found upon the obelisk, above a representation 
of the embassy presenting the tribute before Shalmaneser. In 
the second inscription {Annals, III, Rawlinson 5, no. 6, 40-65), after 
an account of the conquest of Hazael of Damascus, Shalmaneser 
states that 'at that time I received the tribute of the Tyrians, 
Sidonians, of Jehu son of Omri.' Cf. Append. 4. It may be 
inferred, therefore, that the aid of Assyria had been solicited by 
Jehu to meet the encroachments of Hazael, to which brief reference 
is made in ch. 10. 32, 33, just as in later times it was solicited by 
Ahaz of Judah against the alliance of Israel and Aram; ch. 16. 
6 ff.; cf. Isa. 7. 1-9. 

-nm inn] Cf. I. 20. 30 note, 

3. bvnw bi(] A large number of Codd. 'read by for bit, both 
here and in v. 12. Other examples of the confusion between 
7K and by are noticed on I. 13. 29 note. 

4. N'QJn nv^n] ""lyjn st. constr. with the article, through erroneous 
approximation to the preceding ljj3n. Cf. Ko. Syntax, §303 c. 

6-10. The hand of R D is very apparent in vv. 8, 9. Cf. notes on 
I. 14. 1-18. 

7. nrvani] LXX, Luc. ko\ e^oXofyciWt?, i.e. probably iVnzjni 1 ; 
cf. 2 Chr. 22. 7. So Klo., Kamp., Kit., Benz. 

After "pilX LXX adds €K Trpoaamov <rov, Luc. eK 7rpoara7rov [xov. 

TlDpDl] LXX, Luc. read 2nd pers. 'and thou shalt avenge/ 
making the same change in v. 8 TrorV). MT. is preferable. 

8. niKl] Vulg., Pesh., Targ. presuppose WJ3W 'and I will 
destroy.' LXX, Luc. koi i< x* l P°s> i-e. ^Ity, accepted by Klo., Oort. 

10. bxyrw pbra] Cf. I. 21. 23 note. 

11. iDN v i] All Verss. presuppose ViDK 5 !, correctly. 

Dv^n] Luc. adds kcu elncv avrols Elprjpr], kcu cIttov avra — an 
unnecessary redundancy. 

jttP»n] Cf. Hos. 9. 7 ; Jer. 29. 26. 

IIW] ' His conversation/ Cf. Ps. 104. 34, and the use of the 
verb Job 12. 8; at. 

1 'E£o\(6p(vuv occurs only once as a rendering of rrsn, viz. Josh. 11. 14, 
whereas it is constantly employed (as in v. 8) to represent nnDn. 

298 The Second Book of Kings 

12. bvTW* ?tii] Luc. em top Xaov pov 'laparjX. Cf. V. 6. 

13- rivy?on D"0 7tf] The meaning is very uncertain. Ges., Ew., 
Ke., upon the analogy of the use of BJV, suppose that the ex- 
pression may mean ' upon the steps themselves] i. e. c upon the bare 
steps.' Gra. emends 'DPI DiiD'by ' upon the elevation of the steps/ 

14k. Diw] Very probably Gra. is correct in substituting WiT 
for D^V : — ' Now Jehu was keeping Ramoth Gilead . . . but Jehoram 
had returned to be healed &c.' 

15. D3^QJ W* DX] 'If it be your mind,' i.e. If ye are desirous 
of making me king. LXX, Luc. add per ipov, but this is un- 
necessary. Many Codd. read D3£>D3 DK, as in Gen. 23. 8. 

TJ7] Kt. Tap, with n syncopated after the preposition 7. Cf. 
G-K. § 53 ?• 

16. HDP 335?] In place of these words LXX, Luc. present a 
second rendering of v. i5 a — clearly a marginal gloss which has 
usurped the place of the true reading. Notice (OepaneveTo for 

(ineaTpe\f/'€V . . . laTpev6r)vai — dno ru>v ro^fvparcov lav KarcTo^tvcrav civtov 
for dno tcov Trkr^ySav fav enaiaav avrov — 01 'Apapuiv for ol Ivpoi. LXX 
rounds off the gloss with on dvvaros Ka\ dvfjp dvvdpecos, 

'ai nVflNl] On the order of sentence expressing the pluperfect 
cf. note on I. 14. 5. 

17. iron "ON nya^] nyaP is either a mistake for nys^ owing 
to the previous occurrence of the st. constr., or else, as Klo., Kamp., 
Benz., Kit., Oort suggest, a genitive, sc. CKO- , has fallen out. nys>u> 
probably denotes a coinpany or multitude, agreeably to the use of 
the word in Isa. 60. 6 ; Ezek. 26. 10 l . So Luc. o^Ao?, Vulg. 
globtim, and most moderns. LXX, however, renders Kovioprov 2 , 
and so Kit. 

18. Dliw] Cf. ch. 5. 21 note. 

'jl *]7 n»] 'What hast thou (as an emissary of Ahab's son) 

1 The root yen? in Aram, means to overflow, and accordingly the subs, nrcc? 
is used in Heb. of overflowing or abundance of water, Job 22. 11 ; 38. 34 ; TE© 
Deut. 33. 19. 

2 Luc. in the first occurrence has a doublet rbv tcovioprbv rod ox^ov. The 
original reading must obviously have been tov oxXov. 

IX. 12-24 299 

to do with peace?' — the implication (cf. v. 22) being 'How can 
peace exist so long as the house of Ahab exists ? ' Cf. the phrase 
■jh h HO I. 17. 18 note. 

Dn-ny] We ought probably to read BJTJ. Cf. Job 32. 12 0?^. 

20. DiT^K ny] Cf. the phrase !> 7$ I. 18. 29 »<?/*. 

pyjBa] ' Madly/ or, as RV., ' furiously.' So 'A. iv napanX^ia, 
2. draKTas, Vulg. praeceps, Pesh. ks^loc*;m:*>, and probably LXX, 
Luc. iv irapaWayji 1 . In contrast, Targ. renders n"02 ' quietly,' and 
this interpretation is adopted by Jos. {Ant. ix. 6, § 3) : — axoXairfpov 

8e kcu fier fVTCi£-tas (odevev 'Itjovs. 

an^] Probably describing Jehu's habit: — 'he is wont to drive/ 
In description of a (single) present event we should of course 
expect 3ni jfln. 

22. CJl^n n»] For the sense 'What peace?' (RV.) we should 
expect Dv$'np } and this is adopted by Klo., Kit., who suppose 
that the n before Dw has come in by dittography. Benz., following 
Targ., vocalizes Qv^H ■""?, explaining 'Jehu answers: Between us 
there can be no " How do you fare ? " so long as &c.' But 
the sense assigned to &vt?n is not that which it possesses in this 
connexion* Cf. note on ch. 5. 21. 

':i 'OUT ny] The sense of *iy is ' at ' or c during! Cf. Judg. 3. 26 
Dntpnpnn iy 'During their delay'; Jon. 4. 2 W]fcH>g VrtYpJJ 
' Whilst I was {during my being) in my country.' Gra.'s emenda- 
tion Dy for ny is unnecessary. LXX en, i.e. ^'V (so Klo.), is greatly 
inferior to MT. 

23. VT '* "]Sm] Cf. I. 22. 34. 

24. n^pl IT tfta] 'Armed (\\t filled) his hand with the bow.' 
Cf. 2 Sam. 23. 7 Win ft*] ^ K ^?* 'arms himself with iron and a 
spear's shaft ' — ' lit. fills himself, viz. in so far as the hand using 
the weapon is concerned' (Dri. ad loc.)*. 

1 The subs, occurs again in 'A.'s rendering of Job 4. 13* Iv irapa>.\ayais 
atro opapariaixwv vvktos, i.e. probably 'In trances of visions of the night.' Cf. 
2. kv (Kir\r)£u curb 6pan&Ta)V WKTCpivwv. 

2 It should, however, be remembered that the context of this passage is very 
dubious, and that n^ disappears under Budde's emendation. 

300 The Second Book of Kings 

"•Vnn] So in i Sam. 20. 36, 37 (twice), and 38 Kt. for the usual 


25. 7\vhw\ Cf. I. 9. 22 note. 

'HI "OT *] LXX, Luc, Vulg., Pesh. presuppose »3K "3 •»:« 13! ^3 
'31 'For I remember that I and thou &c.' This is probably 
correct, MT. being due to homoioteleuton. 

D'HDtf D s 33"i nx] The impossible nx must be rejected as ditto- 
graphy of the preceding nnK. The use of the pi. E 1 *!?? 'pairs' 
is inexplicable. Ges.-Buhl, making a new division of the letters 
nn«»nDV, reads ^in^O 10V, and Kit., while rightly rejecting *WMQ t 
favours the sing. HEW ' as a pair,' i. e. ' together/ and thinks that 
the pi. may have arisen through assimilation to the preceding 
pi. D\33T. Possibly DHDV ought to be vocalized as a passive 
participle DH*J? (D V T?V?) ' joined/ i. e. ' in company.' 

26. 'ill N^> DN] Cf. I. 20. 23 note. 

27. man ins Da] It is necessary to follow Pesh. and add ^3/1, 
which has fallen out through similarity to the preceding word. 
So most moderns. Vulg. makes the insertion after rQ3"lDn 7N, 
and LXX, Luc. supply it in place of\T\27\. 

Dy?3 s ] A city of Manasseh west of Jordan, Josh. 1 7.** 1 ; Judg. 
I.27, called &y?3 in 1 Chr. 6. 55 ; the modern Bel'ame, six hours 
north of Ndblus. Baed. 262; Buhl, 102, 201 f 

28. VTDN DV] LXX, Luc. omit. 

29. 'V\ nJtfOl] A redactional notice. Cf. ch. 8. 25 note. Luc. 

adds Kal iviavTov eva e^acriXevaev iv 'lcpovaaXrjn after 8. 26. 

30. 'y\ DOTH] ' And set her eyes in stibium! "^3 is the kohl of 
the Arabs (cf. the verb i>n3 Ezek. 23. 40), i.e. sulphide of antimony 
reduced to a black powder which is mixed with oil and used 
for painting the eye-lashes and brows, in order to make the eyes 
appear large and dark. Cf. Jer. 4. 30 ^TV. ^ 3 ? % V"l fP-T* ~ ** ^ ' though 
thou enlargest thine eyes with stibium! Benz. Archaologie, no. 

31. 'y\ n»T Dliwi] RV. rightly, 'Is it peace, thou Zimri, thy 
master's murderer?' It is idiomatic in Heb. to change to the 3rd 
pers. after an opening vocative. Cf. cases cited by Dri. Tenses z § 198, 
Obs. 2, and add Isa. 51. 7 and Job 18. 4 (with inverted order). 

IX. 2 j — X. i 301 

Dv5?n, as Th. rightly emphasizes, must have the same sense 
as in vv. 17, 18, 19, 22. Jezebel reminds Jehu of the speedy fate 
of Zimri (I. 16. 9-18), and gives him the opportunity of making 
peace with her, the hitherto all-powerful mistress of the kingdom. 
To give to DvBV] the meaning ' How fare you ? ' deprives the 
queen of her policy. 

32. *D TIN V3] 'Who is with me, who?' i.e. on my side. For 
this use of n« cf. ch. 6. 16 ; Isa. 43. 5 ; 63. 3 ; Jer. 1. 19; Ps. 12. 5. 
The reading of LXX, Luc. Tit d <jv; Kard^rjOi per e/xoO (Luc. npos 
fie) probably has its origin in a double rendering of TN, vocalized 
in the first place as ^N, while KardfirjOi may answer to the second 
ifi read as H"]. Klo. makes Kard^Oi the equivalent of Hl^j a 
corrupt reading of s Tl$, and so emends ^V "£nijl ^N ^ * Who art 
thou, that thou wouldest contend with me?' — a reading in no way 
comparable to MT. 

nvhw DW] ' Two or three/ Cf. Isa. 17. 6 . ♦ . Dnfl| n^ D?3B> 
n^pn nV2")N ' Two or three berries . . . four or five.' LXX, Luc. 
omit TWfpW. 

33. fiaDOTl] Verss. rfiDB"]n, rightly making the horses the 

36. nay] LXX omits. 

37. r>^n] Kt. should probably be vocalized ftjn, the older form 
of the 3rd fern. sing. perf. of verbs FT? which occurs in a few other 
cases: — nb>y Lev. 25. 21; nrin Lev. 26. 34; n*6n Ezek. 24. 12; 
n^n Jer. 13. 19. 

':i ntDN' 1 N? 1B>n] Vulg., by omission of the negative, ila ut prae- 
tereunles dicant : Haeccine est ilia Iezabel ? Luc. adds ml ovk. i'o-rai 
6 \eyav O'lfioi. 

10. 1. 3NnN^i] According to the contents of Jehu's letter, vv. 2, 
3, the seventy princes are sons of Jehoram rather than of Ahab. 
Cf. the phrases tiatfUC \J3 and 1*3N KB^S?. Thus Sta. (ZATW., 
1885, pp. 279/".) regards v. i a as a later and erroneous gloss. 
It is not, however, unreasonable to suppose that frasi is here used 
not in the strictly literal sense, but of descendants of Ahab in any 
degree (cf. OJ^jpN 1V3 y. 3), any one of whom might have been 

302 The Second Book of Kings 

set up to resist the usurper. Cf. note following on the use of 
the number seventy. Jehu's commission (c/i. 9. 7) is explicitly not 
against Jehoram but against the house of Ahab, and to describe 
the members of this house no other term could have been chosen 
by the writer than 3NnK *$f, 

D^2 D s y2E>] It is remarkable that seventy is the number of the 
sons of Gideon-Jerubba'al, Judg. 8. 30^., and of the relations 
of Bar-Qur of Ya'di (Panammu inscription, /. 3 : D. H. Muller, 
Die altsemit. Inschr. von Sends chirli), who, in each case as here, 
are massacred to secure succession to the throne. Possibly, there- 
fore, as Muller {op. at., p. 9) suggests, seventy is a round number 
to denote the whole of the royal kin \ 

D*OpTn ?NSnP "H^ ?tf] Luc. npos tovs aTparqyovs Ttjs noXeas Kai 
rrpbs tovs 7rp(o~(3vTe'povs z , Vulg. ad optimates civitatis, et ad maiores 
natu, i.e. D^rr^ *vyn nbr^_ ce rtainly correct: cf. v. 5 MT. 
?Njnr of MT. has arisen from a mistaken combination of the letters 
PNWyri. Jehu was himself at Jezreel, and would scarcely have 
sent a letter to the authorities of that city with regard to the royal 
princes who were in Samaria. So Klo., Kamp., Benz., Kit. 

2Xntt D'ODNH 7sVi] Luc. Kal npos tovs ti6t)vovs twu vl<ov 'A^aa/3, i. e. 

3NnK ^2-m D^rr^ 5 probably correct. So Klo., Kamp., 
Benz., Kit. 

2. nnjn] Cf. ch. 5. 6 note. 

1MD Ty] LXX, Luc, Vulg., Pesh., Targ. TOD ny. So Jos., 
and Th., Klo., Kamp., Benz., Kit. 

5. n^nn by -raw] Cf. I. 4. 6 note. 

!"l^y] LXX, Luc. noirjo-ofiev. 

6. rYOtf] Several Codd., and LXX, Luc. *W— ' a second letter.' 
DD'OIK ^1 ^JN] As the text stands, the first st. constr. is in 

apposition to the second (suspended construct state) — ' The men, 
the sons of your master.' Cf. Da. § 28, Rem. 6. Possibly s WtK is 

1 In Judg. 12. 13/". the descendants of Abdon are seventy; forty sons and 
thirty grandsons, riding upon seventy asses. 

2 LXX agrees with Luc., except in the substitution of ^a/xapdas for ttjs 
rruXfoos, an alteration made for the sake of precision. 

X. 2-i) 3°3 

merely a doublet of 'Wi. Kamp., Oort omit the word. Sta. emends 

K )V3 HP3X. Luc. Xa/3/ro ckckttos ttju Ke(f>a\fjP rov vlov rov Kvpiov atroO, 

i.e. probably D^rtf!} Bfc'rnK Bty inp; adopted by Benz., Kit. as 
far as regards the use of S5*N . 

WQl] LXX, Luc., Pesh. W?rn 'and bring (them).' So Th., 
Sta., Klo. 

7. IBrW] LXX, Luc, Pesh. Q^nf?^ correctly :— ' slew them, 
even seventy men.' 

CHVnn] <In baskets': so all Verss. On the use of the article 
cf. I. 1. 1 no/eon D'lJfH. 

8. *]tftan] ' The messenger.' Cf. I. 13. 14 note. 

W17\\ LXX *HvcyKa — probably an easy alteration of MT. 

9. f y\ i"Dn *£>)] It is assumed that the populace know who were 
the perpetrators of the massacre, but not the fact that Jehu was 
the instigator of it. The inference is therefore clear to fair- 
minded men (&££ ^i?" 5 !?) that this is no case of the unscrupulous 
securing of his own interests by a single individual, but that 
circumstances are working together to bring about the destruction 
of the house of Ahab {v. 10). 

11. IvTl 731] Luc. kcu Travras tovs ayxuTTtvovTas avrov, i.e. 

VjwiTTD] 'even all his kinsmen': — probably correct; cf. I. 16. 11 
note. So Klo. 

W'H] Cf. ch. 3. 25, note 2. 

12. '}) Dp*)] By the side of *"J7% 82^1 is redundant; at least we 
should expect it to folloiv *p^ and immediately precede ]\"\W, as in 
Pesh. LXX, Luc, Vulg. omit N2^1, probably correctly. Perhaps 
the word is a corruption of WHJ. So Klo., Benz., Kit. 

*lpy 3VD] The rendering of RV. ' shearing house,' marg. ' house 
of gathering' (Targ. W03 1T2), is merely conjectural. The verb 
lpy, Gen. 22. 9I*, means, as in New Heb., Ar., and Aram., to bind. 

13. 5OT1] Read WH1, with Dri. Tenses, § 169, 05s. 2. The events 
described by v. 1 2 b and v. 1 3 a are thus pointedly synchronized in 
accordance with the idiom of the language: — 'He was at Beth- 
'eqed of the shepherds by the way, when he found &c' Cf. 

1 Sam. 9. 11; Judg. 18. 3; Gen. 38. 25. It is noticeable that 

304 The Second Book of Kings 

Luc, Vulg. omit the proper name, and may thus be regarded as 
supporting the emendation l . 

DvBv] The expression which ordinarily has the meaning ' to 
enquire after' is 'fi 0%b bxvb ; 2 Sam. 11. 7 ; 1 Sam. 10. 4 ; 17. 
22 ; al. If this phrase in full was originally written in our passage, 
the omission of 7NB9 is earlier than the Verss., all of which agree 
with MT. 

14. D^n &1B*BJVl] LXX omits; Luc, Pesh. apparently read 
DIPSIVI simply. 

ipy ivn nn 5>K] LXX, Luc omit 113. 

1 5' inN")p/>J Luc iv rfj 68a> epxofxevov els aTrdvrrjcriv avrov. *nT»^ 

(if not a doublet of 23^"l?) ma y De original: epxofievov, like Ji/ *o 
of Pesh., is due to the translator. 

'J1 B>"»n] Doubtless we ought to follow LXX, Luc in reading 
"IB* '•nnpTlS ^nnp BPV], thus securing a perfect parallelism with the 
following clause. So Th., Klo., Benz., Oort. Kamp., Kit. adopt 
the less probable order ^"HX n^J ^jnnb B>vt. 

t^l] * " If it be " (said he).' The writer regards it as sufficiently 
evident that '31 K?.} is the response to the preceding jh« Cf. I. 20. 
34. Probably the additions of LXX, Luc kcu cmev Elov, Luc. ica« 
umv civ™ *lov, Vulg. inquit, Pesh. ©^ «je{o (tf/kr £*}, which is 
assigned to Jonadab as though w\ w meant ' It is indeed ! ') are 
due in each case to the translator. 

With «*} cf. *6j ^. 5. 17 note, 

16. inx nr^] Read Ink a§"p with LXX, Luc, Pesh. So Th., 
Oort. taN nrm Klo., Kamp., Benz. ; folN tajPJS Kit. 

17. nD^n-ny] cf. »<?/* 2 on 3. 25. 

18. 1J*l2y NlrT 1 ] Luc kcu eyoo dovXeixra avrcp, Vulg. ego autem 
colam eum; — inferior to MT. 

19. VHIiy ?D] Klo., Kamp., Benz., Kit. cut out the two words 
as an erroneous insertion from v. 21. Jehu summons the prophets 

1 It is certain that Vulg., reading NS£ wrn, would have left the pronoun 
unexpressed, and rendered, as is actually the case, invenit. Cf. in Vulg. the 
other cases of the idiom cited. That the same course may have been followed 
in the Greek may be inferred from the rendering of Gen. 38. 25. 

X. i 4 -2j 305 

and priests of Ba'al, who are commanded to proclaim a solemn 
assembly, to which the worshippers in general are summoned 
(v. 20 f.). It is noticeable that in Luc. m\ iravras rovs bovkovs avrov 
folkws Kai rovs Upels avrov, as though inserted from the margin. 
20. IK-ip^i] LXX, Luc, Vulg. sing. &$% 
ai. LXX erroneously expands the verse from v. 19. 
nsf? f!B] Ch.2\. i6t. 

22. nnrpon] The context demands the meaning 'wardrobe'; 
cf. Vulg. vestes. In Eth. h.M*'h\ 'ettdh denotes a kind of tunic ; cf. 
Dillmann, Lexicon, 45 f, 

Pntan] LXX, Luc. 6 o-roXto-rfo i.e. Btaiw. 

23. '* "•inyD] Luc. adds Kai igairooreiXaTe avrovs. Ka\ cittov Ovk 

efo\v K.r.X.; adopted by Klo. 

24. 1n:m] LXX sing. Ka\ dtrrj\0ev. Cf. the sing, reference to 
Jehu as the chief offerer in #.25 in?33. So Klo., Sta., Kamp., 
Benz., Kit. Luc. places 24 a after 24b, and adds, after tlo-rjXdov, the 
gloss «y top oIkov tov npoa-oxOia-fiaTos. Elsewhere in the context 

?JQ=BaaA, never npoaoxOia-fia. 

0*3©B>] Luc. rpio-xiMovs, Pesh. ^.»Lv>lo ])l»I^L, 380. 

'31 tPWl] As B.c^ is vocalized, the sentence is extremely difficult. 
Read B?EJ with Th., Klo., Kamp., Benz., Kit.: — 'The man who 
suffers to escape any of the men, &c., his life shall be for his life.' 

WT bv] 'Into (lit. upon) your hands.' So, after JH3, Gen. 42. 
37; after Tan, Jer. 18. 21; Ezek. 35. 5; Ps. 63. 11. 

25. in!>M] Pesh. oi-si^^, i.e. Orfep. 

tw5>] Cf. 1. 1. 5 w/*. 

D^^l] Cf. I. 9. 22 note. 

137^1] The object is missing. RV., ' cast them out,' finds the 
reference to be to the corpses of the slain ; but it is reasonable to 
expect this to be more precisely indicated. Klo. is right in finding 
the object of )?hw) to lie concealed under D^^OTI OWl, the 
repetition in detail of the subject of the verb in MT. being scarcely 
less strange than the omission of the object. He ingeniously 
suggests OntPKn n2HK wE^l 'and they cast the Asherim down 
to the ground.' This restoration, however, is not very likely to 


306 The Second Book of Kings 

represent the original if the emendation adopted in v. 26 be 
correct, which thus makes reference to the (single) Ashera of 
the temple. 

'ai T>y ny] ' To the city of the house of Ba'al ' can hardly be 
correct. Klo.'s emendation '31 "TC3TTJJ ' to the adytum, &c.' (cf. 
I. 6. 16 note), is very suitable to the context, though it is illegitimate 
to cite the rendering of Luc. «W tov vaov tov BdaX in support of the 
emendation l . The other Verss. agree with MT. 

26. ryQVD] The Verss. presuppose a sing. J"D^P, in accordance 
with the suffix of mai^. But, as Sta. (ZATW., 1885, p. 278) 
remarks, the stone Mac^eba cannot have been burnt, and it is 
therefore probable that we ought to substitute n"}K*X ' the Ashera 
of the house of Ba'al/ in accordance with I. 16. 33, 2KnN b>y»l 
ni^rrriK : c f. ch. 23. 6. So Kamp., Benz., Kit., Oort. On the 
character of the Ashera cf. I. 14. 15 note. 

27. rOVE] Sta., Kamp., Benz., Kit. emend H2JD, the first com- 
paring I. 16. 32, and, for the expression TOTE fTO, Ex. 34. 13; 
Deut. 7. 5 ; 12. 3 ; Judg. 2. 2 ; 6. 28^". Mention of the destruction 
of the altar is to be expected, supposing the clause to be not merely 
a doublet of that which follows (Klo.), which it resembles somewhat 

nwnnD?] Kt. nitqnpij. 

10. 29-36. Summary of Jehus reign: his character and his 

foreign relations. 
R D vv. 28-31, 34-36; vv. 32, 33 summarized from the Annals. 
29. DHTn ^ay] '(Namely) the golden calves/ in apposition to 
'"• " , ND!"!. Vulg., with a view to make the connexion more clear, 
inserts nee dereliguit, Targ. 7 liyiWN. 

32. Dnn Wl] The same phrase is used by R D in ch. 15. 37 ; 
20. 1. Cf. note on I. 3. 16. 

1 TO in I. 6. 5, 16, 19, ax, 23, 31; 7. 49; 8. 8 appears as 8a(3(ip; and, 
assuming that rod vaov could answer to "m, as in Ps. 28 (LXX 27). 2, rva 
remains unrepresented, and "wan T:n simply is scarcely likely to have been read 
by the translator. 

X. 26— XI 307 

b\XW*l niVpi>] ■ To cut Israel short/ lit. ' to cut off in Israel.' 
The expression is strange, though Hab. 2. 10 Ml D^y ntep 
affords an instance of the use of the verb JlSp in this sense. The 
original reading is probably preserved by Vulg. taedere super Israel, 
i.e. ^n^2 yyfy <to loathe Israel'; cf. Gen. 27. 46 *B? W5, 
Taedet me vitae meae. So Klo. Targ. rPttn 5|priD? seems to have 
read I^P? ' to be angry with/ and this is adopted by Th., Kamp., 
Benz., Kit. 

33. f % JTWI |»] The double mention of Ijfan introduces 
confusion, and Gra., Buhl. (Geogr. 70) simplify the description 
by cutting out the first Tjj^n, and also the 1 before the second. 
The fact that, at the time of the fall of Omri's dynasty, Rama 
of Gilead appears to have been the most northern point of Israel's 
dominions east of Jordan causes some critics (cf. Sta. ZA TW., 
1885, p. 279; Benz., Kit.) to regard the verse, either as a whole 
or in part, as a later addition. 

33 b . '31 ijpyo] The same description of the position of "^JPJJ, 
with the addition of flBfe> before bf£, is found in Deut. 2. 36 ; 3. 12; 
4.48; Josh. 12. 2; 13. 9, 16. The site of 'Aro'er is found in 
a heap of ruins called 'Ardir, south of Dibdn, and standing on 
a hill on the northern side of the ravine of Arnon. Buhl, 269. 

*75&3m] Luc. adds rat 'ia/SJic. 

34. irniM ?yi] LXX, Luc. add rat ras (Luc. at) crvvd^ts ds 
uvvn+cp, i.e. ~W\> ffc nfi?1. Cf. I. 16. 20; ch. 15. 15. 

36. At the end of the verse Luc. adds eV era Bevrfpa rfc TodoXlas 
fiaaikevfi Kvpios top 'loi> vlbv Na^etfi, and then continues with 
a summary account of Ahaziah's reign, derived in the main from 
ch. 8. 2§ff., with a brief mention of the events of ch. 9 in so far 
as they concern the death of Ahaziah. 

11. Aihaliah the queen-mother usurps the throne of Judah. At 
the end of six years fehoiada the priest effects a revolution, and sets 
fehoash, the rightful heir, upon the throne. 

Ch. 11 forms the basis of 2 Chr. 22. 10 — 23. 21. 
This chapter and its sequel, ch. 12. 5-17, form, with chh. 16. 

x 2 

308 The Second Book of Kings 

10-16; 22. 3 — 23. 25, a series of Judaean narratives which reflect 
prominently the influence of the priests as conservators of the 
religion of Yahwe, and in which the interest centres to a great 
extent round the Temple at Jerusalem. ' Probably therefore, 
as Sta. suggests, the source from which the narratives were drawn 
may have been the Temple-archives. 

Sta. (ZATW., 1885, pp. 280/*.) has pointed out that ch. 11 
is probably a combination of two narratives. The first, vv. 4-12, 
i8 b -2o, is a continuous whole; the second, vv. i3-i8 a , merely 
a fragment. According to the first, Jehoiada effects the revolution 
by the aid of the royal bodyguard (ET} 1 ?) ; in the second, it is the 
people (Ey?) who are prominent. The insertion of TT\\} in v. 13 
in apposition to bV\} is clearly a redactional device, and traces 
of the redactor's hand are also to be found in v. 15 (see ad loc). 

The recognition of this composite character of the narrative 
explains certain difficulties which are patent if it be read as 
a continuous whole. Thus, it cannot be thought that the destruc- 
tion of the temple of Ba'al (v. i8 a ) took place between the 
anointing and enthronement of Jehoash. It would naturally occur 
after the measures taken against Athaliah, and not as an episode 
in their course. Again, it is difficult to understand why the setting 
of a guard over the Temple (v. i8 b ) should have been necessary 
after the death of Athaliah (vv. 15, 16). The purpose of such 
a guard can only have been to protect the Temple against the 
danger of an attack by the queen and her adherents. It is strange, 
also, if the narrative be a whole, that there should be two accounts 
of the death of Athaliah; vv. 15, 16 and v. 20 b . 

The main difference between the two narratives seems to be 
that while the fragment emphasizes the religious importance of the 
revolution, the continuous narrative regards it purely as an event 
of civil importance. This difference does not set the two accounts 
at variance ; the religious revolution may well have followed in 
the train of the civil. 

The parallel narrative of 2 Chr. has been considerably expanded 
in parts by the editor, the priests and Levites being introduced 

XL i-s 309 

and made to take the place which is occupied in Kings by the 
royal bodyguard. 

11. 1. nnfcOl] Omit 1 with Q're and || 2 Chr. 

^nNni] II 2 Chr. "»ai$!, a scribal error. 

2. yUKnrp] || 2 Chr. ny^iiT. She is there stated to have been 

jnbn wSr\> new. 
it.- TT . ...... 

rwntf p] LXX vlbv dfeXcpov avrfs, i.e. ^¥"1?- Luc combines 
the two readings. 

inpJE nN1 inN] || 2 Chr. prefixes ?TO, which is indispensable. 
So Ew., Th., Klo., Kamp., Benz., Kit. 

)m TOD^] LXX, Luc, Vulg., Pesh. Sm -inoni. So || 2 Chr. 

4. jnw] Luc adds 6 Upcvs, i.e. KPD, as in vv.qjf. The 
specification is necessary unless it be supposed that the narrative 
originally contained an earlier reference to Jehoiada, such as that 
of || 2 Chr. noticed on v. 2. 

nVKDn] Kt. only again vv. 9, 10, 15. Ko. discusses the form 
and concludes that the ' is merely euphonic, meySth for me'dth, 
representing the pronunciation adopted for the avoidance of hiatus, 
as in Aramaic. Lehrg, I. i. p. 217; cf. p. 481. 

*~oV\ So z>. 19 and 2 Sam. 20. 23 Kt. Probably the Carians 
are denoted. Cf. R. Sm. OTJC?, p. 262 note. 

D s ¥"ta] Cf. I. 1. 5 note. 

* n"Q2 ♦ ♦ ♦ n^O* 11 )] LXX Kal biedero avTots dtadrjKrjv Kvplov Kal 
& P K<o<r€v, i.e. tim VZ&l] "* Tina Dr6 rfljjl, probably correct. '* n\33 
at the end is superfluous, while '* n^S may be paralleled from 
1 Sam. 20. 8. So Klo. 

5-7. As Wellh. (C. 361) points out, v. 6 is clearly a gloss, the 
'jn niT "W of z>. 7 answering to 'l) n^^n of v. 5. By removal 
of this insertion, and reading ^$P\ (as in v. 5) for Vioeh in z>. 7, 
we obtain an intelligible text in vv. 5, 7, 8 : — ' And he commanded 
them, saying, This is the thing which ye shall do ; the third part 
of you who go in on the Sabbath and keep the guard of the king's 
house, and the two divisions of you, even all who go forth on the 
Sabbath and keep the guard of the House of Yahwe about the king, 

310 The Second Book of Kings 

ye shall compass the king round about, &c.' The point is 
obviously that all the bodyguard is to be concentrated at the 
Temple, no part of it being at Athaliah's disposal at the palace : 
cf. v. 9. 

5. At the end LXX adds eV ra nvkwvi. 

6. ->1D "W2] II 2 Chr. ItoVi ip, 

riDD T^iri] The unintelligible nDD is omitted by LXX, and by 
|| 2 Chr. in the free explanation, nj.T TT>3 Tlftyna bjjfrfa}. Field 
cites a Schol. which states the existence of a reading d^/xeX^, i. e. 
^n, adopted by Kit. 

8. JiYYlPn 7tf] 'Up to the ranks/ i.e. the lines of men sur- 
rounding the king, suggested by the previous 'y\ Dnspni. The 
word is the same as New Heb. "HD, Aram. K^]?, ]>*». Vulg., 
septum iempli, misunderstands. || 2 Chr. JV3rVvK, 

10. rwnn] [| 2 Chr. DW?nn. So Th., Klo., Kamp., Benz., Kit. 
D^LD^n] RV., here as in the other occurrences of the word, 

' the shields' This rendering seems to be demanded by Song 4. 4, 
where D'Htaan ,, D?£> ?3 stands in explanatory apposition to *]?£ 
Jp.tfjn. Th. on 2 Sam. 8. 7 favours the more general meaning 
' armour/ and the same view is taken by W. E. Barnes, who 
classifies the ancient renderings of the word : Expos. Times, Oct. 
1898, pp. 43 f. The fact, however, that tPu>W (here and in 
Jer. 51. 11) occurs in connexion with other specified items of 
military equipment is against the view that the term is used in 
a general and not a special sense. According to LXX, Luc. 
in I. 14. 26, the 2Hjn ^uyp which David took from the servants 
of Hadadezer, king of Zoba, were carried off by Shishak, king of 
Egypt, during the reign of Rehoboam. Cf. note ad loc. 

11. rvaS?1 mro^] RV. c along by the altar and the house/ The 
meaning seems to be that the guards formed a semicircle extending 
from the south to the north corner of the Temple, and surrounding 
the brazen altar which stood before the Temple. Thus all the 
space between the porch and the altar would be enclosed. It is, 
however, highly doubtful whether 7 can bear the sense ' along by,' 
and whether, granted this sense, the writer would have chosen 

XL 5-15 311 

to convey the explanation given above in so obscure a manner. 
Pesh. represents MD ♦ ♦ . T\1Vch by \^o Ju^«Jtt ^iw ootoijo 
t*>\ v> ^o. If we may regard taCsao I^as as due to an 
erroneous explanation of rvan ' the house ' (i. e. the Temple) as 
'the king's house/ we obtain the good sense, T\)*?\ D?]*?2 2* 1 ?? 
' round about the altar and the Temple.' Wp seems to have 
been wrongly placed in MT., and then explained by the addition 
^IJfL 1 "^, a statement which at this stage of the proceedings is 

12. nnjjn] RV., following Verss., 'the testimony/ i.e., appar- 
ently, a written law-book, committed to the young king as head 
over the theocratic state ; cf. Deut. 17. 18^*. There is not, 
however, anywhere else allusion to such a custom as the laying 
of a book (?) upon (sc. the head of) a king at his coronation ; 
the term Ting is a late one ; and, if it represented the law of the 
kingdom embodied in a concrete form, it would be natural to 
expect that this fact would be more precisely indicated (e. g. "1SD 
fl , *"$ ! ?). Thus it is reasonable to suspect the text of corruption. 
Wellh. (C. 361) makes the happy emendation finyarn ( the bracelets? 
which formed, with "\J3n ' the diadem/ the royal insignia. Cf. 
2 Sam. 1. io 1 . 

13. D]?n |^nn] Obviously the two terms cannot stand together 
do-wdeToos. pnfl is a gloss, roughly inserted for the purpose of 
connecting the narrative with that which precedes. Cf. note on 
the composition of the narrative. Dyn is probably used in 
a military sense. Cf. I. 16. 15 note, 

14. I^on btfi] ''By the king/ For this sense of 7K cf. note on 
I. 6. 18. 

15. ^nn ^i?£>] LXX rois €Tri<Tic6iTois, i. e. *Ti?3, adopted by Sta., 
Kamp., Benz., Kit., is doubtless correct. MT. can only mean 
1 those of the army who were mustered? 

nVWDn ^it? HN is superfluous by the side of i^nn *Tpa, and must 
be regarded as a gloss from vv. 4, 9, 10, of the same character as 

1 Reading rnrarr for 7TW2t* } with Wellh., Dri., Budde, &c. 

312 The Second Book of Kings 

that noticed in v. 13. The same is probably the case with the words 
rmwb TV3D 7K', which seem to conflict with v. i5 b . The queen 
is to be taken outside the Temple, and therefore not inside the ranks 
which, according to v. 8, surround the king within the Temple. 

16. Dn v xh lE^l] 'And they laid hands on her.' So LXX, 
Luc, Vulg., Kamp., Benz., Kit. The rendering, ' And they made 
way (lit. place) for her,' Pesh., Targ., adopted among moderns by 
Ke., Th., Klo., AV. 5 RV., is not to be paralleled l . 

19. 3£»l] LXX, LUC. Ka\ €Kd0«rav avrov. So || 2 Chr. W&ft 

12. 1-4. Introduction by R D to the reign of Jehoash. 

Ch. 12. 1-3 = 2 Chr. 24. 1, 2. 

12. 1, 2. Luc. reads ^rPtnapa BfofirP in the synchronism of v. 2, 
and inserts v. 1, the statement of the king's age at accession, after 
the synchronism, thus conforming to the order which is constant 
elsewhere in the introductory formula. See Introduction. 

3. *V\ Wt] ' And Jehoash did that which was right in the sight 
of Yahwe all his days, forasmuch as Jehoiada the priest instructed 
him.' So Ew., Th. 2 , Kamp. The antecedent of "\VX is found in 
fc'fcnrv ; lit. 'he who Jehoiada instructed.' Cf. e.g. Gen. 42. 21 
WtO "TCPK ' we who saw ' (or, ' in that we saw '); Heb. Lex. Oxf, s.v. 
"tf5>N, 8 c. AV., RV., Kit, following LXX, Luc, Vulg., render 'all 
his days wherein Jehoiada the priest instructed him,' thus limiting 
the period of the king's good living to the life-time of Jehoiada, 
in accordance with || 2 Chr. 24. 2, fthn JTjjIiT ^'^3, and the 
narrative of 2 Chr. 24. 17-22 which relates the defection of 
Jehoash from the religion of Yahwe and his murder of the son 
of Jehoiada. But the normal method of expressing such a sense 

1 DH^ in Josh. 8. 20 does not mean place or room (Ges. Thes.), but power, 
as in Ps. 76. 6; singular T Deut. 32. 36. Cf. Dillmann, ad loc; Heb. Lex. Oxf. 

2 Pesh., Targ. are ambiguous in meaning, and cannot be cited, as by Th., 
in favour of this rendering. The accentuation of MT., however, in placing 
the principal break upon VDJ, is certainly intended to convey the meaning 

XL 16—XII. j 313 

would have been '31 1B& BWrba, as e.g. in 1 Sam. 1. 28. VD^bs 
is elsewhere in every occurrence used absolutely, without further 
definition, in the sense 'all his life long' : — 1. 15. 14, || 2 Chr. 15. 17; 
ch. 15. 18; 2 Chr. 18. 17; 34. 33; Deut. 22. 19, 29; Eccl. 2. 23; 
5. i6f. Moreover, as Ew. points out, it seems to be clear that 
R D was unacquainted with any narrative of the king's defection, 
for ' had this been so, then the older historical work must have 
told us how Joash showed himself faithless afterwards; but so 
far is this from being the case, that the piety of his successor 
is afterwards compared with his own, and that of both regarded 
as inferior to David's alone, 2 Ki. 14. 3 (the Chronicles omit this 
passage); even Uzziah is only treated as their equal, 2 Ki. 15. 3; 
2 Chr. 26. 4.' 

It is, of course, possible that the statement 'y\ imin 1£W may be 
an early marginal note intended to qualify the absolute W bl, 
in accordance with the narrative of Chr. This supposition is 
perhaps favoured by the reading of || 2 Chr. jnw W ?3, which 
looks like a limited explanation of W ?2 simply. 

4. 'ai m»nn pi] Cf. I. 3. 2, 3 note. 

12. 5-17. Measures taken by Jehoash for the repair of the House 


2 Chr. 24. 4-14 gives a different narrative of the same events. 

5. 'JI1 13W *1M] Very difficult. As the text stands, inly P|D3 
must mean 'current money' (RV.). Cf. Gen. 23. 16. Then the 
four following words are rendered by RV. 'the money of the 
persons for whom each man is rated'; marg. Heb. 'each man 
the money of the souls of his estimation.' The construction is here 
similar to that of Gen. 9. 5 VrtK B*K 'each man his brother,' 
i.e. 'each man's brother'; Gen. 15. 10 iina G^K 'each its half,' 
i.e. 'the half of each.' 

Luc. represents *Diy ♦ , ♦ 12iy ^D3 by apyvpiov crvvripfjaccoi dvBpos, 
apyvpiov o-vvrip.r)(Tf<os V^x^j *• e< '^ ®^ *Iv? *!??• ^ 1S certainly 
a great simplification of the text if we suppose, with Sta., Kamp., 
Benz., Kit., that these first three words, ' the money of each mans 

314 The Second Book of Kings 

assessment' (cf. Lev. 27. 2 ff.), represent the original text, and that 
IDiy 1WSJ *jD3 is an explanatory gloss which has come into the 
text as a doublet. 

5)D3 bl~\ It is necessary to insert 1 before 73,' and all the 
money &c.' The freewill offering of money which a man's heart 
prompts him to make is clearly distinct from the sum which is 
assessed by tariff. 

6. TOD DNB B^n] Apparently, 'each from his acquaintance/ 
RV. The scope with which ">3D (only again v. 8) is employed 
is highly obscure, and the word is justly regarded with suspicion 
by Kamp., Benz. LXX dno rrjs npda-ccos avrov (Luc. clvt&v) vocalizes 
V"DD ; Vulg.juxta ordinem suum (?). 

pin] 'Dilapidation/ Cf. ch. 22. 5; Ezek. 27. 9, 27. 

73v] ' For everything/ i. e. ' wherever 1 . 

9. ADi?] This form, in place of the ordinary nnj5 f appears here 
only. Ko. (Lehrg. II. i. 490) cites the similar segholate st. constr. 

forms Tin yi], yaa, yn^, ypn, nya. cf. G-K. § 93 h. 

10. *inN P"is] P"^, though vocalized as st. constr., can only be 
regarded as st. ads.; Kimhi's explanation, 'the chest of belonging 
to) some one/ being excluded by || 2 Chr. 24. 8 ins jilK &£}, and 
the statement of Ew., § 286 d , that 'the numeral *trtx one, though 
mostly used as an adjective, may nevertheless be subordinated to 
its noun, put in the construct state/ being in the present case 
inconceivable. Cf. Ko. Syntax, § 310^. Probably the vocaliza- 
tion here and in Lev. 24. 22, 1HK BS^'O, is merely an error of the 
punctuators, 'to inK nns II. 18. 24 (cf. note) is perhaps different. 

POTDn 7¥N] The statement that the chest was placed beside the 
altar seems scarcely to accord with the fact that it was given into 
the charge of the keepers of the threshold, who placed in it the 
money which they received from persons entering the House of 
Yahwe. Hence Sta., following the suggestion of the LXX trans- 
literation in Cod. A, a\L\ia<y$r), emends najftsn 7¥N, a suggestion 
favoured by Kamp., Kit., Oort. The fact that Macceboth existed 
subsequently in the Temple appears from chh. 18. 4; 23. $ff. Klo. 
emends nHTBn 7¥K 'beside the doorpost', and this agrees well with 

XII 6— XIII. / 315 

the following pBJ3 Kt., and is favoured by Benz., who objects to 
the former suggestion on the ground that Macceb5th usually stood 
in Semitic sanctuaries near the altar and not near the entrance. 

|| 2 Chr. 24. 8 !Wn 1 TV* ip. 

uroi] Frequentative, '«W /<? place. 1 So 0. 12. Cf. the 
imperfects of vv. 14-17. For the reversion to the imperf. with 
) consec. in vv. 11, i2 b cf. Dri. Tenses , § 114'. 

N2lEi"l] LXX, Luc. to evpeBev, as in z\ 11. 

11. TW] Luc. omits, while Pesh. places after UD^I. 

13. n*nD *J3N] So ch. 22. 6. 

'J1 72?)] 'And for all for which outlay should be made upon 
the house.' N^ "TO*, lit. 'for which it (i.e. *|Mn v. i2 a ) should 
go forth/ 

Hijjnp] ' For repair/ Probably the vocalization should be n'pfO? 
'to repair it'; cf. Luc, Pesh., Targ. So Klo., Benz. 

17. 'y\ DEW pjdd] The reference appears to be to fines in 

money. Cf. Wellh. Prolegomena, 73. 


12. 18-22. Closing events of the reign of Jehoash, summarized 

by R D . 
Ch. 12. 18-22 forms the substance of 2 Chr. 24. 23-27. 

18. rhp tn] Cf. I. 3. 16 note. 
21. ^D JV3] Cf. note on Nifen I. 9. 15. 

22. '31 -on\] || 2 Chr. nns^'H ^? n 1 n^ton nyD^-fa nnt 

• T - * 

13. 1-9. Jehoahaz, king of Israel. 

R D frames short notices from the Annals. 

13. 3. D^n bl] 'AH the days/ viz. of Jehoahaz. Cf. ngle on 
I. 5. 15. The statement is made rather loosely if the events of 
v. 5 belong to this reign. 

4. 'y\ S?IT1] For the expression cf. I. 13. 6 note. 

5. IN^l] Luc. Kai i&yaytv avrovs, i. e. D^ 5 1. 
D"W T nnHDJ LUC. adds Kai dn€(TTpd(f)r) opiov 'laparjX avroU. 

DiT^nxn] Not strictly ' in their tents/ but ' in their homes! Cf. 
I. 8. 66 ; Judg. 19. 9, and the phrase of I. 12. 16 ; 2 Sam. 20. 1. 


■ y 

316 The Second Book of Kings 

7. '}) nwn «i? '•a] The reference of *3 is to v. 4 b , and the 
subject of "VNtpn is not Yahwe (Th., Kamp., Kit.) nor Hazael 
(Benz.), but is indefinite pWEH; cf. I. 1. 6 note on rnij):— «For 
there was riot left to Jehoahaz &c/ So LXX, Luc. ofy wreXei^tfjj, 
Vulg. non sunt derelicti, Pesh. joor ja.r>l^/ JJ. 

Wl?] 'For treading/ Klo. emends p"V after Luc. em rov 
XenTvvOrjvai, and so Kamp., Benz., Oort. The change is unne- 

After v. 7 Luc. inserts #.23 of MT. Probably this is correct. 
The mention of Jehoash's successes against Aram would form 
a reason for transferring the verse from its position in Luc. to 
that which it occupies in MT., whilst no reason can be cited for 
the converse change. Again, it is clear that the position assigned 
by Luc. to vv. 12, 13 MT. is correct; and this creates a strong 
presumption in favour of the position of v. 23 in Luc. 

13. 10-25. Jehoash, king of Israel. 

R D vv. 10-13 ; tw0 Elisha-narratives from North Palestinian 
sources, vv. 14-19, 20, 21 ; short notices from the Annals framed 
by R D vv. 22-25. 

Vet. Lat. (Cod. Vind.) places 13. 14-21 between 10. 30 and 10. 
31, making the narrative refer not to Jehoash but to Jehu. 

10. SDd xwh® rotJO] This synchronism disagrees with the 
statement of v. 1, that Jehoahaz, who reigned seventeen years, 
came to the throne in the twenty-third year of Jehoash. We should 
therefore expect the synchronism to be ])Wr\) OWE? T\M2 'in the 
thirty-ninth year'; and this alteration agrees with ch. 14. 1, where 
the second year of Jehoash of Israel synchronizes with the 
accession of Amaziah. 

7W iTW W] Pesh. ^Jla, Jia^fc^i ' thirteen years/ 

12, 13. These two verses appear in Luc. at the close of the 
chapter, a position which, in accordance with the scheme of R D , 
is clearly correct. Luc. also replaces the unusual formula DJQ"V1 

1ND3 ?y 2VP in V. I3 a by the regular koi fftaariXevatu 'I. vlos avrov 

dvr avrov at the end of v. i3 b . 

XIII. J-2f 317 

The formula for the close of this reign is repeated in ch. 14. 
15, 16, where it is due to the preceding account of Jehoash in 
relationship to Amaziah. As this narrative, however, forms part 
of the history of the reign of Amaziah, the introduction of 
vv. 15, 16 breaks the connexion, and is probably the work of a 
later hand. The repetition is not found in Luc. 

14. 11 1W 1BW] Not, as RV., 'whereof he died/ but, 'whereof 
he was to die.' Cf. Dri. Tenses, § 39 /3. 

voa by 73*1] Cf. Gen. 50. 1 v^y 315 flag *$rbv p|Dl< b&\. 

r ft *3N] Cf. ch. 2. 12 note. 

i7 b . "W1 . ♦ ♦ "iD^l] LXX omits through oversight. 

PBN3] Cf. I. 20. 26 note. 

1 8. D^nn np] Luc. Aa/3e Tro/re /3eXi7. 

19. ]TDfv] '(It was) for smiting,' and so 'Thou shouldest have 
smitten.' Cf. 2 Sam. 4. 10 v ^n? 1B>K 'To whom (it was) for 
my giving/ i. e. ' To whom I should have given.' Dri. Tenses, 
§ 204. Klo/s emendation fl?n V } after the rendering of LXX, 
Luc. el iTraTaf;as, is unnecessary. 

D^DVD m IK £>En] Vulg. adds sive septus, 

20. IfcO^] Probably, 'kept on coming.' 

rw Nl] The text gives no sense, but LXX, Luc. ik66vros tov 
iviavTov suggest the emendation H3^n K33 'when the (new) year 
came.' Cf. the phrase of I. 20. 22, 26 HJtfn ni^BTO. Vulg. & 
2^0 tf««0, Pesh. wo* )ul*3 chs must have read PIJ$ HI as though 
for nj^3 pD, an Aramaic construction. Benz. emends H2$3 
'yearly '(?); Kit. njBfc n)£ 

21. '31 Dnnp DH \Tl] Cf. I. 13. 20 note. 

23. 'ai xxsbm vb\~\ Cf. ^. 17. 20 (R D ). 

24. "01 nn p 1^1] Winckler {A It test. Untersuchungen, 66) 
gives reasons for identifying this king with Mart ', king of 
Damascus, who was brought into subjection by the Assyrian 
king Ramman-nirari III in his campaign against the nations of 
the West, between b. c. 806-803. Cf. KB. i. 191; Winckler, 
Keilinschrift. Textbuch, \2f. 

25. talB* 'Hy ntf] Luc. adds kq\ 6aa Tkafcv. 

318 The Second Book of Kings 

14. 1-22. Amaziah, king of Judah. 

Ch. 14. 1-14, 17-22 = 2 Chr. 25. 1-4, 11, 17-28; 26. 1, 2. 

R D embodies short notices from the Annals, together with a com- 
plete narrative {vv. 8-14 ; cf. p. 215) from an unknown source. 

14. 2. pjniT] || 2 Chr. supports Q're ftm). So Vulg., Pesh., 
Targ. LXX, Luc. 'icoaSei/z. Cod. A . *la)aS«V. 

3, 4. '31 nVD K^> p"i] || 2 Chr. 25. 2 b sums up the limitations 
to the favourable verdict in the terse statement D.?5? 3jp3 fcO pi. 

4. 'ai moan pn] Cf. I. 3. 2, 3 «<?/<?. 
5 b . li>on] LXX, Luc. omit. 

6 b . '31 ninaa] Citation is made by R D directly from Deut. 24. 16. 
For mtf Kt., HD* Q're, Deut. reads tfip. || 2 Chr. 25. 4 VftOJ. 

7. nan Mn] The emphatic Kin (almost ' // was he who smote 
&c.') occurs again vv. 22, 25; 15. 35**; 18. 4, 8, and may be 
regarded as a mark of the style of R D in connecting together 
detached notices relating to one particular king. 

ntan *:o] Kt. is supported by || 2 Chr. 25. 11 ; 1 Chr. 18. 12 ; 
Q're r£» \33 by 2 Sam. 8. 13; Ps. 60. 2. 

Cam] Perfect with weak 1, a mark of decadence in style, due 
not to R D , but to his source. So elsewhere in later extracts from 
the Annals, ch. 18. 4; 21. 4, 6. The style of R D is always, like 
that of Deuteronomy his model, of the best (cf. e.g. ch. 17); the 
style of the extracts is on a level with that of the lengthy narrative 
ch. 22. 3 — 23. 25, and may be taken as representing the popular 
style (as distinct from the prophetic or literary style) of the closing 
years of the kingdom of Judah. 

X&Dn] Cf. Judg. 1. 36; Isa. 16. 1; 42. 11 (3&D without article). 
The usual identification with Petra (cf. Baed. 206) is denied by 
Buhl, EdomiteS) 34 ff. || 2 Chr. 25. 11 finds reference to ' the 
crag' from which ten thousand captive Edomites were thrown 
headlong. The name <Wi?J (LXX, Luc. Ka8or]\) as an Edomite 
city does not appear elsewhere. 

8. TN] Cf. I. 3. 16 note. 

10. *]K^1] Probably perf. with weak \ ' and thy heart hath lifted 

XIV. i-2f 319 

thee up? Another occurrence is found in v. 14 n£Jl. Cf. note on 
irani v. 7. 

■nan] 'Enjoy your honour* (Met yourself be honoured'). 

fifth] The force of 1 is sarcastic : 'Pray, why?' Cf. I. 2. 22 «<?/<?. 

11. bw rvn] Cf. I. 4. 9 «0&. 

13. IN^l] Luc, Vulg. presuppose 'HOI as in || 2 Chr. 25. 23, 
probably correctly. 

D*nDK -iyt>a] Read 'K "W9 with Luc, Vulg., Pesh., Targ., 
II 2 Chr. 

man -w] Cf. 2 Chr. 26. 9; Jer. 31. 38. A D^n ny^ i s 
mentioned in Zech. 14. 10. 

14. np?l] np7 is omitted in || 2 Chr. 25. 24, and it is therefore 
possible that the word may be a later insertion made to supply 
the missing verb, which may have been n^l, or npp following after 
mmynn. Cf., however, T.KK01 v. 10 note. 

15. 16. Omitted in Luc Cf. note on ch. 13. 12, 13. 

l8 a . After irTON, LXX adds koi ndvra a (Luc. ocra) eTroirja-ev. 

19. ni£*3?] An old Amorite city, several times named in the 
Tell el-Amarna inscriptions ; probably the modern Tell el-Hasi 
some distance east of Gaza, and close to the south of 'AJldn, 
i.e. Eglon. Cf. Smith, Geogr. 234; Baed. 140; Buhl, 191 f. 

21. mry ritf] Luc adds v\6v avrov. Pesh. l*jax conforms 
to || 2 Chr. 26. 1 WJJ. 

22. nil Kin] Cf. note on rDH N1H v. f. 

14. 23-29. Jeroboam II, king of Israel. 
R D frames short notices from the Annals. 

23. JPEKa btnw* ite] The usual phrase is fVWl $>N"Ky f>5>, 
and this appears in LXX, Targ., while Luc. combines the two 

rtiir nnNI D^lltf] Luc Kai TearaapaKovTa Kai h eros i(3acrl\evcrep 
iv Safxapelq. 

25. 'ai Nute] Cf. I. 8. 65 »o/(?. 

"isn na] Mentioned again in the description of the territory 
assigned to the tribe of Zebulun, Josh. 19. 13. Tradition, both 

320 The Second Book of Kings 

Christian and Mohammedan, places the tomb of Jonah at el- 
Meshhed, about three miles to the north-east of Nazareth, and this 
village is therefore usually regarded as the site of Gath Hepher. 
Rob. BR. ii. 350; Baed. 285; Buhl, 219. 

26. IKE mo] As vocalized JTita 'rebellious' gives no sense. 
The Verss. render ' bitter,' which is doubtless the meaning in- 
tended, but fern. H"iD is out of agreement with masc. W. Hence 
Kamp. would emend WH "\D '•a, a suggestion favoured by Benz., 
Kit. It is simpler to transpose the fl of HID, and to read "U3H 

1 the very bitter affliction of Israel/ 

'j1 "11VV DSNl] Cf. I. 14. 10 note. 

27. 'y\ mrttb] So Deut. 9. 14; 29. 19. 

28. '31 aw IBW] Certainly corrupt. The rendering of RV., 
Kamp., ' How he recovered Damascus, and Hamath, (which had 
belonged) to Judah, for Israel/ cannot be obtained from the text ; 
reference in such terms to the state of affairs • under David is 
impossible, since David's kingdom is never designated as ' Judah ' ; 
and, even if such reference could be substantiated, it would be 
untrue, since Hamath never formed part of David's kingdom (cf. 

2 Sam. 8. yff.). LXX, Luc, Vulg., Targ. present the same text 
as MT., but Pesh. reads ^»lj.m*JJ fcoo^o o;am.vs^ ~3©>to, i.e. 
by substitution of ?N"}fe>y for PK"}^3 rTWTy ' and restored Damascus 
and Hamath to Israel/ This text is adopted by Ew., Th., Kit., 
Oort \ but is directly contradictory, as regards Hamath, to the 
statement of v. 25 a . Winckler (Ges. i. 147 /.) takes 3^n in 
the sense ' drove back ' (cf. Isa. 36. 9 ; TXQrb'O 3W Isa. 28. 6), 
and supposes that some words have fallen out after HEP! which 
would have explained the connexion with PiTlPP ; while Klo. 
disposes of the reference to Hamath, boldly emending a^n T£>K1 

If it might be supposed that pt^DT DN had been misplaced 
from the preceding sentence, very slight alteration would give 

the text 5>*ofe»B n\r\) nprrns yvn -\yx\ pfewriN Dr6a ne^ci < and 

1 Schrader {COT. ad he.) reads similarly bvntal «JVoJ. 

XIV. 2 6— XV. lo 321 

how he fought with Damascus, and how he turned away the wrath 
of Yah we from Israel/ Cf. ch. 10. 32. 

29. Before ^NIB* ^O tiy the words jftO#2i 15^, in accordance 
with the usual formula, have probably fallen out. So Luc. kol 
ird(f)T] iv Sapafjcia, and, in part, Pesh. w«Oop/ y*.** i^sl[o. 

15. 1-7. Azariah, king ofjudah. 

Ch. 15. 2, 3, 5-7 = 2 Chr. 26. 3, 4, 21-23. 

R D frames short notices from the Annals. 

15. 1. rvnty] This name appears in ch. 14. 21; 16. 1, 7, 17, 23, 27; 
and in the form injlty in ch. 15. 6, 8. njW is used in ch. 15. 13, 30; 
ffly in <r^. 15. 32, 34. ^J"]]]? is read in place of rWJjJ in z>. 13 by 
LXX, Luc, Vulg., Targ., and by LXX, Luc. in v. 32. In v. 30, 
LXX 'A^as, Luc. omits. rTO is uniformly substituted for rP"]15j 
by Pesh. The form W occurs in <r^. 21. 18 ; cf. «o/^ #</ /<?<:. 

Outside Kings, with the exception of 1 Chr. 3. 12 *^"W., ^JW 
is used in 2 Chr. 26. 1 — 27. 2 (13 times), and in Isa. 1. 1; 6. 1; 7. 1; 
n»W in Hos. 1. 1; Am. 1. 1; Zech. 14. 5. 

The suppo'sed reference to this king in the Assyrian inscriptions 
under the name Az-ri-ya-a-u (COT.i. 208^.) is denied by Winckler 
(Allorient. Forschungen, i. iff-): cf. also Maspero, iii. p. 150, note 3. 

4. 'y\ pi] Cf. I. 3. 2, 3 note. 

5. JWBnn rP32] The meaning is obscure. RV. 'a several 
house/ i.e. lit. 'a house of separateness.' So Targ. paraphrases 
D5pW |B "H 3rVl 'and he dwelt outside of Jerusalem' ; Pesh. 
K»]L*^jtt Jl^^s 0)^.-0 'and he dwelt in a house in privacy.' 
rVSPSyi, however, according to the root-meaning, should denote not 
separateness but freedom. Klo.'s suggestion is noteworthy: — nTT'DIl 
JVBten < in his house at freedom/ i. e. not under restraint. IWQn 
is thus used adverbially, like IVftflK Gen. 9. 23. Stade (ZATW. 
vi. i&6ff) emends ^.nn IT'SS 'in the winter-house/ 

ivan bv] Cf. I. 4. 6 «<?/*. 

15. 8-12. Zechariah, king of Israel. 
R D frames short notices from the Annals. 
10. Dy 73p] Senseless ; the rendering * before the people/ 


322 The Second Book of Kings 

adopted by RV. after Pesh., Targ., Vulg., being out of the question. 
We should, doubtless, follow Luc. ev 'ifjQAaa/i, and emend BypM 
'in Ibleam/ On the situation of Ibleam cf. ch. 9. 27 note. 
12. 'y\ '1 nm Kin] Cf. ch. 10. 30. 

15. 13-16. Shallum, king of Israel. 

R D frames short notices from the Annals. 

16. riDSn] Clearly not the npan of I. 5. 4 on the Euphrates. 
Th, emends rflsr^ a town which lay in the territory of Ephraim 
near to the border of Manasseh ; Josh. 16. 8; 17. 7, 8. This 
suggestion, which is borne out by Luc. Ta<£a>e, is adopted by 
Buhl (Geogr. 178), Klo., Kamp., Benz., Kit. 

':n nna *6 ^] Slightly corrupt. Read, after LXX, Pesh., *6 *| 

yps wfrirrtai nnx *m sb inns. 

-'•••TV t t : T 1— : T 

15. 17-22. Menahem, king 0/ Israel. 

R D frames short notices from the Annals. 

1 7. DmD] Mentioned by Tiglath-Pileser III as Mi-ni-hi-im-mi 
of Samaria in a list of tributary kings, b. c. 738; COT. i. 215; 
Dri. Authority, 98. 

18. by6\ LXX dnb n-aow, i. e. "bin — correct. 

18. 19. Sua N3 :W fa] Read, with LXX, Luc, fca K3 ^3 
1 In his days came up Pul &c/ So moderns. VB 1 73 at the end 
of v. 18 is an unusual addition; and ^.19 in MT. commences 
abruptly, and needs the mark of connexion which is supplied 
by VIO" 1 ! as used elsewhere by R D (cf. I. 16. 34 note). 

19. S>ia] Identical with ">Dk|>3 rb}T\ of v. 29; ch. 16. 7, 10. 
Pulu of the Babylonian dynastic list corresponds to Tukul-ti-abal- 
i-sar-ra of the Babylonian chronicle. Cf. KB. ii. 2 90/"./ Dri. 
Authority, 97. 

'31 p^inri] LXX omits. 

20. 'ai NVl] ' And Menahem imposed (lit. brought forth) the 
money #/w* Israel '; so RV. ' exacted . . .from! Such a use of 
the Hiph'il of N^ is, however, without a parallel ; and probably 
Klo. is correct in emending ^nn ntaf ^nnfl bvnjfl bl'm 'o 13ft, 

XV. 1 2-2 J 323 

So Benz., Kit. FjD^n may then be supposed to have been intro- 
duced in imitation of ch, 12. 12, 13, after the corruption of 1V1 
into NV^I. 

15. 23-26. Pekahiah, king of Israel. 

R D frames a short notice (v. 25) from the Annals. 

23. triW] LUC. hUa errj. 

25. wb&] Cf. I. 9. 22 note. 

"■£» JV3 fl»n&a] Cf. I. 16. 18. Probably Kt. is correct. Cf. 
*]!>» TV! fix of I. 16. 1 8, and note on I. 12. 31. 

nn«n DW 3JHK ntf] Scarcely possible. Even supposing that 
the place-name IDK and the strange i"THNn with the article pre- 
fixed can be used as personal names, it is reasonable to expect 
some precise information as to the position of the men beyond 
the mere mention of their names, nor is it clear (supposing nx 
to mean 'with') whether they were conspirators with Pekah or 
victims together with Pekahiah. Klo. emends V")33 HNO yn"]N"nK 
1 with his 400 warriors/ the allusion being to the royal bodyguard 
which Pekah with his small band managed by a coup to annihilate. 
Probably,^ however, Sta. ( 160) is nearer the truth in 
regarding both names as place-names (cf. Vulg. iuxta Argob et 
iuxta Arte) which have come in by mistake from v. 29, and should 
be read as W ntyTTIKI ^"]«-n«. 

15. 27-31. Pekah, king of Israel. 

R D frames notices from the Annals (vv. 2 9-30 a ). 

27. rw D'HBPJj] The Assyrian inscriptions do not admit of 
a reign of such a length. Tiglath-Pileser mentions Menahem as 
his tributary in b. c. 738 (cf. note on v. 17), and also refers to the de- 
thronement and execution of Pekah in b. c. 734-732 (cf. v. 30 note). 
Thus, even supposing b. c. 738 to have been the last year of 
Menahem, we have at most six years for the reigns of Pekahiah and 
Pekah. If Pekahiah reigned two years (i.e. possibly a little more 
than one year), Pekah may have reigned from four to five years. 

Hommel (Hastings, BD. i. 186) comments on the fact that 
exactly the same things are related of Pekahiah as of Pekah, 

Y 2 

324 The Second Book of Kings 

and that the names are virtually the same, and deduces the infer- 
ence that there really existed only one king Pekah (or Pekahiah), 
who reigned two years, between Menahem and Hoshea. 

29. "IDNPD TOD &g] The account of this campaign is contained, 
in a somewhat mutilated condition, in the Annals of Tiglath- 
Pileser. Cf. Rost, 78/"./ Dri. Authority, 98/. 

TOyo M ittK nxi |VV nx] Cf. I, 15. 20 note. 

T\xf\ The site is uncertain. Conder {Lists, 38 ; and in Hastings, 
BD., s.v.) cites Yanuh near Tyre, but Buhl {Geogr. 229) maintains 
that this situation is too far west of the other places named. 
GueVin's identification with Hunin, west of the Upper Jordan, is 
mentioned by Buhl (Geogr. 237). The place of the same name 
mentioned in Josh. 16. 6, 7 on the border of Ephraim is too far 
south to be identical. 

VT\\>~] Kades, standing on a lofty plateau, west-north-west of the 
Lake of HiVe. Rob. BR. iii. 366/.; Baed. 297. 

Tivn] Cf. I. 9. 15 note. 

rMan] Cf. L 9. n note. 

30. '31 X'p v l] The statement of Tiglath-Pileser (cf. Rost, 80/), 
1 Pa-ha-ha (Pekah) their king they slew, A-u-si- (Hoshea) to reign 
over them I appointed/ makes it clear that the revolution was 
effected under the auspices of Assyria. 

Dnvb DHB>y riJBO] Clearly an erroneous statement. Pekah's 
operations against Judah, in alliance with Rezin, which appear 
to have been begun during Jotham's reign (v. 37), were carried 
on into the reign of Ahaz; ch. 16. Sff.; Isa. 7. iff. 

15. 32-38. fotham, king of Judah. 
Ch. 15. 33, 34, 35b 36, 38 = 2 Chr. 27. 1-3* 7-9. 
The whole account is cast by R D . 
32. At the end of the verse Luc. adds «ri 'Upovo-akrux. 
35. ':i pi] Cf. I. 3. 2, 3 note. 
rwa Kin] Cf. note on mn Kin ch. 14. 7. 
37. Di"in D^n] Cf. ch. 10. 32 note. 
pvn] Frequently mentioned by Tiglath-Pileser as Ra-sun-nu. 

XV 2 g— XVI. 6 325 

Cf. COT. i. 252 f. His predecessor upon the throne of Damascus 
was perhaps '£??{?, or more correctly ?$?£, to whom allusion 
is made in Isa. 7. 6 \ Cf. Winckler, Allies t. Untersuckungen, 74. 

16. Ahaz, king of Judah. 

Ch. 16. 2-4, 19, 20 = 2 Chr. 28. 1-4, 26, 27. 

Verses 1-9, 17-20 contain notices from the Annals, framed 
by R D . Verses 10-16 form a continuous narrative, probably 
derived from the same source as ch. 11; 12. 5-17. See p. 307. 

16. 1. tnx] Tiglath-Pileser mentions, in a list of tributaries, 
Ya-u-ha-zi of Judah, i. e. tHXVT, the full form of the name trw. 
The date is b. c. 728, the last year but one of Tiglath-Pileser. 
KB. ii. 20 /.; Rost, 72^/ COT. i. 225 ; Dri. Authority, 100. 

2. There is clearly some discrepancy between the statements 
of this verse and ch. 18. 2. If Ahaz died at the age of thirty-six 
(20+ 16), and Hezekiah was twenty-five years old at his accession, 
then Ahaz must have become a father at the age of eleven ! 

3. 'y\ nnyna] Cf. 1. 14. 24 note. 

4. 'ai rvrjnjn by)] Cf. I. 14. 23 note. 

5. r6y* T«] Cf. I. 3. 16 note. 

6. KTin run] Cf. 1. 14. 1 »<?&. 

'31 J"*n 3^n] It is quite clear that the Massoretes are correct 
in reading DWiKI, and that this correction carries with it the 
correction of the preceding D^ into 0**1*6 (cf. I. 9. 26; 22. 48/".; 
II. 14. 7, 22). So Th., Sta., Kamp., Oort. Probability is also in 
favour of Klo/s emendation D*1K TJ^D in place of DiX rtys ?!?). 
So Benz., Kit. It is far more likely that the king of Edom 
should have seized the opportunity of Ahaz's engagement with 
the northern confederacy in order to once more gain possession 
of his seaport town, than that the king of Aram should have 
despatched a purposeless expedition against the remote eastern 
point of Ahaz's dominions. 

nm nvn ny] Cf. I. 8. 8 note. 

1 The reference of 'the son of Tab'el' is most naturally to Rezin. The 
name Tab'el (/ El is wise ') is Aramaic, and identical in form with Tabrimmon, 
I. 15. 18. 

326 The Second Book of Kings 

7. D^DIpn] A rare form of participle act. Qal of the verb l"y. 
Cf. tih Isa. 25. 7, l^pi2 Zech. 10. 5, and perhaps "Tti Ps. 22. 10. 
See Wright, Compar. Gramm, 250; G-K. § 72/. 

8. Trip] So in I. 15. 19. 

9. rwp] LXX omits ; Luc. rrju n6\iv (? nnp). Benz., Kit., Oort, 
on the ground of the omission, suppose that the name is a later 
insertion derived from Am. 1. 5. The situation of "Vp is unknown. 
According to Am. 9. 7 the district was the original home of the 

10. pt^DH] Probably an error for the form p^f^ which 
appears in Chr., and is regular in Syriac, and in the Targum 
of Pseudo-Jonathan. 

iron nnw] Cf. Isa. 8. 2. 

11. LXX omits from n^y p down to pWtB in v. 12, probably 
through homoioteleuton, though the narrative runs quite smoothly 
without the words omitted. Luc. agrees with MT. except for the 
omission of the first p^JOlD before 'jl npy p . 

12. nation . ♦ ♦ mp^i] LXX omits. 

nation 5>y] by for bx. Cf. I. 1. 38 note on pro i?y. 

V^y by*)] ' And went up upon it.' Cf. I. 1. 53 /10/* on natton bvD. 

14. mp^ . ♦ . nation nw] On constr. cf. I. 9. 21 «<?/*. 

nBTOn natEn] The original text must have read natron simply, 
and n^mn is a gloss from v. 15b, correctly distinguishing the 
old altar from the new. LXX omits nation n&O, thus causing 
it to appear that the ritual described in v. 13 was still carried on 
upon the old (brazen) altar. This is adopted by R. Sm. {Relig. 
Sem. 2 , note L), who further reads 3!l?*!, as in v. 12, for anj£i ? thus 
making the verse from that point to be ' an elaborate description 
of the new ritual introduced by the king/ The context, however, 
desiderates the precise statement of MT. as to the new position 
of the brazen altar, which was clearly supplanted by the new altar 
(v. i5 a ), and devoted only to a special purpose (v. i5 b ). The LXX 
omission may thus be regarded as merely due to homoioteleuton. 

15. ')) initfl] Kt. with pronoun-suffix anticipating the object, 
as in Syriac. Cf. I. 19. 21 note. Possibly, however, the words 
pan iT11X HN may be a later explanatory insertion. 

XVI. 7-i; 327 

3"iyn nmD nX1 1p3n rvV riN] The distinction appears to coincide 
with the ritual of Ezek. 46. 13-15, where there is only mention 
of a morning i"6iy. In ch. 3. 20 the term HITO is applied to the 
morning sacrifice, and in I. 18. 29, 36 to the evening sacrifice. 
In the time of P the rpiy has become both a morning and evening 
institution; Num. 28. iff. Jer. 14. 12 draws a distinction, as in 
our passage, between rbty and nnJD ; but it is by no means to be 
hence inferred (RV.) that nniD therefore possesses the restricted 
sense of 'meal-offering/ as in P. Cf. note on JirUD I. 18. 29; 
Wellh. Prolegomena, 79, note 1. 

pNH UV bl] LXX, Luc, navrbs tov XaoO, omit pKH. For the 
phrase of MT., the people in general, cf. ch. 1 1. 14, 18, 19, 20; 15. 5 ,* 
21. 24; 23. 30. 

"ipl? v fW] The significance is obscure. "$3 means to examine 
(lit. divide, and so presumably A?0/£ #/ in detail ; cf. Ar. Icj cleave, 
slit). This meaning is clear for most of the occurrences in Bib. 
Heb.: — Lev. 13. 36 'The priest shall not examine (the suspected 
leper) for the yellow hair'; Lev. 27. 33 'he shall not examine (the 
tithe of the herd and flock) whether it be good or bad'; Ezek. 
34. 11, 12 'will look after (or look for, i.e. search out) my flock'; 
Prov. 20. 25, probably ' after vowing, he begins to make inquiry,' 
i.e. to examine his financial position (cf. Toy ad loc). Ps. 27. 4 
5?9*n3 ^|j!?p is involved in the same ambiguity as our passage ; 
1 to look at his Temple/ or ' to make inquiry in his Temple/ In 
Rabb. Heb. ">S"3 is used of examining sacrificial animals for 

Accordingly, the explanation of our passage least open to 
objection is that of AV., RV., R. Sm. (Relig. Sem. 2 , note L), ' and 
the brazen altar shall be for me to inquire by '; i. e. lit. to investigate, 
sc. the oracle, perhaps by examination of portions of the sacrifice. 
Cf. the action ascribed to the king of Babylon, Ezek. 21. 26 fwn 
in33. So approximately Pesh. Dta*^ w^. Joom 'shall be for me 
to make request by/ Less probable is the explanation of Klo., 
' for me to look at '; the idea of close scrutiny which is implied 
in the verb being inconsistent as applied to the altar, which must 

328 The Second Book of Kings 

have been long familiar to the king, and which was (on this 
explanation) about to undergo degradation. Least probable, and 
without support from usage elsewhere, is the explanation of Kamp., 
Benz., Kit., ' shall be for me to think of i. e. 'I must decide at 
my leisure what is to become of it/ Cf. Vulg. erit paratum ad 
voluntatem meam. 

17. rrUDEn nrODlon] The construction is impossible. Probably 
we should read Hfobtsn nV"i3Dp with Verss., or else emend nVtaDQn 
rpJbftnD. Cf. Karnp. Klo., Benz. suppose that nrODIDH DK ought 
to follow Qn^yD. On nhaDttn c f. I. 7. 28 note. 

"Van] We should expect D^an, Cf. I. 7. tf> ff. 
DtSWI ~\\>m] n^njn is probably, as in v. 14, a later addition. 
DD^iro] ' A pediment/ Cf. the use of naxn ' pavement/ 2 Chr. 7. 3 ; 
al.; and the participle *]*2n Song 3. 10. 

18. r»2B>n *]D , »£] Highly obscure. Q're sjWD, if correct, should 
denote something covered in; hence RV. ' the covered way (marg. 
covered place) for the Sabbath/ LXX, however, reads tov dffxiXiov 
rrji Ka6e8pas, i.e. rij^n "fpMD; cf. I. 10. 1 9. Pesh. explains l^o 
Jfcs^A,; Targ. NrQ^ (rei X os) DI^D. 

17. 1-6. Hoshea, king of Israel. Fall of the kingdom. 

Winckler (A litest. Untersuchungen, 15 ff.) argues with much 
cogency that in vv. 3-6 we have a combination of two narratives. 
Supposing the narrative to be single, the course of events can only 
have been as follows. Hoshea comes to the throne as the vassal 
of Tiglath-Pileser (ch. 15. 30 note); he revolts against Shalmaneser, 
and is again reduced to vassalage (ch. 17. 3); he again revolts, and 
is deposed and made prisoner (ch. 17. 4); the king of Assyria 
(Shalmaneser) besieges Samaria for three years (ch. 17. 5); at the 
end of three years (in the first year of Sargon ; v. 6 note) Samaria 
falls, and the population is deported to Assyria. It is, however, 
highly improbable that Israel remained for three years without 
a king, after the deposition of Hoshea, and, as a matter of fact, 
v. 6 states that the fall of the capital took place ' in the ninth year 
of Hoshea/ i.e. in his ninth reigning year. Ch. 18. 9 b -i 1 describes 

XVI. 17— XVII. 4 329 

only one campaign of Assyria against Israel and the fall of 
Samaria after a three years' siege, and it is noticeable that this 
account is nearly verbally identical with ch. 17. 5, 6. Probably 
therefore ch. 17. 3, 4 represents another and independent account 
drawn from a different source to ch. 17.5, 6 = 18. 9 b -n (Annals). 
The form of the statements of v. 3 suggests that the writer was 
ignorant of the true state of affairs, viz. that Hoshea was from 
the first a vassal of Assyria, and supposed that his dependence 
was the direct result of a campaign ('Jl r\?V Ivy) distinct from that 
in which he lost his throne (v. 4). Winckler meets the difficulty 
by the supposition that R D read in his source nvn (frequentative ?) 
in place of \T1 — 'inasmuch as Hoshea was (already) his vassal, 
Sec! ; but such a construction is impossible. 

17. 1. 'y\ IWl] The synchronism is inconsistent with the 
preceding synchronisms of chh. 16, 17, but agrees, as Benz. 
notices, with the statement of Luc. in ch. 16. 23 as to the length 
of the reign of Pekahiah. 

2. 'y\ N? p"1j Luc. rra/ja navras tovs yevofiepovs efxirpocrdeu avrov, 
i.e. '31 npfbsD; cf. I. 14. 9; 16. 25, 30, 33. The reason why 
R D should make exception in favour of Hoshea is not apparent 
from his narrative ; while, on the other hand, it is eminently 
suitable to his scheme that the last king of Israel should be 
painted in the blackest colours of all. Cf. vv. 7 ff. 

4. itrp] LXX ahiKlav, i.e. ">$£ adopted by Th., Kamp., Benz., Kit. 

KID] Generally identified with Sabaku, who founded the twenty- 
fifth (Ethiopian) dynasty. Cf. COT. ad loc; Dri. Authority, 
100. Sargon {KB. ii. 5 4 f.) mentions SiUu general (Jurtan) of 
Egypt as defeated by him, together with Hanunu, king of Gaza, 
at Raphiah (b. c. 720), but he expressly distinguishes him from 
Pharaoh {Pt'r'u), king of Egypt. If, therefore, with Schrader, we 
vocalize KJD and identify with Sib'u, it is clear that the title *]bft 
D^lVD is at any rate inapplicable at the time when Hoshea's 
overtures were made. See, however, Winckler's note, Keilschrift. 
Sargons, p. 10 1. 

Luc, in place of '31 KID ?K , reads irpbs 'AdpaptXcx ™ v AiOiona tov 

33° The Second Book of Kings 

KaroiKovvra iv Alyv7TTco. Ktu rjv 'Qarje (f>ep<ov da>pa tw /3acrtXei 'Acravplw 
tviavrbv kot iviavTov, iv he Ta> iviavrco e*eiW> ovk rjvtyKcv avTGt fiavad. 
Kai vftpicre top Glarje 6 fiaatXevs Kaavpiatv Kal iTroKiopKrjcrev avrbv k.t.X. 

6. '}) "ntPK *plD ID?] Not Shalmaneser, as in #.3, but Sargon; 
cf. the great triumphal inscription //. 23 ff.: — 'Samaria I besieged 
and conquered; 27,290 of its inhabitants I carried into captivity, 
fifty chariots I seized from them ; the rest of them I allowed to 
retain their possessions (?) ; I set my officers over them ; the 
tribute of the former king I laid upon them.' KB. ii. 54 f; Dri. 
Authority, 101. Schrader {COT. ad loc.) quotes evidence to show 
that the conquest of Samaria must have taken place in the year 
of Sargon's accession, i.e. b. c. 722. 

'y\ 3B*l] TQn is mentioned in the inscriptions as the Ha-bur, 
a tributary of the Euphrates; jna is Gu-za-na, which is assigned 
to the district of Mesopotamia. rbn is doubtful, but may be 
Halahhu in Mesopotamia. Cf. COT. ad loc. 

17. 7-23. Commentary by R D upon the causes which brought 
about the downfall of the Norther ft Kingdom. 
The phraseology of R D is very marked throughout the section. 
Notice tXnm Dv6« v . 7 (I. 9. 6 note)) 0Hfel v. 8 (I. 14. 24 note); 

'y\ nyirbi by v. 10 (I. 14. 23 note); D*$Dnb V v. n, 17 (1. 14. 9 

note); Cl&an v. 12 (I. 15. 12 note); ttjin MW W v. 13 
(I. 13. 33 note); '31 Tito notf vv. 13, 19 (I. 2. 3 note); *1?g 
DWajPl ^. 13, 23 (as in I. 9. 7 ; 21. 10; 24. 2); E?!¥" n ? ^i?- 1 - 
#.14 note; •HTJS tt!>*1 ». 15 (1. 11. 5 W0&); ^?nn #. 15 (I. 16. 2 »0/<?); 

01 ropria v. 17 (I. 21. 20, 25); 01 nn nife>$ 0.17 (1. 11. 6 *<?/*); 
puktm ». 18 (1. 11. 9 «<?/*); na^B no xi> ». 22 (^. 3. 3 »<?/*). 

Verses 19, 20 are certainly a later insertion, subsequent to the 
commencement of the Judaean exile, and due to R D2 . The 
opening of v. 21, 'ai JHp "O ' For he rent &c./ clearly refers imme- 
diately to the statement of v. 18, DID^I ♦ , ♦ spMVI 'was very angry 
. . . and removed them ' ; but the sequence is destroyed by the 
interpolation, *3 z>. 21 being deprived of all point. The whole 
reference of the section is to the causes which brought about 

XVII. 6, 7 331 

the rejection of the kingdom of Israel, no reference being else- 
where made to Judah except in v. 13, where iTWll is probably 
by the same hand as vv. 19, 20. 

Stade {ZATW,v\. 163 f.) regards vv. 7-17 as an exilic addition, 
later than R D , upon the grounds that the writer of these verses 
ascribes Molech-worship (v. i7 a ) and Assyrian star-worship (v. i6 b ) 
to the Northern Kingdom — the abuses which later on were rife 
in the Southern Kingdom under Manasseh {ch. 21. 3, 6), and also 
because certain phrases appear to exhibit the influence of Jeremiah; 
cf. v. 13 D^-in tDVWD 12P with Jer. 18. 11; 25. 5; 35. 15; 
36. 3, 7; '31 '■» njm with Jer. 7. 25/"./ 11. 7/"./ v. 15b nnK 13^1 
ifelTI ^ann with Jer. 2. 5. The reflections embodied in these 
verses are, however, in strict accordance with R D 's plan which 
runs throughout his work, as the number of phrases above cited 
as characteristic of his hand sufficiently show, nor is it at all 
unnatural that the editor, who worked not many years after Josiah 
had removed from Judah the foreign abuses of Manasseh's reign, 
should ascribe the same kind of religious abuses to the kingdom 
of Israel, side by side with the worship of Yahwe under the form 
of a calf. Nor, again, need the phrases above mentioned imply 
dependence upon the written prophecies of Jeremiah, any more 
than need other phrases used by R D elsewhere, in common with 
Jeremiah \ go to prove that R D and Jeremiah were one and the 
same person. All that clearly emerges from the fact of such 
resemblances is that the two writers were members of one pro- 
phetic school of thought, i.e. the Deuteronomic. Cf. Dri. LOT. G 
p. 203 at end. 

7. IXDn *3 W] 'Now it (viz. the foregoing) came to pass 

because &C.' Luc. Kctl eyevero opyrj Kvplov em rbv 'laparjX, 6V on 

foaprov k.tX, i. e. *«&n *? ^*P T f !? * *|S W— superior to MT. 

1 Cf. 'ai *op3 ■prc »3 I. 8. 43 note; '3D ten ntea I. 9. 7 note; 'ai nay ta 
I. 9. 8 note; njnrr "dtid 2x0 vh I. 13. 33 note; (bv) bt* nri wan '3:n I. 14. 10 
note; owaan (may) H3» ch, 9. 7 ; 17. 13, 23 ; 21. 10 ; 24. 2; Jer. 7. 25; 25. 4; 
26-5; 29. 19; 35. 15; 44.4. Other resemblances, from the later chh. of 
2 Kings, are cited by Dri. LOT. 6 p. 203, 

33 2 The Second Book of Kings 

8. DW Dipni "D^l] Cf. Lev. 18. 3; 20. 23(H). 

'31 btnw ^bft)] Senseless. Cf. RV.'s attempt at a rendering. 
No doubt 5>K1^ "otal is a corruption of ?*Hf? *?£^?, a doublet 
of the preceding three words ; and )Uty ~\WK ' who performed 
(them/ sc. the statutes of the nations) is probably a marginal gloss 
made subsequently to the corruption to explain the occurrence of 
' the kings of Israel ' in this connexion. 

9. 1NDry , i] The rendering of RV. ' did secretly ' can scarcely 
be maintained, and LXX rj^iea-avro, ' clad themselves in,' in 
accordance with the use of nsn < overlay ' in 2 Chr., is preferable, 
if the text be genuine. Pesh., Targ. render vaguely o ♦-»&/, 1"1DN ; 
and Vulg. offenderunt seems only to be guessing. Klo. emends 
WB1J1 'devised'; cf. Job 13. 4 W« *H2h probably 'contrivers 
of nought' (|| yg ^£)b> So Benz., Kit. 

p nb] Cf. ch. 7. 9. 

'31 b*UBlo] So ch. 18. 8. The expression, as here used, describes 
the smallest and largest of communities. 

10. DHWfl ni3¥»] Cf. notes on I. 14. 15, 23. 

13. ntn 73 1K"»33 ?3] Vulg. omnium prophetarum et videntium, 
Targ. f]^?0 ^31 1SD i>3 suggest W"??] *03r?3. This is preferable 
to the supposition that the text originally read P&P33"7| simply, 
and njfrri>3 came in later as a gloss. 

14. &sny n« l^l] So Deut. 10. 16; Jer. 7. 26; 17. 23; 19. 15; 
Neh. 9. 16, 17, 29 ; 2 Chr. 30. 8f. Cf. the expressions nf$r\ ^JSHV 
Deut 31. 27; PllV n^pDeut.9.6, 13; Ex.32. 9 ; 33.3,5; 34. 9 (JE). 

ppys] LXX, Luc. vTrep t6v vg)tov, Pesh. U^ ^*> read ^.Vp. 

17. '31 1DDp ,, l] On the meaning of the terms used in Hebrew 
to describe various kinds of divination cf. Dri. on Deut. 18. 10. 
BTO is uncertain (probably applied in the case of Joseph's cup, 
Gen. 44. 5, 15, to hydromancy, but also used more generally): 
DDp=Ar. Ill to divide, x. "JLlll[ to get a part allotted to oneself, 
to draw lots, especially with headless arrows, as is described, in 
the case of the king of Babylon, in Ezek. 21. 26 f. After v. i7 b 

Luc. adds koi enoirja-av e(j)ov8 Kal BepcKpein. 

18. pi -wbo vb] For the construction of pi with the negative, 

XVII. 8-2 3 333 

'not . . . except; cf. I. 8. 9 D^OMn TSn\ 'p pi fh*S flC. The 
negative is really redundant. Cf., with the same verb, Ex. 8. 5, 7; 
Deut. 3. 11; 1 Sam. 5. 4. 

20. oam] Luc. presupposes P||KW hfifc SHfte njiTl V3MDS 

21. NTl] Q're rn*1 is probably correct. 

DN^nni] Perf. with weak 1, unusual in R D, s own composition. 
Cf. note on psni ^. 14. 7. 

23. mn Dvn ny] Cf. I. 8. 8 note. 

17. 24-41. The foreign settlers in the district of Samaria. 

The narrative is certainly composite. Verses 32, 33, 41, in 
speaking of the races which were settled by the king of Assyria 
in the cities of Samaria, say that they 'feared Yahwe/ while 
retaining the worship of their own national deities. In v. 34, on 
the contrary, it is stated with great emphasis that they ' feared 
not Yahwe.' Again, while vv. 2 4~34 a refer exclusively to the 
foreign settlers, and only mention the introduction into their midst 
of a single priest of Israelitish nationality (v. 28 CanbnD in&J), 
to whom was due their instruction in the worship of Yahwe, 
vv. 34^40 are couched in such terms as can only refer to 
Israelites as such, of however mixed and renegade a strain. Notice 
especially ^.35, 38, the reference to the Deuteronomic covenant; 
v. 36 'Yahwe, who brought you up out of the land of Egypt/ 

Thus this latter section must be regarded as a later addition 
to the narrative of Kings 1 , referring probably to the Samaritans 
of post-exilic times. Verse 40 b rounds off the interpolation by the 
repetition of v. 34 s — the statement of the older narrative to which 
the later writer attaches his addition. Verses 24-34^41, on the other 
hand, form, in part at least, an ancient narrative embodied by R D . 
Stade ( 167 ff) regards vv. 24-28, 41 as the original 
kernel which has received the later extension, vv. 29-34^ Possibly 

1 R D2 ; cf. pp^n 'y\ D^rrrrnN"! v. 37 (1. 2. 3 note)) rnsu Sinn v. 36 (I. 8. 42 
note) ; DWrbs v. 37 (I. 9. 3 note) ; nnrm D*rrtw vv. 35, 37 (I. 9. 6 note). 

334 The Second Book of Kings 

this latter may be assigned to R D himself: — v. 32 b resembles 
I. 12. 31, and in v. 34 s njn D^n ^V is an expression commonly 
employed by R D (cf. I. 8. 8 note). 

24. 'y\ &y)] The fact that Sargon imported foreign prisoners 
of war into Samaria is attested by his inscriptions, though the 
peoples mentioned are not those of our passage. A mutilated 
passage, however, in his annals refers to a campaign in his first 
year (subsequent to the conquest of Samaria) which (as read by 
Winckler, Alttest. Untersuchwigen, 105) was directed against the tribe 
of Tu'muna, which had apparently allied itself ' with Merodach- 
Baladan, king of Kaldu, who against the will of the gods had 
usurped the sovereignty of Babylon/ This was followed by 
a deportation of prisoners into c the land Hatti/ a term which 
may include Samaria. In another passage he states that he 
settled in Samaria ' men of Tamud, Ibadid, Marsiman, Hayapa, 
the remote Arbai inhabiting the desert.' This took place in 
his seventh year, i.e. b. c. 715. Cf. Delitzsch, Paradies, 304; 
CO T. i. ad loc; Winckler, Keihchrifttexte Sargons, i. 20/]/ KB. 
ii. 42/! 

nni3 is Riilii of the inscriptions, the modern Tell-Ibrdhim, 
north-east of Babylon. tWBD probably denotes the two Sippars, 
Sippar son of Samas (the sun-god), and Sippar of Anunilu(m), 
between Bagdad and Babylon. For this identification a form 
D^Sp might have been expected, and this is perhaps to be found 
in v. 3i b Kt. Some critics, however, have been led by the 
reference to Sepharvaim in ch. 18. 34 = Isa. 36. 19, in close con- 
nexion with Hamath, Arpad, and Samaria, to infer that its situation 
is to be sought in the west; and OH?? Ezek. 47. 16 is cited as 
possibly identical. Cf. Dillmann on Isaiah ad loc. The unknown 
njy is doubtless the same as TO of ch. 18. 34 — by inference 
a western state. 

Winckler (Alttest. Unlersuchungen, 95-107) conjectures that 
confusion has been introduced into the text between Sargon's 
importation and that of Assurbanipal, to which allusion is made 
in Ezra 4. 8-10. Sargon makes no mention of the capture of 

XVII. 2 4 , 2j 335 

prisoners of war from Babylon and Kutha. Babylon was not 
besieged by him until b.c. 710, and then he came not as enemy 
to the Babylonians, but as deliverer from the Chaldean yoke 
of Merodach-Baladan. His successor, Sennacherib, cannot have 
formed such a settlement of Babylonian captives, and the same 
is the case with Esarhaddon, the reference to this king in Ezra 4. 2 
being clearly an error for Assurbanipal ("1S3DK as in Ezra 4. 10). 
Assurbanipal, however, carried out a successful campaign against 
Sippar, Kutha, and Babylon, all of which are mentioned in 
ch. 17. 24, supposing DTiDD to be an erroneous alteration of an 
original 1QD. Winckler regards the inclusion of Hamath and 
Awwa as of a piece with this alteration, the reason being that the 
two names stand together with Sepharvaim (the Syrian city) in 
the speech of the Rabshakeh, ch. 18. 34. For 'no Assyrian king 
would have introduced settlers from Hamath into Samaria, since 
such a measure would have failed of its object, viz. the placing 
of unruly elements at a distance from their native soil. Hamathites 
would not have remained long in Samaria, but would soon have 
made their escape back to their home which lay so near/ Thus, 
according to Winckler, the narrative of Kings affords us no 
authentic account as to the nationality of the peoples introduced 
into Samaria by Sargon. These arguments are accepted by Benz. 
It may be doubted, however, whether there is evidence sufficient 
to substantiate Winckler's theory. For example, in default of 
precise information as to the reasons which may have influenced 
Sargon in the disposal of his prisoners of war, the argument 
by which Winckler rejects the mention of Hamath and Awwa 
appears to be highly arbitrary. Again, Assurbanipal, so far from 
mentioning any transportation of the people of Sippar, Kutha, 
and Babylon, definitely states that he allowed the remnant of them 
to remain in Babylonia (KB. ii. 192/!). 

Kit. accepts Winckler's argument with regard to Hamath and 
Awwa, but demurs to his main theory as without basis, either 
in the Old Testament or in the inscriptions. 

25. nVHKn] On the use of the article cf. note on T. 13. 14. 

336 The Second Book of Kings 

26. nDfcOl] Impersonal; 'And it was told.' 

27. Driven] Luc. hv an^Kiaa, i.e. Driven — certainly correct. 
11^1 ID^l] Luc, Vulg., Pesh. 3^.1 ?fe, correctly. 

30. DUS niDD] Uncertain. The interpretation of Delitzsch 
(Paradies, 215) Sakkut-binutu, 'supreme judge of the Universe,' 
is rejected by Schrader [COT. ad loc), who suggests identification 
with Zir-bdnit or Zar-pa-ni-tuv, the consort of Marduk. Jensen 
(ZA. iv. 352) regards rto as equivalent to banitu, an epithet 
of Is/ar. Cheyne {Expos. Times, x. 429) proposes to emend 
f}*3 rPGp, the two names which denote the Babylonian Saturn. 
Cf. Am. 5. 26. 

?:ro] Nergal appears in the inscriptions as the god of Kutha. 
He is the lord of hell, and the god of war and pestilence. As 
a destructive agency his symbol is the lion. Jensen (Kosmologie, 
476 ff.) explains the name as compounded of Ni+uru+gal= 
Ni -\-unu+ gal '=' Lord of the great city/ or rather 'dwelling,' 
i.e. the Underworld. Cf. also COT. ad loc. 

31. lta"n«] Probably 'Adar is king' (or 'counsellor'). Adar 
appears as a west Semitic god in the name "nwrp ' Adar has 
given' (Baethgen, Semit. Religionsgeschichte, 54), but is best known 
as an Assyrian god, the name, according to Schrader, being 
Akkadian in origin, and originally pronounced A-tar, ' father of 
decision/ -pffllR occurs as the name of a son of Sennacherib 
in en. 19. 37, a fact which favours the view that we have here 
the name of an Assyrian deity, and so lends weight to the view 
(above noticed) that D^ViBD denotes Sippar rather than a western 

*]^Diy] Perhaps equivalent to *piy\ty, i.e. 'Anu is king' (or 
'counsellor'). Anu is the god of heaven, supreme among the 
deities of Assyria and Babylon. 

D'nBD n?tf] Kt. (according to Ginsburg, D^ISDH b$) seems to 
make reference to one deity only, and similarly Luc. omits "pD^y, 

and reads ra 'A^pa/neAe;^ Qea ~2fTT(f)ap(ifi. 

32. Dnrcpo] 'From among the whole of them/ Cf. I. 12. 31 
note. LXX, Luc. offer a double version of this verse, the second 

XVII. 26-XVIII. i 337 

corresponding to MT., while the first runs k<h rjaav <£o/3ov/*ei/oi t6v 

Kvptov, kcu KaTcoKiaav ra (BdeXvynaTci avrcov (V rois oikois tcov v\j/rj\a)i> a 
cTToirjaav eu Sa/iapclq, Wuos eOvos iv noXei iv rj KarcpKovv iv avrfj^ i. e. 
probably ntan VQ3 UWy0 (or W&V)) hrh $W%1\ " , TlK D*KT 1W 

ny (or CPi^ n®%) ta#; ie>k -pya ia *is fnti&i &y ")$«. This 

reading bears the stamp of superiority, MT. probably representing 
the restoration of an imperfect text upon the lines of I. 12. 31. 

18 — 20. Hezekiah, king qfjudah. 

Ch. 18. 1-8 is mainly the work of R D , based upon the notices 
of vv. 4, 7 b , 8. The substance of vv. 7 b , 8 is probably drawn 
from the Annals. With regard to v. 4 this is not so clear. The 
verse shows marks of a late style (perfect with weak 1, as in 
21. 4, 6 ; 23. 4Jf.), and sketches the outline of a religious reforma- 
tion which appears in all essentials to have resembled and 
anticipated the reformation of Josiah. Hence some critics regard 
the notice as a late and unhistorical interpolation (cf. Stade, Ges. 
i. 607// ZATW. iii. 8f.; vi. 170/./ Wellh., C. 291). 

The occurrence of a reformation under Hezekiah is supported 
by 18. 22 (which must, with the rejection of 18. 4, be likewise 
branded as a later misconception), and perhaps also by the state- 
ment of Jer. 26. 17-19^ which speaks of the influence exercised 
upon Hezekiah and all Judah by the preaching of Micah the 
Morashtite. Mic. 1^5 b MT. mentions the fito of Jerusalem for 
reprobation ; but this passage must not be pressed, because LXX, 
Pesh., Targ. presuppose a different reading 1 . Certainly Isaiah 
does not seem to have had in view any centralization of Yahwe's 
cultus, such as was prominent in Josiah's reformation ; but his 
attacks upon the idol-worship (Isa. 2. 8, 18, 20; 31. 7; cf. 10. 10, 
11), tree-worship (1. 29), and necromancy (8. 19), which seem 
to have been rife in the kingdom of Judah, are in agreement with 

1 nNtan 'sin/ parallel to SNTB 'transgression,' as in v. 4 a . The reading of 
MT. is, however, accepted by Kit. {Hist. ii. 357)) who regards the rendering 
of the Versions as merely a simplification. 


338 The Second Book of Kings 

such a movement in the direction of the pure worship of Yahwe. 
Probably, therefore, as is allowed by Sta. (Ges., loc. at.), the 
statement of v. 4 b is based upon authentic information as to such 
a reform, and this has been later on expanded in v. 4 a , under 
the influence of the accomplished fact of Josiah's reformation. 
18. 2. V3K] Shortened form of n»D^ 2 Chr. 29. 1. 

4. TOil Nin] On the use of Nin cf. ch. 14. 7 note. 

jnfcTO] Vocalization connects the name with rtt?n?, with a 
formative termination ' brazen one/ It seems certain, however, 
that the word is connected with fc?nj ; and, unless there is intended 
a play upon the similarity in name of the thing f serpent,' and its 
material ' brass/ it is possible that the vocalization is incorrect. 
Cf. Luc. N(€<rddv. For conjectures as to the form and its meaning 
cf. lied. Lex. Ox/., s. v. 

5. r V\ Vinw] Scarcely original. The clumsily connected sen- 
tence VOS? Vn ICWI introduces a statement which we should have 
expected to occupy the first place (cf. I. 3. 12) ; and the statement 
'}) VinNl is in direct contradiction to ch. 23. 25, where Josiah is 
regarded, from the standpoint of R D , as the ideal of a religious 
king. Probably therefore we should omit mnx and the 1 before 
nwi, and read vodJj Vn -\m nyn) *Jxcrbtt *nba n;n 161. 

6. niiTn plTl] On the use of pm by R D cf. note on I. 11. 2. 
VnnND "ID tib] Cf. ch. 3. 3 note. 

i"I^D Jltf] Luc. tg> M<o(ri7 7rat6i avrov. 

7. rTTil] Probably frequentative, in reference to the repeated 
occasions depicted by K2P. 

9-12. A notice from the Annals, introduced by the synchronism 
of R D , v. 9 a , and closed by his comment z>. 12. The notice is 
identical with ch. 17. 5, 6. 

18. 13 — 20. 19. Sennacherib 's campaign against Judah (18. 13 — 
19. 37): sickness and recovery of Hezekiah (20. 1-11): embassy of 
Merodach-Baladan (20. 12-19). 

CM. 18. 13, 17—20. 19 = Isa. 36. 1— 38. 8; 38. 21—39. 8. 
The section vv. 14-16, which is not found in Isaiah, is dis- 

XVIII. 2-12 339 

tinguished from 18. 13, \*\ ff. by the form of the name njj?}FI 
(instead of *njj?tn) which occurs also in vv. 1, 10 (Annals). The 
notice appears to be in strict agreement with the Assyrian record 
(cf. Append. 5, col. iii. 11. 11 ff), and is probably a genuine excerpt 
from the Annals. 

It is generally agreed that the narrative of Isa. 36. 1 — 39. 8 
cannot be traced to Isaiah himself, but must be of a considerably 
later date. Notice the mention of Sennacherib's death (Isa. 37. 38 
\\ch. 19. 37), which did not happen until b.c 681, twenty years 
after the campaign against Jerusalem, and certainly later than the 
death of Isaiah. Again, it seems to be clear that the Isaiah 
section (except 38. 9-20, from another source) must have been 
extracted from our Book of Kings by the editor of Isa. 1 — 39. 
For certain phrases which are due to R D in the Kings-narrative 
appear also in Isaiah: — cf. my TH ]]rob ch. 19. 34 || Isa. 37. 35; 
T^yn . . . Tl^nnn n^K fix ch. 20. 3 || Isa. 38. 3 ; and the redac- 
tional phrases Win D^3 ch. 20. 1 || Isa. 38. 1 ; N s nn nyi ch. 20. 12 
|| Isa. 39. 1. Kings is also superior to Isaiah in the account of 
Hezekiah's sickness. Isa. 38. 4-8 has been abbreviated; 38. 21, 22 
is misplaced. 

The Kings-narrative 18. 13, 17 — 20. 19 seems to represent 
a combination of three sources. Sta. {ZATW. vi. 174) notices 
that Isaiah's threat against Sennacherib occurs three times in 
similar terms: 19. 7; 19. 28 b ; 19. 33. The contents of Sen- 
nacherib's letter (19. 10-13) merely repeat in brief that which has 
already been said by the Rabshakeh (18. 28-35). Again, it is 
highly improbable that Sennacherib, after hearing the news with 
regard to Tirhakah (19. 9 a ), should have imagined that the mere 
dispatch of a letter would be likely to compel Hezekiah's sub- 
mission, after the failure of previous verbal negotiations. The 
true sequel to 19. 9 a seems to be 19. 36/!/ upon receiving in- 
formation of Tirhakah's hostile movement, Sennacherib raises 
the siege of Jerusalem and returns to Assyria. We have, then, 
two separate accounts of the Assyrian campaign, 18. 13, 17 — 19. g a , 
^6/., and 19. 9 b — 35 ; 19. 9 b having probably been slightly modified 

z 2 

340 The Second Book of Kings 

by the redactor. Further, the section 19. 9 b -35 itself appears 
to be composite in character. The taunt-song vv. 21-28, with 
its accompanying sign vv. 29-31, stands apart from the prosaic 
statement zw. 32-34. p? 'therefore* of v. 32 answers, not to 
anything in the prophecy preceding, but to v. 20 b /3, rwSnn "1£>K 
*DSW , ♦ ♦ 'Whereas thou hast prayed ... I have heard'; and, 
as has been noticed above, vv. 28 b , 33 are duplicates of the same 
statement Thus vv. 21-31, generally regarded by critics as an 
authentic prophecy of Isaiah, appear to have been inserted into 
the midst of the prophetical history 19. 9 b -20, 32-34, v. 2i a 
representing the redactor's link. 

The narrative of 20. 1-19 probably belongs to the author of 
one of the two preceding narrative sections. Cheyne, following 
Duhm, selects the second narrative, 19. $> ff. Notice, as a point 
of connexion, the occurrence of a prayer of Hezekiah in each 
section, 19. 15^./ 20. 2 f. Very possibly the chronological 
notice at the beginning of 18. 13, 'In the fourteenth year of king 
Hezekiah,' properly refers to the events of 20. 1-19, and occupies 
its present position upon the false assumption that Sennacherib's 
invasion took place in the same year as Hezekiah's sickness and 
recovery. This arrangement is probably due to R D , who removed 
the note of time from its true position at the head of the narrative 
of 20. 1 ff. y replacing it by his synchronistic phrase, 'In those 
days 1 .' Notice the reference to Assyria in 20. 6. The whole 
verse, from *]?£} 'and from the hand &c.,' must be due to the 
author of the mistaken synchronism. Cf. the latter half with 
19. 34. 

13. mw m^JJ JD")N3l] The sixth year of Hezekiah for the fall 
of Samaria, b. c. 722 (v. 10), cannot be reconciled with the four- 
teenth year for Sennacherib's campaign, b. c. 701, and it seems 
the best course to regard this latter date as true for the sickness 
of Hezekiah and the embassy of Merodach-Baladan {ch. 20), 
which will then fall cir. b. c. 714. Thus Hezekiah's reign may 

1 Cf. note on ch. 18. I3 t 

XVIII. i3~24 34i 

be supposed to have closed b. c. 699, i.e. some fifteen years after 
B.C. 714 (ch. 20. 6 a ). 

'31 "Hy ?3 ?y] According to the inscription of the Taylor 
cylinder, col. iii. 1. 13 (cf. Append. 5), Sennacherib captured forty- 
six fortified towns, besides innumerable fortresses and small 

14. '31 r&B*l] LXX, Luc, Vulg. supply an object Msl'P. 

nP\D^] Cf. ch.. 14. 19 note. 

'31 HIND &>i>K>] The sum is given in the inscription (col. iii. 
1. 34) as thirty talents of gold and 800 talents of silver. Schrader 
quotes Brandis for the view that the difference in the statement 
of the amount of the silver is due to the difference in weight 
between the Babylonian light and the Palestinian heavy talent. 

16. MWI nyi] Cf. L 14. 1 note. 

17. jrnn] Assyr. tartdnu or turtdnu, title of the commander-in- 
chief of the Assyrian army. || Isa. 36. 2 omits this official and the 
one following. 

D^ID Si] Probably the Hebrew perversion (' chief of the 
eunuchs ') of an Assyrian title which is unknown to us. 

r\p& Si] Probably in Assyr. rab-sakt, i.e. 'high officer.' Cf. 
iud-saku or sud-sake, ' high-lord, chieftain/ Delitzsch, Assyr. 
HWB. 685. 

1X3^1 )bv^] Rightly omitted in the second place by LXX, Luc, 
Vulg., Pesh. 

'31 ni>yrQ] Cf. Isa. 7. 3. The site is unknown. For the con- 
jectures which have been offered cf. Dillmann on Isa. 7. 3. 

18. mr\ by] Cf. I. 4. 6 note. 

19. nntDl lex] Luc rjv 7T€7roi6as ai) Ka\ nas 'lovba. Possibly 
the addition may be due to corruption of 2v unas, i.e. £"]£?> which 
is missing in Luc, at the beginning of the following verse. LXX 


22. DUETTO] || Isa. 36. 7 omits. 

24. '31 iriN nnD] 'One satrap of the least of my lord's servants.' 
nna must be regarded as attracted into the construct state of its 
adjective *inK f as is the case in the expression "Wh T\&[ n^X Deut. 

342 The Second Book of Kings 

21. ii. The general verdict is for the excision of nns as a 
corrupt insertion, but the construction, though harsh, can scarcely 
be asserted to be impossible, in view of our limited knowledge 
of the possibilities of Hebrew syntax. Cf. Ko. Syntax, §§ 2770, 
337 0. On the meaning and use of nriQ cf. note on I. 10. 15. 

25. Tl^y] LXX, LUC. avefirjixev. 

27. '31 byri] Notice the confusion between by and b& : — *p*TK by 
D^Nn S?y..»T^tt- 11 Isa. 36. 12 reads y:ix bxn. On this 
confusion between the prepositions cf. note on prti by I. 1. 38, 
and the full list of instances given in Heb. Lex. Ox/., s. v. by 

§ 7'- 

29. ITO] Luc, Vulg., Pesh., Targ. rightly presuppose HJ?- 
|| Isa. 36. 14 omits. 

31. n:nn 71K TO] RV., following Targ., ' Make your peace 
with me/ This use of 7\T\1 ' blessing,' in the sense of a mutual 
well wishing taking the form of a treaty, is unique. 

32. VJTi] On the idiomatic use of the imperative in place of the 
cohortative cf. I. 1. 12 note. 

34. 'HI ITN] The allusion is perhaps to Sargon's defeat of 
Ya'u-bidi king of Hamath, who had induced the Assyrian 
provinces of Arpad, Simirra, Damascus, and Samaria to join 
with him in revolt. This coalition was crushed at Qarqar in 
B.C. 720. Cf. KB. ii. 56/ ISfjK the modern Tell- Erf dd, to the 
north of Aleppo, had been conquered by Tiglath-Pileser III, in 
B.C. 743-740. KB. i. 212^ Upon EWSD cf. ch. 17. 24 note. 
V?n and njy (omitted in U Isa. 36. 19) are unknown 1 . The latter 
is doubtless the same as njy of ch. 17. 24. 

The second half of the verse runs in Luc. koi nov dob ol 6eo\ 

rrjs x<o/jas 2apapeias ; fir) tf-etXaPTO rr\v 1ap.dpa.av ex x €i P° s H- ov » '"V.^l 

'31 &»*n W ffifiy p.? ^%- The insertion is indispensable, the 
subject presupposed by 17^n being obviously ' the gods of Samaria/ 
So Klo., Kamp., Benz., Kit., Oort. 

1 Targ. prN^aNi p^iobio wbn ' Has he not dispersed them and carried them 
captive ? ' takes the forms as verbs, Hiph'il of 2?12 and Pi'el of ms. Similarly 
2. in Isa. 37. 13 avtaT&ruoe nal £to.ituvoj<X€. 

XVIII. 2 j— XIX. 12 343 

36. wnnm] || Isa. 36. 21 ^lip., correctly. 
Dyn] LXX, Luc. omit. 

37. DHJQ VHp] Lit. * rent as to garment/ Cf. note on I. 15. 23. 

19. 2. After Kai 2opvav t6v ypafifiaTfa Luc. has the curious inser- 
tion Kcri tov "EaiTTjv Ka\ tuv 2ovfxair](rovfiat kcu rbv MciKpcmtjv top ycpovra. 
Possibly Sairrjv and 2ovf*. represent marginal notes of three various 
spellings of the name N32£>; the second perhaps 2ovpa rj 2ovna 
by transposition of the letters of 

3. m^] LXX, Luc, Vulg., Pesh. presuppose n*}.? 5 ? <to her 
who is in travail,' probably correctly. So Klo. Cf. Mic. 4. 9, 10 ; 
Hos. 13. 13; Jer. 49. 24. The form fTO as infin. constr. for the 
normal JTJJ occurs elsewhere Hos. 9. n ; Jer. 13. 21. 

4. ITDim] RV. 'And will rebuke the words which Yahwe thy 
God hath heard.' So Pesh.,Targ. rpaini is thus perf. with ) consec. 
in continuation of jw. LXX, Luc, Vulg. treat rTOVn as infin. 
constr., equivalent to TOfrljW, thus regarding "fl#K - ?|JD as the 

8. nilb] Cf. ch. 8. 22 note. 

9. 'l\ W y»B»l] II Isa. 37. 9 reads bv for i>K. 

npmn] Mentioned by Sennacherib not by name but as ' the 
king of Mttuhhiy Taylor cylinder, col. ii. 11. 69 jff. (cf. Append. 5). 
The name is given by Assurbanipal as Tar-ku-u, Egyptian T-h-r-k. 

rbm 3B*l] II Isa. 37. 9 rbwi yD^1 'and when he had heard, 
he sent/ 3B*1 was doubtless written by the hand which connected 
the following narrative with the preceding, i.e. presumably the 
hand of R D (cf. p. 339) : hence yDB*l may be judged to be a 
corruption of 3^1 . LXX in Isaiah combines the two readings : 

kol aKovaas aiT€<rTpefytv Kai anea-TiCKev. 

10. LXX omits the introductory sentence down to the first 
"1ENP, probably through homoioteleuton with the end of v. 9. 

11. DEHnrp] ' A s regards devoting them to destruction/ 

12. TlDX innE' *1CJ<] Luc. ovs ^C€(f}0€ipav oi narepes p.ov avrovs Kai 

ras x^pas avrav. The reading of LXX has arisen through corrup- 
tion of ovs into ov. 

';i ftta HN] On }rw cf. ch. 17. 6. pn is Harran of the inscrip- 

344 The Second Book of Kings 

tions, Charrae of the Romans, in north-west Mesopotamia, situated 
on the Belias, a tributary of the Euphrates. PjVi, mentioned in 
the inscriptions as Ra-sa-ap-pa or Ra-sap-pa, is the 'Pqadcpa of 
Ptolemaeus (v. 15), and the modern Rusdfa, on the route from 
Sura to Palmyra in the Euphrates valley Ez-Zor , (cf. Delitzsch, 
Paradies, 297). The py *J2 belonged to the Aramaean state 
Bit-Adini, situated between the Euphrates and the Belias, which 
offered stubborn resistance to Assur-nazir-pal, and was conquered 
by his successor Shalmaneser II in b. c. 856 (Hommel, Assyria 
in Hastings, BD. i. 183 13 , 184 13 ; Maspero, iii. 3oyC, 66). The 
site of n^K^n (1| Isa. 37. 12 ^fbty must naturally be sought for 
in the same neighbourhood, and is probably to be identified with 
Til-asurri in the land of the Hittites (cf. Winckler, Geschichte 
Babyloniens, 269, 335/".). 

Luc. separates "lEWn from necessary connexion with py ^2 by 
the insertion of mi, i. e. Ijfl&pS TBbJI. 

13. ':•) VK] 'Where is he, (viz.) the king of Hamath?' So Isa. 
19. 12 T??H KiBK D^; Mic. 7. 10 ^N '< ta«. || I sa . 37. 13 
reads HJK. 

'ai nDn "£»] Cf. ch. 18. 34 »<?/*. 

15. '* vsb 'n ^SrVl] LXX omits. 

78*185* WS r> ] Luc. Kupte navTOKpaTcop, 6 9eo9 'io-pa^X, Pesh. 
^«»t «£&*(? )o^( *. jij^.^*** lut^o presuppose the insertion of 
n)K2? after \ as in || Isa. 37. 16. 

DWan SB*] Cf. 1 Sam. 4. 4 ; 2 Sam. 6. 2. || 1 Chr. 13. 6; 
Ps. 80. 2 ; 99. 1. The reference is primarily to the presence of 
the HJ'W above the fVib? in the innermost sanctuary of the 

crr^NTl Kin nr»N] So 2 Sam. 7. 28. Probably ' Thou (with 
emphasis; lit. 'Thou-He') art the God'; or else 'Thou art He, 
(namely) the God/ Cf. Dri. Tenses, § 200. 

i6 a . y^? 51 ] Hatef-pathah frequently occurs under initial 
sibilants after * copulative. Cf. I. 14. 21 VMfo; ch. 9. 17 npgfy 
and other instances cited in G-K. § 10 g. Cf. note on I. 13. 7. 

irfo? n^N] Read rhy -\0 s with LXX, Luc, Vulg., Pesh., and 

XIX. 13-24 345 

|| Isa. 37. 17; i.e. probably 'which he hath sent' (LXX, Luc.), or 
possibly ' who hath sent ' (Vulg.). 

17. llHnn] Probably we should read tt^Jjn, in agreement with 
v. 11. So Benz., Kit., and (on Isa.) Duhm, Cheyne, Marti, and 
doubtfully Dillmann. 

DW m\ || Isa. 37. 1 8 erroneously nfan^rrbs"™ . 

DVlK JlNl] LXX Omits. LUC. Ka\ iraaav rrjv yrjv avr&v. Vulg. 
ei terras omnium. 

18. iJDJl] Irregular usage of the perfect with weak 1. || Isa. 
37. 19 is correct in reading infin. abs. fh|1, in accordance with 
idiom. Da. § 88 a . 

19. '31 nnK "o] ||Isa. 37. 20 omits DM7M erroneously. 

20. S>N1B» V&K f< \ LXX, Luc. Kvptos (LXX adds 6 Geos) tw 

Swa/we<»f Geo? laparjX. 

21. JVV J"Q nPinn] Suspended construct state. Cf. note on 

totfiipaa ^« ^. 10. 6. 

nyofl swn] A gesture of mockery. Cf. Ps. 22. 8; 109. 25; 
Lam. 2. 15 ; Job 16. 4. 

22. naiai nain] Weak I co-ordinates two synonymous ideas. 
Cf. Dri. Tenses, § 132. 

23. aa"D] Q're ^3 in agreement with the text of many Codd., 
all Verss. and || Isa. 37. 24. 

^?vl] LXX, Luc, Vulg. are probably correct in reading Fn^KJ, 
and similarly NtaNJ, and #.24 ^l^J, ^.25 (except Vulg.) VUJ1. 
So most moderns. 

nvp |to] 'His farthest lodging-place'; lit. 'the lodging-place 
of his end/ }ii?D as in Isa. 10. 29. LXX fieo-op, Cod. A, Luc. 
fiepos are doubtless emendations of a transliteration fieXcov. Q're 
tei? appears in the text of many Codd. 

|| Isa. 37. 24 offers the inferior reading tej? &Y1D. 

24. aintfl] In reference to 'all the Nile-streams of Egypt,' 
a^nK} must be regarded as a perfect of certitude; and this is 
quite consistent with the known intentions of Sennacherib, and 
the boastful tenour of the words which are put into his 

346 The Second Book of Kings 

yfitD] Winckler (Alttest. Untersuchungen, 170) supposes that the 
original vocalization was li¥*t? or *tftt?, on the ground that the 
form Mi-ig-ga-ri occurs twice on the Amarna tablets. The 
Massoretic vocalization will then be due to identification of the 
name with the Hebrew word meaning ' fortification/ 

25. 'ai a&n] Render as in RV., with the alteration Wfi 'that 
thou becamest/ in place of '•nrfl, rendered 'that thou shouldest be,' 
and the addition of ' and ' before ' now.' The thought of the 
verse is that of Isa. 10. $ff. 

The first part of the verse down to Dip W}J? is omitted 
by LXX. 

.Trm*)] Omit ) with LXX, Luc, Vulg., Pesh. So Marti. 

nny] Read nriyi with LXX, Luc, Vulg., Pesh. 

nwrb] Standing for TftVXfob (|| l sa . 37. 26) with syncope of 1. 
Cf.G-K. §§23/, 75^. 

D*Jtt] Participle Niph'al of HS3. The only other occurrence 
of the verb is in Jer. 4. 7, where n 3"^|^ should probably be restored 
for Qal nyjfl. 

26. *P HVp] ' Short of hand,' i.e. unequal to the task of saving 
themselves. So, with the verb, Isa. 50. 2 WISE HJ rn*ij ifofgn ; 
59. 1 ; Num. 11. 23. 

I^nn] || Isa. 37. 27 fcb}, perfect with 1 co-ordinate. 

nop *3B^ naiBl] RV., ' and as corn blasted before it be grown 
up,' follows the rendering of Vulg. quae arefacta est antequam 
veniret ad maturitatem ; cf. Targ. )^31E> *\rvxb NttD \b ly p)bwn. 
Such a sense, however, cannot be extracted from the original as 
it stands ; and, if we are to retain it, the least alteration will be 
toj? *3jp!> *jVl#n, referring back to niaa "Y^n. But there can be 
no doubt that Wellh. (C 360) is right in finding in nop *3Q? 
a corruption of *Jt?iJ *3?? which connects with ^jriZlKh of the follow- 
ing verse : ' Before me is thy rising up and thy lying down.' 
This supersedes the emendation of Th. DHjJ "OB? ' before the 
east wind.' Possibly, then, HQI^ may stand by itself in the sense 
'blasted' (sc corn); and this is preferable to || Isa. 37. 27 »"I01^, 
which seems to give no sense in this connexion. Klo.'s emenda- 

XIX. 2J-37 347 

tion D*BB^ is worthy of notice : ' grass of the house tops and of 
the downs! So Cheyne. For W*W as barren uplands, cf. Isa. 
41. 18; Jer. 12. 12. 

28. *pjNc] RV. text, ''thine arrogance,' in agreement with 
LXX, Luc. to o-Tpr)v6s aov, Vulg. superbia tua, a rendering perhaps 
to be justified by Ps. 123. 4. RV. marg., 'thy careless ease,' is 
the more usual meaning. This latter rendering, however, is 
unsuitable to the context and parallelism; and the same remark 
applies, in a less degree, to the former rendering. Probably the 
emendation ^ifctt? ' thy tumult/ adopted by Benz., Kit., Budde, 
Gratz, Cheyne, is correct. 

'X\ TiD^l] The figure is that of a savage beast led captive by 
a ring in its nose. Cf. Ezek. 19. 4, and the similar figure of 
Ezek. 29. 4; 38. 4. 

29. ITBD] 'That which groweth of itself; from unused root 
equivalent to Ar. 'JLL pour out, and so, the produce of grain 
spilled or self-sown. B^np (|| Isa. 37. 30 DTItp) is by inference 
the self-sown produce of this natural crop in the second year. 
So Verss. 

31. Q're ntoif is supported by the text of many Codd., all 
Verss., and || Isa. 37. 32. 

33. «y] Read Nil with || Isa. 37. 34. 

34. njw6] LXX omits. In Luc. the whole of v. 34 a has 
fallen out. 

H3y nn }y»h] Cf. I. 11. 12 note. 

35. The catastrophe, as might have been expected, is passed 
over in silence in the Assyrian inscriptions; but the fact that 
Sennacherib does not make claim to have captured Jerusalem 
is in agreement with our narrative. Herodotus (ii. 141) records 
an Egyptian tradition, according to which Sennacherib's army 
was easily routed at Pelusium because innumerable field-mice 
had during the night gnawed through its bow-strings and the 
thongs of its shields. 

36. 3B*i ^l] Luc. omits. 

37. *pD3] No such god is known in the Assyrian inscriptions. 

348 The Second Book of Kings 

Hale'vy (Melanges de crit. 177) plausibly conjectures that the 
name should be ""J1DJ, i.e. Nusku, a solar deity. 

'31 mrWD Kin ^n^l] On the construction cf. I. 13. 20 7/0/*. 

■jbllN] Cf. note on f/i 17. 31. 

'iSN'lb'] According to Schrader {COT. ad toe.) the name is 
shortened from Nergal-sar-usur (cf. Jer. 39. 3, 13). He refers 
to Abydenus, as quoted by Eusebius, who states that Sennacherib 
was assassinated by Adramelus, and succeeded by Nergilus, and 
that this latter was put to death by Axerdis. If, as seems obvious, 
Adramelus corresponds to ■po-ntf and Axerdis to pmDK, then 
Nergilus may be thought to answer to 1¥K^£?. 

VJ3] Q're has the support of many Codd., all Verss., and 
|| Isa. 37. 38. 

DT1X] Assyr. Urartu, the land of Armenia. 

20. 1. nnn n^ca] Cf. ch. 10. 32 note. 

IwJ? W] Cf. I. 2. 1 note. 

nntf T)12 "D] ' For thou art about to die '; the participle denoting 
the futurum instans. The same idiomatic expression occurs Gen. 
20. 3; 48. 21; 50. 5, 24; Deut. 4. 22; Jer. 28. 16. Cf. also 
Deut. 17. 6 nsn 'the doomed man/ 

2. 3D!!] On the Aramaizing form cf. G-K. § 67^. 

4. 'y\ TVl] On the construction cf. Dri. Tenses, § 165. || Isa. 
38. 4 is much abbreviated. 

T>yn] Read "^'H with the text of several Codd., and all Verss. 
On "rcn used definitely without the article cf. I. 7. 8 note. The 
middle court was the courtyard of the palace, called rinnxn "ii*n 
I. 7. 8 in contrast to the Temple (innermost) court. Cf. note on 
I. 6. 36. 

5. TM] Cf. I. 1. 35 note. 

6. 'HI ^V?^] || Isa. 38. 6 omits. 

7. '31 inp] LXX, Luc, Pesh. presuppose the reading ♦ ♦ ♦ Wp* 
••IT] ♦ . ♦ SD^Jl < Let them take . . . and place . . . that he may 
recover.' This is probably original, Hezekiah's request for the 
sign in v. 8 naturally presupposing that recovery is only as yet 
promised and not accomplished. W\>)\ v. 7 b must have been 

XX. i-u h 349 

inserted after 'ft llD'W had been taken as describing a completed 
sequence of events. 

|| Isa. 38. 21 (which, with v. 22, is misplaced) reads ♦ ♦ ♦ Wfe^ 
*H3 • • • ,r n??l- The verb m», a a7ra| X*y. in Heb., is explained 
from the Ar. .£1© anoint, smear. 

8. 'jn rm n»] || isa. 38. 22 '» rra n^ya *a nis* no. 

9. '31 *]?n] The only possible rendering is that of RV. marg. 
1 The shadow is gone forward &c/ But it is evident from 
Hezekiah's reply, v. 10, that an alternative is offered to him. 
We must therefore emend ^.i\, which is expressed by Targ. ypft, 
and presupposed by the other Verss. So Th. (doubtfully), Klo., 
Kamp., Benz., Kit., Oort. 

11k. As the text stands, n'J'V can only refer to the masc. ^n. 
The true subj. of the verb is, however, preserved by Pesh., Targ., 
viz. Btol^n, which should be inserted after HY]^ or after tnx as in 
Isaiah (see below). The statement then runs : — ' And he brought 
back the shadow on the steps by which the sun had gone down 
on the step-clock of Ahaz, ten steps/ This slight correction (Th., 
Oort) is more obvious than the supposition that m*V *WK flvyioa 
is an erroneous insertion from |[ Isa. 38. 8. 

The Isaianic account omits the offer of an alternative sign ; 
v. 8 with the emendations bvn for i»V s VDfn for Btotf? (Kautzsch 
and others) reading as follows:—"^ n6pn ^rrriK 3*Bto *33il 

ni^yD "ot £wn nefrn ni^VD "OT rpnhK Ewn ina nibyiDS hit 

Si- v r. v v - t t - -:- •.• v . ~ -. ... v - T t -;- : t :t 

; n TK "^ n ^P? ' Behold I will bring back the shadow so many 
steps as the sun has gone down upon the step-clock of Ahaz, 
even ten steps. And the sun returned ten steps upon the steps 
by which it had gone down.' 

The character of the sun-clock called HvJJB can only be con- 
jectured. Most probably it was 'a pointed pillar (obelisk) upon 
a (round or square) plinth, to which a flight of steps led up. This 
pillar cast the shadow of its point at midday upon the highest, 
and at morning and evening upon the lowest step (west or east), 
and thus indicated the time of day/ Cf. Dillmann on Isaiah ad loc. 
The clock may have been introduced by Ahaz from Assyria 

350 The Second Book of Kings 

(cf. ch. 16. 10 ff). According to Herodotus (ii. 109) the Baby- 
lonians were the inventors of the noXos or concave sun-dial upon 
which the shadow was cast by the yvu>fxa>v, and of the division 
of the day into twelve hours. 

12. wnn 1*150] Cf. I. 14. 1 note. 

pfc6a *pN-0] Read j-j^n 'pK'TO with several Codd., LXX, 
Luc, Pesh., Targ., and || Isa. 39. 1. The Assyrian form is 
Marduk-abal-idinna. Merodach-Baladan appears at first as king 
of the Kaldu. His kingdom is called Bit-Yakin^hy the salt waters/ 
i. e. the Persian Gulf. He paid homage and tribute to Tiglath- 
Pileser in B.C. 729 (Rost, 60/.), but seems to have seized the 
opportunity of the death of Shalmaneser and the accession of 
Sargon to constitute himself king of Babylon. His principal ally 
was Humbanigas king of Elam. Sargon directed an expedition 
against the allies (b. c. 721); but little is known about it, and 
it seems to have met with ill success. Humbanigas of Elam died 
in B.C. 717, and was succeeded by his less able son Su/ur-nahundi. 
Merodach-Baladan retained the sovereignty of Babylon for twelve 
years, until Sargon, having settled his affairs in the west and north, 
was able to direct his arms against him. After a campaign which 
occupied B.C. 710-709, Sargon entered Babylon in triumph. He 
claims to have taken Merodach-Baladan prisoner (Winckler, 
Sargon, 84/!, 122/"., 150/!), but elsewhere (Winckler, Sargon, 
58yC) seems to state that he fled away and could not be found. 
The latter alternative seems to be the more probable, since a 
Merodach-Baladan appears some years later as king of Babylon 
for nine months, until conquered and driven out by Sennacherib 
(b. c. 704: cf. Tiele, Bab. Gesch. i. 246). Cf. Winckler, Sargon, 
pp. xv/! 3 xvii, xxxi-xxxix ; Maspero, iii. 222^!, 254^". 

There can be no doubt that Merodach-Baladan's embassy to 
Hezekiah took place some time prior to b. c 710, whilst he was 
forming alliances in order to meet the advance of Sargon, which 
he must have foreseen as inevitable so soon as the latter should 
find himself free to operate against him. According to the 
chronology of Kings, Hezekiah's sickness happened in b. c. 714 

XX. 1 2-i 6 351 

(cf. ch. 18. 13 note), and the embassy arrived shortly afterwards, 
i.e. probably any time between the end of b. c. 714 and the begin- 
ning of b.c. 712. 

ptibz p] In the inscriptions he appears as 'son of Taking 
doubtless a dynastic title. Cf. the title ' son of Omri/ applied by 
Shalmaneser II to Jehu, as king of the land which was known to 
Assyria as JBit-Hu-um-ri-a. Cf. notes on ch. 9. 2 ; I. 16. 23. 

DHBD] Duhm, Cheyne, Marti emend E^pHp ' eunuchs,' a cor- 
rection which is suitable to the suffix objects in v. 13 jflDB^l 

yE£> *D] II Isa. 39. 1 incorrectly VP^*1, through confusion of 
3 and 1. Cf. note on I. 12. 30. 

13. JWl] Read np'fc^l 'And Hezekiah was glad because of 
them/ with several Codd., LXX, Luc, Vulg., Pesh. 1 , and || Isa. 39. 2. 
So moderns. 

nn33 TO bl nx] bl is omitted by many Codd., Vulg., Pesh., 
and || Isaiah. The meaning of nrDJ TO can only be guessed 
from the context ; so Luc. t6v oIkov ttjs inapt-cas atrov, Pesh. 
o»J^ k»^, Targ. NTim TO, 'his treasure-house' ; Vulg. domum 
aromatum, and so 'A., 2. in || Isa. rbv oIkov twv dpcopdrav. In Assyr. 
bit nakanti denotes 'treasure-house/ nakaniu or nakamtu, plural 
nakamdti, meaning ' treasure/ and nakdmu, ' to heap up.' Cf. 
Delitzsch, Assyr. HWB. 462. Hence some authorities (cf. Heb. 
Lex. Ox/) propose to read P£$M TO, making the word equivalent 
to nakavdti for 7iakamdti. 

inbt^DD ?22)~\ Luc. Ka\ lv navrl Brjcravpco avrov. 

14. INI 11 pNOl] 'And from whence may they come?' A more 
polite form of question than the categorical ^2 P£D. Cf. Dri. 
Tenses, § 39 7. 

15. nm JIT! kS>] LXX, Luc, Pesh. add > TO3. 
»m»Q] LXX, Luc. vfwto. 

16-18. No kind of allusion is found elsewhere in the known 
prophecies of Isaiah to a Babylonian captivity, the prophet's 

1 Also Targ., according to de Rossi, in one MS. and in Edit. Venet. 

35 2 The Second Book of Kings 

political horizon being bounded by the great powers of his times, 
Assyria and Egypt. Thus it is probable that these verses have 
been worked over by R D2 in exilic or post-exilic times. 

1 6. nii"p] Luc. Kvptov naPTOKpaTopos. 

17. D s Nn tw TO] Luc. adds (prjal Kvpios, i.e. '* D*0; cf. e.g. 
ch. 19. 33; 22. 19 in Luc. 

18. 1?dd] Sta. emends fffl? 'from, thy bowels/ after Gen. 
15. 4; 2 Sam. 7. 12, and regards the following T7in "1BW as a 
gloss which owes its origin to the corruption *pO . 

I9 b . '31 K"6i"l] LXX omits. Pesh. Jo<*j . . . ^»? ,aofcs*7, Luc. 
ycveoOa, Vulg. «'/, agree with || Isa. 39. 8 ')) JW *3, properly 
' There shall be &c/ 

20. 'jn Pipy "|£W] 2 Chr. 32. 30 describes the method adopted 
by Hezekiah in order to provide a water-supply for Jerusalem : 

nnyio ntaE>b cnt^i ri^yn rtrro *d>» NsiE-riK dhd vmrt wni 

T T-;- t - : •• : _ - • : V T ' • •• •• T v - T T" J • j : 

TVI "Vyp. There exists an ancient tunnel which was cut in order 
to supply the pool of Siloam from the spring now called the 
Virgin's Fountain (cf. note on ?T\ |*y I. 1. 9). 'The distance in 
a straight line is 368 yards, but by the rocky channel 586 yards/ 
In the mouth of this tunnel, where it opens into Siloam, there 
was discovered in 1880 an inscription which records the manner 
in which two parties of workmen quarried at either end, and 
met in the middle (cf. Append. 2 ; Baed. 97/!). Both tunnel and 
inscription may reasonably be supposed to be due to Hezekiah. 
Sta., however (Ges. U.592^.), thinks that the tunnel was already 
in existence in the time of Ahaz, and quotes Isa. 8. 6 in support 
of his contention. 

2 1. After V. 21^ Luc. adds kol eracpy] p.€Ta Toav narepav avrov iv 
TToXei Aavld, 

21. 1-18. Manasse/i, king of Judah. 

Ch. 21. 1-9, 18 = 2 Chr. 33. 1-9, 20. 

The narrative throughout is the work of R D , based upon very 
brief notices (vv. 3, 4 a , 5, 6 a , 7 a , i6 a ), derived, presumably, from 
the Annals. The section vv. 10-15 appears to presuppose the 

XX. I6-XXI. $ 353 

captivity of Judah, and must therefore, in its present form, be 
assigned to R D2 . The following phrases of R D have in most 
cases already been noticed: — 

2. 'm dw nnjnrD] 1. 14. 24 note. 

4, 7. W n« D^N] I. 9. 3 note. 

7. Thm -iew n^nui] I. 8. 16 tw/*. 

8. Dni2N^ Tin: t^k] I. 8. 34 «^/?. 

ni^ 1*W DN] So I. 11. 10 (»0/*); ch. 17. 37 ; 2 Chr. 33. 8 ; 
1 Chr. 22. 12; Deut. 5. 1, 29; 6. 3, 25; 7. 11; 8. 1 ; 11. 
22, 32; 12. 1; 13. 1; 15. 5; 17. 10; 19. 9; 24. 8; 28. 1, 
15,58; 31.12; 32.46; Josh. 1. 7, 8; 22. 5 (D 2 ). 

10. Dwann may] Cf. *£. 9. 7; 17. 13, 23; 24. 2; Jer. 7. 

25; 25. 4; 26. 5; 29. 19; 35. 15; 44. 4. Elsewhere 
Am. 3. 7; Zech. 1. 6; Ezra 9. 11 ; Dan. 9. 10. 

11. 'y\ ynn] I. 14. 9 note. 

11, 21. vW>;a; D^ta] I. 15. 12 «<>/<?. 

12. by ny-\ tfa» ^n] I. 14. 10 note. 

21. 1. n£OD] Both Esar-haddon and Assurbanipal refer to this 
king as Mi-na-si-i or Mi-in-si-i, king of Judah, in a list of twenty- 
two kings of the land of Hatti. Cf. COT. ad loc. 

2. n^Vin^] Luc. Kai CTTopcvdr] Kara iravra to. /38eXvy/xara k.t.A. 

3. D*wn K2¥] The stars; cf. »0/<? on I. 22. 19. The worship 
of the heavenly bodies was indigenous in Babylon in the 
earliest times, and was no doubt introduced into Judah through 
intercourse with Assyria. Whether this Babylonian cult was 
known and practised in the Northern Kingdom also before its 
fall, as is affirmed in ch. 17. i6 b , has been questioned. Cf. 

P- 33 1 - 

4. rwi] The use of perfect with weak 1, here and in v. 6, 

must be ascribed to the decadent style of the Annalist. Cf. note 
on ^DHI ch. 14. 7. 

nrQTKi] LXX, Luc. sing. 6vvia<nr)piov. So LXX in v. 5. 

5. *V\ niixn Ti^n] The House of Yah we seems to have had 
only one courtyard; cf. I. 6. 36 note ; ch. 20. 4. Possibly the 
reference may include the rQ.n$n nvn r njb'ffi "Wn, properly 

a a 

354 The Second Book of Kings 

the Palace-courtyard, which, as Kit. remarks, passed over in the 
time of the second Temple into a wider Temple-courtyard. 

6. nw] 'Appointed/ or 'instituted/ Cf. I. 1. 5 note. 

D^SJTI nix] ' Necromancers and wizards.' nix seems to denote, 
in the first place, the ghost itself, which was said to dwell in 
the medium (Lev. 20. 27). Similarly, the witch of Endor is a 
Dix npjjn 'possessor of a ghost' (1 Sam. 28. 7), and Saul's request 
to her is n*ixn v XjPppj} ' Divine for me, I pray thee, through 
the ghost' (v. 8). In Deut. 18. 11 the diviner is called nix bm 
' one who consults a ghost.' The voice of the nix is low and 
thin, and appears to come from the ground (Isa. 29. 4). 

The transference of the term from the ghost to the medium, 
as in our passage, || 2 Chr. 33. 6 ; 1 Sam. 28. 3, 9, appears to be 
a secondary usage. According to Schwally, the reverse process 
took place in the case of *$)"]?, the prime meaning being ' wizard,' 
and hence, as with Aram. X"VQt, a secondary application being 
made to the ghost. Cf. Das Leben nach dem Tode, 69 f. If, 
however, the meaning of *j$T]J be either 'knowing one' or 'familiar,' 
it is more natural to find first reference to the ghost, as in the 
case of nix. Cf. Heb. Lex. Ox/., s. v. The root-meaning of nix 
can only be remotely conjectured, and the distinction between 
nix and 'OJTP is unknown. 

7. mmn bos nx] Cf. I. 14. 15 note. 

rOT n^x] LXX, Luc. omit. 

d^x ♦ . . "»mro n^x , , ♦ n?n rvnn] LXX, Luc. iv t<» oi«o toi,™ 

. . . e£e\e£d/i?7i/ . . . Ka\ 6t)(tg> (Luc. Oelvai), omitting "i^X before "^"inn, 
and reading HD^XI or Dlfe6 for D*fe>K. 

8. rW] LUC. CLKOvaaxri, i.e. WDB*. 

9. SHil DX] LXX adds iv 6(p6a\fiols Kvpi'ov, Luc. ivuntov 

11. jnn] LXX, Luc, Vulg. omit. 

/I'D] Luc. Kara travra, i.e. ^33. 

12. 'ai vyDB> bl i^x] Cf. i Sam. 3. 11; Jer. 19. 3. 

13. 'm TT'DJl] For the figure cf. Isa. 34. 11 ; Lam. 2. 8. 

'Jl fro 1 n^xn] Pesh., in place of this simile, reads om^oIq 

XXL 6-XXLL i 355 

J?oo*o luujtt *a»^? ]k-**^ o^o "^^a 'and will destroy it, on 
account of all the evil which Manasseh wrought in Judah.' 

"jam Pino] Read, with most moderns, SjbPfl PIPIB < wiping and 
turning (it).' The second infin. stands in simple sequence to the 
first, as e.g. in Isa. 19. 22, noticed under I. 20. 37 note. 

18. Kty] Sta. (Ges. i. 569) quotes Wellh. for the suggestion 
that NJJJ (cf. 2 Sam. 6. 3) is a contracted form of nj"lS!, which was 
in later times confused with the name PW, so that this latter 
was written in place of the contraction. Cf. ch. 15. 1, note on 


On the narrative of 2 Chr. 33. 11-13, which relates the captivity, 
repentance, and restoration of Manasseh, cf. Dri. Authority \ 114 ff. 

21. 19-26. Amon, king of Judah. 

Ch. 21. 19-24 = 2 Chr. 33. 21-25. 

R D frames brief notices from the Annals. 

24. pNPI &y] Cf. ch. 16. 15 note. 

26. irPDpU] Luc. iv t<5 rd(f)a> rov 7rarp6s avrov. 

22. 1 — 23. 30. Josiah, king of Judah. The finding of the Book of 
the Law, and the religious reformation to which it gave rise. 

Ch. 22. i—23. 3 = 2 Chr. 34. 1, 2, 8-32. 

Ch. 23. 4-20 is the probable source of the summary 2 Chr. 

34. 3-7. 

Ch. 23. 30 b = 2 Chr. 36. 1. 

The lengthy narratives of the Chronicler which relate the keeping 
of the passover, 2 Chr. 35. 1-19 (cf. ch. 23. 21-23), an< ^ Josiah's 
defeat and death at the hands of Necho, king of Egypt, 2 Chr. 

35. 20-27 (cf. ch. 23. 29, 30), appear to be based upon extraneous 

Ch. 22. 3 — 23. 25 is a continuous narrative, probably drawn from 
the Temple-archives (cf. note on ch. 11, pp. 307/".). Deuteronomic 
phrases are found in 23. 3, 19, 25 1 , and in the speech of Huldah, 

x ©D3 . . . M2xoh v. 3 (I. 2. 3, 4 note); D'ysnb v. 19 (I. 14. 9 note); 'n mom 
v. 25 (I. 3. 12 note; I. 8. 48 note). 

a a 2 

356 The Second Book of Kings 

22. 15-20 \ which seems to show signs of revision by R D2 in 
exilic times. Certainly this later editor is responsible for the 
addition 23. 26, 27 s , at the close of the narrative, which strikes 
a note strangely alien to the enthusiasm of the pre-exilic author 
in view of Josiah's reformation (cf. especially 23. 22, 25). 
Ch. 23. 29, 30 is probably drawn from the Annals. 

22. 3. IiTBW . . ♦ HJD^a] LXX, LUC. add iv t<5 firjvl r<p oySoa. 

4. Dm] RV. 'that he may sum the money'; lit. 'may bring 
to an end/ and so, by inference, ' return the full amount of/ 
No parallel, however, can be cited for such a use of the verb. 
Comparison of v. 9, ttVtn, suggests the emendation :Jfl!J, 'that 
he may pour out/ a reading which seems to be presupposed 
by Luc. km xvvevo-aTe, Vulg. ut cofifletur, and which is adopted by 
Ginsburg, Gra., Kit., Oort. LXX km o-cppdyia-ov, i.e. Dhni, is 
favoured by Th., Kamp., Benz., but appears less suitable. Klo. 
HTM 'that he may weigh'; cf. fsnon c h. 12. 12. || 2 Chr. 34. 9 Wl. 

5. *P by rwm] Lit. ' And let them place it upon the hand &c/ 
So exactly Gen. 42. 37 *TJv8 ink njri . Cf. also the expression 
T"i>y Tan Jer. 18. 21; Ezek. 35. 5; Ps. 63. n. 

Mitt l^rVl] Luc. kgu edaacau avTO Kara to prjpa tov fiaaikeoos. 
fl*33] Q're JT»3, in agreement with v. 9. Cf. <r^. 12. 12. 
7. SBTP t6] Frequentative; 'there was not (from time to time) 
made audit of/ Cf. ds. 12. 16. 

10. Before *|»N7 Luc. adds wept tov (3ifi\lov. 

12. "jfen IDy] Apparently a special title, 'the servant of the 
king' par excellence. The title has been found in ancient Heb. 
character upon a seal. Cf. Benz. Archaologie, 310^ 

13. U^y] Luc. iv ay™, i.e. Ivy, the reading of two Codd., is 
probably correct. Cf. || 2 Chr. 34. 21 rtjn "iBDrri>y. So Th., 
Klo., Kamp., Benz., Kit., Oort. 

1 'jn nm wnn *an z>. 16 (I. 14. 10 note); nnn« ovite ». 17 (I. 9. 6 note)) prA 
^Dson z>. 17 (1. 14. 9 »0te). 

2 ID'Wn v. 26 (I. 14. 9 note) ; '33 too TDK v. 27, cf. *A. 17. 18, 23 ; 24. 3 ; 
Jer. 32. 31; so with rhu I. 9. 7 ; Jer. 15. 1 ; with rfnon ch. 13. 23; 17. 20 
("jo in place of top); «mra "u:n ^.27 (I. 8. 16 *<?/£). 

XXII. 3- XXIII 4 357 

14- T)WX] LXX fir}Tc'pa. 

rWD3] 'In the second (district).' Cf. Zeph. 1. io, and, ac- 
cording to the probable interpretation, H3^D "Vyn Neh. 11. 9. 
The precise significance with which the term is employed is 
unknown. According to Neh. 3. 9, 12 we find Jerusalem divided 
into two districts in post-exilic times for administrative purposes. 
Possibly the rutsto may have been the new as distinct from the 
old city. So Ges.-Buhl. 

18. 'ai D'Hmn] '(As regards) the words which thou hast heard/ 
Luc, however, offers the reading *Avtf a>v rjnovo-as rovs \6yovs pov, 
Ka\ r)7ra\vv6r) tj Kapdia <tov, Vulg. Pro eo quod audisti verba volummis, 

et &c, i. e. ^b VZ\ &nyp) r\yoy neta qv:). 

19. n^p^l] Luc. omits. 

20. mn mp»n by] Add V^'bv) with Luc, and |j 2 Chr. 34. 28. 
So Klo. Oort I'af'l. 

23. 1. teDWl] LXX, Luc presuppose sing. *)bNJ1, as in || 2 Chr. 
34. 29. 

2. DWQjm] Six Codd. agree with || 2 Chr. 34. 30 in reading 
B*V|!1. The mention of t3W3|n is somewhat unexpected, in view 
of the fact that no mention is made of prophets in ch. 22, but 
only of Huldah the prophetess. On the other hand, the fact that 
D"1?n is the more obvious reading creates the suspicion that it 
is a correction, since no reason can be assigned for the substitution 
of nwzm for n»)bn. 

4. iWBfi WD] RV. 'the priests of the second order/ In 
ch. 25. 18 a single HJEto 10*3, 'second (i.e. vice) priest,' is men- 
tioned, in contrast to BW"in ]r\b } and Targ. N^H3 pD is probably 
correct in making reference in the present passage also to a 
single individual. 

mfc^l] Cf. I. 14. 15 note. 

JITlp miDIBa] RV. ' in the fields of Kidron/ Elsewhere TtiSW 
is peculiar to poetry. Luc. iv rw ipnvpio-ptp, i.e. niQlbDSl, adopted 
by Klo., Kamp., Benz., Kit., and interpreted as (lime-)kilns. Cf. 
Isa. 33. 12. 

NEW] Here and elsewhere in the narrative the use of the perfect 

358 The Second Book of Kings 

with weak 1 is a mark of decadence in style. Cf. note on spani 
ch. 14. 7. 

5. nap*)] Emend msgp with LXX, Targ. Luc, Vulg., Pesh. 
suggest "H^p, but may equally be supposed to be reproducing 
in their renderings the idea of purpose implied in ^tpi^l. 

n^TD^l] ' And for the heavenly mansions/ In Ar. Jt.ll manzil 
denotes a lodging-place or mansion ; and the pi. Jju-^Jl is used of 
the twenty-eight mansions of the moon. In Assyr. (Delitzsch, 
Assyr. HandworterbucJi) manzazu denotes 'a place of standing,' 
from the root nazdzu, 'to stand.' This word occurs on the fifth 
table of the Babylonian Creation series, which begins, ' He made 
the mansions (manzazi) of the great gods ' (Jensen, Kosmologie, 
288^"./ Schrader, COT. i. 15). Further, there is a fern, form of 
manzazu, viz. manzaltu ( = manzaztu), mazaltu. For this Delitzsch 
quotes III Rawlinson, 59, 35* : ' The gods in heaven in their 
mansions {nian-zal-ti-su-nu) set me/ Jensen (Kosmologie, 347/^) 
mentions the same facts. While, however, Delitzsch identifies 
these manzalti with the zodiacal stations {Prolegomena, 54), Jensen 
thinks that they were perhaps fifty in number 1 , corresponding 
to the number of the great gods, and thus can scarcely denote 
merely the signs of the zodiac, but rather certain fixed stars and 
planets, lists of which are to be found in the inscriptions, but 
of which the identification seems to be possible in a few cases 
only {Kosmologie, l^Gff.) 2 . 

In Rabbinic Heb. m?T)D is used to denote the twelve zodiacal 
signs (Berachoth, 32^; Shabbath, 75 a ), but also the planets, 
regarded as stars of good or ill fortune [Bereshith rabba, 10, 
io c ; al.). In agreement with this latter signification, we have, 
according to the restoration of de Vogue*, the dedication Dyj 7TE7, 

1 The number of the manzazi appears to have originally existed on the 
Creation tablet. 

2 Jensen finds allusion to the zodiacal signs in the maii stars of 1. 2 of the 
Creation tablet above cited. The word misrata (not mizratd) or israta, which 
occurs in 1. 3, cannot, with Sayce {Religion of Bab., 389), be identified with 

XXIII. s-io 359 

answering to the Greek 'AyaOrj rvxn in a Phoenician inscription 
from Larnaka of about the fourth century b. c. (CIS. 95). 

It is doubtful whether riHJD of Job 38. 32 is identical with 
rivjp. LXX in both passages transliterates paCovpwO, while Targ., 
in accordance with Kings, uses in Job the rendering K"9TD "HBfc?. 

6. Dyn *02 "Dp] The common burial-place of those who were 
without name and memorial. Cf. Jer. 26. 23. 

7. &Wpn] Cf. I. 14. 24 note. 

D^ni] Scarcely explicable in connexion with tftnx. RV. 
( hangings ' is unjustifiable ; and ' tent-shrines ' might have been 
called rtofcjnp, but scarcely 0^3. The transliteration of LXX x ( ttkIu 
suggests to Klo. an original D^rD for nfon.3 'tunics/ a reading 
which is supported by Luc. 0-7-oAd?, and may well be original. 
So Benz. 

8. yna] Cf. I. 15. 22 note. 

D^"Wn r\)122 rift*] Emend, with most moderns after Hoffmann, 
ZATW. ii. 175, GTtffa (LXX, Luc. 1V2) rta~nK 'The high- 
places (or house) of the Satyrs.' Cf. 2 Chr. 11. 15 ; Lev. 17. 7. 

"Vyn ijjbq] Luc. adds nvXrjv iKKe^vTrjueuav, and according to 

Field, Quinta ttjv ttvXtjv tcov T€Tpoap.eva>v (or reTpavfiaTia-pivoav), I. e. 

perhaps D^n "iyB* « the fish-gate ' ; cf. the rendering of LXX in 

Zeph. 1. IO, aiTO TTvXrjS a.1TOK€VTOVVT<dV. 

9. \?W fcO] ' Did not go up ' ; frequentative. The regulation 
of Deut. 18. 6ff. seems to have been intended to place the 
provincial priesthood upon a level with the priesthood of the 
central sanctuary, as regards service as well as maintenance. 
This regulation, so far as it concerned equality of service, appears 
from our passage to have remained a dead letter, doubtless owing 
to the exclusiveness of the Jerusalem priesthood. The provincial 
appears to have sunk at once into the subordinate position of 
the ' Levite/ as defined in the Priestly Code (I. 8. 4 note). Cf. also 
Ezek. 44. 10-16. 

10. nann] R. Sm. (Rel. Sem. 2 , 377) conjectures that nan is 
properly the Aram, name for a fireplace, upon the assumption of 
a variant ki>l, A?^, for the Syr. \l£i. Cf. the use made of the 

360 The Second Book of Kings 

name in Isa. 30. 33. The vocalization risfa, like that of "HJto, 
T\ikpV, probably points to a later approximation to the vocalization 
of nfl < shameful thing/ Cf. the substitution of H^H for bjO in 
the text of Hos. 9. 10; Jer. 3. 24 ; 11. 13. 

DJn "01 •»:] Elsewhere always Birrjn \a, or abbreviated D3H »a. 
Q're is supported by many Codd., and by LXX, Luc, Vulg., 
Pesh., Targ. 

Tnyr6 vbJ?~\ h s ^hJ? occurs only here. Cod. 304 de Rossi, 
LXX, Pesh. omit TP37, taking T3yn7 to express the purpose 
of the existence of the nsn : — ' that a man might offer &c.' Thus 
it is possible that TOX? is a later insertion, made by a scribe 
who understood the clause as explaining the purpose of KDD1. 

n. Dnnso] RV. 'in the precincts/ ">?")3n 1 Chr. 26. 18, 
doubtless the same, is stated to have been on the west of the 
Temple. New Heb. "•IJ"]?, Aram. N"?}"]? denote a suburb. Ges. 
Thes. 1 1 23 finds the origin of the term in Persian jjp, a summer - 
house, or open kiosk (lit. light-possessing). Dri. (s. v. Par bar, 
Hastings, BD. iii) remarks that, if the term is to be traced to the 
Persian, its occurrence in Kings must be regarded as a mark of 
post-exilic revision. 

WH2 PpC] Luc. adds fP tS oikco o> wKohop-rjaav (3a<ri\e7s 'laparjX 
v\j/tj\6v Toi BuaX Kal iracrrj rrj arparia toxj ovpavov. 

12. TnK nvy aan] aan clearly refers to the roof of the Temple, 
and trw rivJJ, in apposition, must have come into the text as 
a gloss. Benz., Kit. conjecture that Ahaz may have erected a 
shelter for the altars upon the Temple roof; cf. the "t*i?"fllp2 of 
ch. 4. 10. 

'* 'Ota \&V nCTX] Luc. a €7rolr}<T€v 'Ax"C 

PJJ1] As the text stands, RV. ' and beat them down/ making 
the verb Imperf. Qal of pn, must be adopted. So Luc. <a\ 
awerpi\^€ — apparently a third rendering of the word. Th., Oort 
follow Kimhi in vocalizing JHJl (Imperf. Hiph'il of pi), 'and 
banished them/ in agreement with Targ. f&niD pmw. Klo. cites 
the second rendering of Luc, ko\ i^veyKcv aiird, for the emendation 
DXiTh, a suggestion favoured by Benz., Kit. 

XXIII. 11-17 36i 

13. nWBn "in] 'The hill of the destroyer/ Only mentioned 
here. Klo. suggests that the name, if genuine, may have reference 
to 2 Sam. 24. 16. Targ. fcOJVJ TIB 'mount of olives' suggests 
nn^ ; E)n "in « mount of oil/ as occasionally in the Talmuds according 
to Neubauer, Geographie du Talmud, 147. So Hoffmann, ZATW. 
ii. 175; Perles, Analekten, 31 _/! 

15. riDin n« Pp^l] Impossible. The n»3 itself, i.e. the 
situation of the altar, could not be burnt ; nor can it be supposed 
that the term is used vaguely in place of HDSn ITS. LXX, Luc. 

read *cni Q-vvirpvtytv tovs Xidovs avTov, i. e. VjDXTlN ~0£^1 — doubtless 

the original text. So Klo., Benz., Kit, Oort. 

'}) P"in] 'Crushing (them) to dust'; lit. 'he crushed &c./ perf. 
used asyndetos in a circumstantial clause. Cf. Dri. Tenses, § 163. 

PlltW] We ought probably to read niB^n, or nnn^x. 

i6 b . f V\ 131D] After DNliwn B»K LXX, Luc. add h r<5 eorawu 

'lepo/3oa/i eV rf) eoprf] fVl to 6v<Jia<JTr]piov. Kai eniaTpeyj/as (Luc. 'laxrlas) 
r)pev tovs 6<p6aXpovs avTov eVt top rdcpov tov dvOpamov tov 6eov, \. e. 

D^n^Nn b>»k i3p"^y iwtik w*) f^i ranarijy ana nyyv nbj?2. 

. •_•; T . •• 1.. — t ** v t •- • v •■ ~ •' : • ~ TV T : tt -;- 

These words must have fallen out of the text through homoio- 
teleuton. As MT. stands, the repeated 'jl top *|BW is awkward 
and redundant, while the details supplied by the missing words 
are felt to be wanting to the narrative. So Th. (3^1 for ko\ 
firia-Tp^as), Klo., Benz., Oort. 

17. PH JVSn] ' Yonder tomb-stone/ |V¥ occurs again in Ezek. 
39. 15 to denote a stone set up to mark the locality of an unburied 
body, and in pi. in Jer. 31. 21 of stones placed as way-marks. 
The word is used in the same sense in New Heb., together with a 
verb |?S to mark, e. g. the site of sepulchres as being unclean. 

On pn cf. ch. 4. 25 note. 

DTl^Nn B*K 13pn] If the text be correct, n3pn can only be 
taken as an instance of the article with the st. constr. Benz., Kit. 
emend "13j3 n ] 'This is the grave &c.' for 13@n; Klo., Da. (§ 20, 
Rem.b) "I3j3 ** ,n — a suggestion which is open to the objection 
that Nin would more naturally fall after DNliwn b*n. 

?K JV3 nsjftn] The vocalization of MT., with the rendering 

362 The Second Book of Kings 

of RV. 'the altar of Bethel,' is to be rejected. The correct 
vocalization is D?]E>n si. absol., and ?K rpl is to be regarded as 
an accusative (cf. ch. 2. 3 ; 10. 29) denning the place of the event 
described by 'y\ Nlpl : — ' and proclaimed these things which thou 
hast done against the altar at Bethel/ Cf. Dri. Tenses, § 191, 
Obs. 2. 

18. ITlftW 1E,?D' ,, lJ Luc. Kcii bieaaiOr) to. ocrra rov 7rpo(pr]Tov rov 
7rpecr(3vTepov rov kcltoikovvtos iv BaiOrjX fiera k.t.A., i. e. nilD^y ^DpP^l 

'X bfcrJVla 3K»n Jjgn N^3ri— probably original. Cf. I. 13. 31/ 

19. D^Dr£] LXX, Luc.,Vulg., Pesh. add JW flN. - 

20. ':i D£> l^N] Pesh., U^\^. ^m^ ov>m? 'who placed 
sweet savours upon the altars/ appears to have read VOW for DP, 
a use of the verb which is justified by Deut. 33. io b . 

21. At the end of the v. Luc. adds kq\ cnoirja-au ovtws. 

22. n£>y3 to •o] RV. ' Surely there was not kept &c.' It seems, 
however, preferable, in view of 'jl DN *3 of v. 23, to render 'For 
there had not been kept &c/ 

flTfl riDS3] ' Such a passover as this/ referring to 'jn 2irD3 of 
v. 21. LXX r6 rrao-^a roCro, i.e. rfln riDSn, seems to state that 
the passover was not kept at all during the period named. 

24. 'jl nUNH flN] Cf. 0$. 21. 6 »0/*. 

Ca^inn] A kind of idol, as is proved by the designation DV17N, 
Gen. 31. 30, 32 ; apparently of human form and size (1 Sam. 19. 
13^".), though sometimes much smaller (Gen. 31. 34). Like OWN, 
the plural D^nn may denote one image (cf. Sam. /. c), or more 
than one (Gen. I.e.; al.). t^Sin are found as household gods in 
the possession of the Aramaean Laban (Gen. 31. 19 jf.), the 
Ephraimite Micah (Judg. 17/.), and Michal, David's wife (1 Sam. 
19. 13^".). Ezekiel pictures them as consulted by the king of 
Babylon (21. 26). It is clear that M*in were employed as oracle- 
givers. In Judg. 17 '/.; Hos". 3. 4 they are mentioned in con- 
nexion with the oracular ^iEN ; in 1 Sam. 15. 23; Zech. 10. 2; 
Ezek. 21. 26, 27 with the form of divination called DDj? (cf. ch. 
17. 17 note). Their association in our passage with ntaNiTTlK 
B'O'yTrrriW (cf. ch. 21.6 note) appears to connect them with the 

XXIII. 18-31 3^3 

practice of necromancy. The wide-spread character of the Min 
cult among the Semitic races (as attested by the Biblical references 
above cited) has led Schwally (Das Leben nach dem Tode, 36) to 
identify it with ancestor- worship ; cf. also Sta. Ges. i. 467 ; Nowack, 
Archaologie, ii. 23. A strange Jewish tradition explains D^n as 
the pickled head of a first-born son, which was fastened on the 
wall of a house, and worshipped as an oracle ; cf. Pirqe de R. 
Eliezer, ch. 36 (eighth century a.d.); Jerus. Targ. on Gen. 31. 19 ; 
cited by Buxtorf, s.v. D^snn. 
vbbyri] Cf. I. 15. 12 note. 

29. Wl] Cf. I. 16. 34 note. 

roj] Necho II, son of Psammeticus I, was second king of the 
twenty-sixth dynasty, and reigned B.C. 610-595. Cf. Hastings, 
BD. iii. 504. The strange rendering of Pesh. JtA^», Targ. rrjDD 
Nl^n 'Pharaoh the lame/ connects nb:i with D??n rDJ. 

VMB3] Cf. I. 4. 12 note. Herodotus (ii. 159) places the encounter 
at MdySwXo?, i. e. ^P, probably the place of that name on the 
N.E. border of Egypt; Ex. 14. 2; Num. 33. 7; Jer. 44. 1 ; al. 

After inxip? Pesh. adds .. cu^^s o»X ^»1o ,o»axX a*,&okoa^ 
t*ot**jtto .ya^;.aX o» v,w». Do .<*u& ^zs »W \U «i»N V joo> J) 
.»cl^*9 'to fight with him; and Pharaoh said to him, I am not 
come against thee; turn aside from me. And he hearkened not 
unto Pharaoh, and Pharaoh smote him.' This is probably a 
reminiscence of 2 Chr. 35. 21^. 

1DN intOD] 'When he saw him,' i.e. when they joined battle. 
On the analogy of the use of the Hithpa'el in ch. 14. 8, Benz., 
following Winckler, proposes to read the Niph'al frlK nSoro — 
scarcely a necessary emendation. 

30. pNH Dy] Cf. ch. 16. 15 note. 

23. 31-35. Jehoahaz, king of Judah. 

Ch. 23. 31-34 forms the source of 2 Chr. 36. 2-4. Short 
notices, probably from the Annals, are framed by R D (R D2 ). 

31. 5>BWn] In ch. 24. 18; Jer. 52. 1 fKt. Ptt^n. This form of 

364 The Second Book of Kings 

the name is given in our passage also by LXX 'A/zeira/, Cod. A, 
Luc. 'AfjaraX, Vulg. Amital. 
nil?] Cf. ch. 8. 22 note. 

33. ""pD3 ♦ ♦ ♦ in")DfcOl] LXX, Luc. kai [i€T€(TTT](Teu avrbv . . . tov 

rf paaiXciciv (Luc. alr6v\ i.e. ?j^E» . . . *rncm. Cf. || .2 Chr. 36. 3. 
So Oort. It is, however, scarcely possible to suppose that 
'}) n?3"Q originally followed ^fllTO, and does not properly belong 
to MT. 'iTlDg*!. Thus the passage seems to be involved by the 
combination of two readings : — ' bound him in Ribla in the land 
of Hamath,' and, ' removed him from reigning in Jerusalem.' 
Kb., Kamp., Benz., Kit. retain MT. VPIDN^, and regard *]i>2B 
D?E>W2 as a gloss introduced from 2 Chr. 36. 3. 

3HT 1331] Luc, Pesh. presuppose 2nj nsa "ifrj? « ten talents of 

34. tfrt] LXX, Luc, Vulg. K?;i. 

35. fHNn Dy riN] The sentence is awkward in the extreme 
if these words be regarded as in apposition to 13*W t'*N ; and the 
alternative suggested by Benz., ' With (i. e. by the help of) 
the people of the land' (cf. LXX, Luc. \iira tov XaoO rrjs yfjs), 
is out of the question. Doubtless Kb. is right in regarding 
pKH Dy nK as a gloss explanatory of y-\Kn nK of the first half 
of the verse. 

23. 36 — 24. 7. fehoiakim, king of Judah. 

Chh. 23. 36—24. 6 are summarized in 2 Chr. 36. 5-8. R D (R D2 ) 
frames short notices, probably drawn from the Annals. 

24. 1. V»<3] Cf. I. 16. 34 note. 

After nVNn^ni Luc adds «rt r^p >fiv i while Pesh. adds %^ 
*£±*,iq} 'against Jerusalem' after ?nn "plD. 

Nebuchadnezzar's campaign against Egypt (cf. #.7) took place, 
according to Berossus, in the last year of his father Nabopolassar, 
i. e. b. c. 605. The news of Nabopolassar's death caused him 
to hasten back to Babylon, after he had brought his campaign 
to a successful issue. According to Jer. 46. 2 the defeat of the 
Egyptian army at Carchemish took place in Jehoiakim's fourth 

XXIII. 33— XXIV. 7 3^5 

year (b.c. 604), and Jer. 25. 1 co-ordinates the fourth year of 
Jehoiakim with the first year of Nebuchadnezzar. 

That Jehoiakim became ' servant' to Nebuchadnezzar through 
this campaign seems to follow both from the fragmentary account 
of Kings and also from the fact that Berossus speaks of tovs 
alxfiaXuTovs tS>u 'lovdaicjv among other prisoners of war. Thus, 
if the ' three years ' of ch. 24. i b be correct, and if the length of 
Jehoiakim's reign extended to eleven years (ch. 23. 36), Jehoiakim 
must have remained in rebellion against Nebuchadnezzar for four 

The reference to Egypt's loss of Syria in v. 7 demands that in 
the original narrative an account of Nebuchadnezzar's victory at 
Carchemish must have followed v. i a . Cf. Winckler, Alttest. 
Untersuchungen, 81/! 

2. DIK nnj riNl] &'"!£ rather than D"}K is to be expected in 
connexion with 2NiD an( j pfty tp3 } and this emendation is favoured 
by Gra., Klo., Benz. 

After poy "03 Luc. adds nai i< r?js lafxapeias, i.e. jViDfefo} — 
possibly original, though not (with Klo.) to be substituted for 

3. *> *S by] LXX, Luc, Pesh., Targ. seem to have read "• *\$~by 
'on account of the anger of Yahwe,' as in v. 20. The intro- 
ductory ?JN appears to be characteristic of this editor; cf. ch. 
23. 26, 35. 

4. 'V\ *p3fl in Ml] ' And also (because of) the innocent blood 
which he shed.' If the text is correct, the force of the 1 of nxtarD 
{v. 3) must be carried over into this clause. 

6. 'ft 33^1] These words are omitted in 2 Chr. 36. 8 ML, 
but appear in the LXX text, with the addition k<u erd(prj iv yavofar) 

fiera tuu rrarepcov avrov, i.e. VrOfcTDy KW [33 "Og}1 (cf. ch. 21. 26). 

Sta. Ges. i. 679 note conjectures that this reference to the burial- 
place originally stood in Kings, and was derived thence by the 
Chronicler, but that the notice was subsequently struck out in view 
of the prediction of Jer. 22. 19. So Wellh. (C. 359), Benz. 

7. DnVD i>m»] Cf. note on D"nx» ha I. 5. 1. 

366 The Second Book of Kings 

24. 8-17. Jehoiachin, king of Judah. 

Ch. 24. 8-17 is briefly summarized in 2 Chr. 36. 9, 10. No 
reference is made to the Annals, and it is possible that R D2 may 
be writing from personal knowledge of events, independently of 
a written source. Sta. (ZATW. iv. 271 ff) regards vv. 13, 14 as 
a later insertion, properly referring to the events of 586 b. c. 
It is difficult to reconcile the 10,000 of v. 14 with the numbers 
given in v. 16; tiWI? in ^.13 has no antecedent to which to 
refer back 1 , whilst ?W in v. 15 refers directly to v. 12. The 
chief objection, however, to the reference of these verses to 597 b.c. 
is to be found in their contents. Verse 13 speaks of all the treasures 
of the City and Temple as carried off by Nebuchadnezzar, and the 
golden vessels as melted down. But from ch. 25 ( || Jer. 52) and 
Jer. 27. 18-20, 28. 2f the inference is that only a part of the City 
and Temple treasures were carried off on this occasion, and that 
the greater part was seized by the Chaldeans in 586 b.c. Thus 
the contents of v. 13 are suitable as a description of the events of 
586 b.c, but not of those of 597 b.c The same inference is to be 
drawn from the contents of v. 14. All Jerusalem was first 
deported in 586, and a characteristic of this deportation was that 
only the pNH rbl remained (25. 12). On the other hand, as 
appears from Jer., the deportation at the close of Jehoiachin's reign 
consisted only of the higher classes (cf. e.g. Jer. 27. 20 ns 
D^BW min* 'nn bl n*0 ♦ ♦ . n^y) and the men who bore arms, 
i.e. practically the same category as is named in v. 16. 

8. DWn nwbvri] 2 Chr. 36. 9 adds && H"}^!. 

10. NTin njn] Cf. 1. 14. 1 note, 

12. bll *■£» by] by for i?S. Cf. note on pro by I. 1. 38. 
xhrh n:o^ njea] b.c 597. Jer. 52. 28 places the event in 

the seventh year of Nebuchadnezzar. 

13. Luc. prefixes the statement Ka\ uarjXde fiaaikevs BafivXoovos 
els rfjv ttoXlv, i.e. ^3?"J"^ 5>23 Sj^D K3J1— an addition desiderated 
by DtSto of the following sentence. 

1 But cf. note on v. 13. 

XXIV. 8— XXV. 4 3^7 

14. ""V^] The participle singular is used of a single exile 
2 Sam. 15. 19; fem. Isa. 49. 21. It is clear, however, from 
vv. 15, 16 that we should vocalize rOT a collective, 'captives/ 

"fcDfcn] Probably ' the lock-smiths.' So v. 16 ; Jer. 24. 1 ; 29. 2 ; 
in each case collective sing., and in connexion with B^CIJ, by 
inference 'the workers in wood! Elsewhere (Isa. 24. 22; 42. 7; 
Ps. 142. Sf) "TOP denotes ' place of locking,' i.e. 'dungeon/ 

pN.l SV nH] ' The poorest of the people of the land/ Cf. 
Jer. 39. 10 HlSKD £$-?$ Tg^ D\hn DyPT|D*. On the fem. 
collective cf. Da. § 14. 2. 

15. pKH '•hx nw] RV. 'and the chief men of the land/ Q're 
VH$, as in Ezek. 17. 13. The word is perhaps from a root 71K 
' to be foremost ' ; but it is possible that the insertion of the ) or * 
is an intentional alteration to distinguish from the divine title !>*?. 
Cf. Bed. Lex. Ox/., s. v. ^« § 1, 

24. 18 — 25. 7. Zedekiak, king of Judah. 
Ch. 24. i8—25. 7 = Jer. 52. 1-11. 
18. 'jn i?D s »n] Cf. <r/i 23. 31 »<?/<?. 

20. taferriy] cf. »*/<? on TN^rny c h. 3. 25. 

25. 1. Wirb Win] LXX, Luc. omit. 

3. KHrv njJBTD] It is impossible that mention should be made 
of the day of the month when the month itself has not been 
specified. Pesh. .!>«.^.» jLua »U&h U\.^\ )ym\M« Uaao 

:)L^> 00 ]j^*,fco>, i.e. ^Btonn Bnha ^ Tjbeb rot? rriBty *nrtn* 

^"J - ^VF^?- This, however, conflicts with the earlier date given 
in v. 8 for a subsequent event. Th., Klo., Kamp., Benz., Kit., 
Oort supply ^"in ®T® after Jer. 39. 2 ; 52. 6. 

4. 'jl riDn?10n '■BON 731] The missing verb is supplied by 
|| Jer. 52. 7 n»flJD uwj VTO?; c f. Jer. 39. 4. So exactly Pesh. 
Jk**«j» ^» o.ia&jo ooi^; while LXX, egrjKBov, supplies the latter 
verb, Vu\g.,fugerunt, the former. We are still, however, confronted 
by the difficulty of the sing. TJJ*1 in v. 4 b , without specified subj. 
This appears as plur. top*! in ||Jer. 52. 7, and Pesh. in our passage 
is again in agreement. This is scarcely satisfactory, because the 

368 The Second Book of Kings 

king is only mentioned for the first time in v. 5 as having left 
the city with the men of war. The solution of the difficulty is 
probably to be found in Luc, which supplies in v. 4 a before 
'31 NSOK 731 am egr)\6ev 6 paaiXevs. We may thus read in v. 4 a 
mpjwi flSrbs) l£»n WW, retaining sing. ^ in z/. 4 b as 
referring to the principal actor. The plur. of Luc. ko.1 cnopevOrjaav 
is probably the translator's alteration. 

6. nrfa-l] || Jer. adds HDH f"}K3, as in ^. 23. 33. 

n3Tl] Many Codd., all Verss., and || Jer. 52. 9 read sing. WJ1 . 
The phrase 's nx D^QK^ID "13*1 occurs -again in Jer. 1. 16 ; 4. 12 ; 
12. 1 ; 39. 5, and pi. D^DCD (as in || Jer. 52. 9) is the reading of 
several Codd. in our passage. 

7. W] Emend L>n^, after LXX, Luc, Vulg., Pesh. Cf. || Jer. 
52. 10 Bre^i. 

bn irraw] || Jer. 52. n adds into Dl*-m rfnjwrrvM tf^nn. 

25. 8-26. Destruction of the Temple and City of 'Jerusalem. 

Gedaliah, governor of fudah. 

Ch. 25. 8-21= Jer. 52. 12-27. 

Ch. 25. 22-26 is a much abbreviated account of the events 
described in Jer. 40. 7 — 43. 6, to which source R D 2 clearly owes 
his information. Jer. 52, on the other hand, seems to be a later 
addition to the prophet's book excerpted from Kings 1 , naturally 
with omission of 25. 22-26, as having been already related in 
fuller detail. 

8. tnr6 nx»Ba] Three Codd., Luc, Pesh. BhhJ n^na ; || Jer. 
52. 12 £H - "W5J3. Klo., Benz. make the erroneous statement 
that Luc. agrees with || Jer. 

'ai mv twi] b.c. 586. 

9. i?na rV3 i>3 nNl] 'And every house of a great one/ So 
Pesh., Targ. The statement is superfluous after the preceding 
D^TV to ^3 riNI, and is regarded by Benz., Kit. as an ex- 
planatory gloss. 

1 Notice the closing words of Jer. 51, 'Thus far are the words of Jeremiah.' 

XXV. 6-2 3 369 

10. n^nno in t^n] Read DTDD-aynK *\g» t with || Jer. 52. 14. 
Luc. omits 'y\ 1BW, while the whole v. is wanting in LXX. 

11. ponn] 'The remnant of the multitude' is indistinguishable 
from ' the remnant of the people ' mentioned just previously. || Jer. 
is doubtless correct in reading pENn 'the artificers] or l master - 
workmen! Cf. ch. 24. 14. 

At the end of the v. Pesh. adds ^a^X »cu^ ^io!o 'and 
brought them to Babylon/ 

12. D'Qah] Q're &2tf f as in || Jer. 52. 16, is supposed to mean 
1 husbandmen.' Kt. D^a ' ploughmen ' (lit. ' diggers ') is preferred 
by Ko., Lehrg. I. ii. 105. Q're is to some extent supported by 
Jer. 39. io b Wl$\ &&\} Onb [fijl; though here also it is possible 
that 0*3)£, of uncertain meaning (RV. 'fields'), is an alteration 
of Ma 'cisterns' (ch. 3. 16; Jer. 14. 3). 

13-17. Cf. notes on I. 7. 15^". 

15. 'Jl 3PIt *1E>N] 'That which was of gold he took in gold, 
and that which was of silver in silver'; i.e. all the vessels &c. 
of these precious metals, as so much gold and silver. 

18. rwo p3] Cf. ch. 23. 4 note. 

19. TpS Kin n^K] II Jer. 52. 25 reads njn for WjT. 

PDn *0a WE] So Est. I.14. Cf. 2 Sam. 14.24, 28. The expression 
denotes a privileged position of intimate attendance upon the king. 

f V\ "ISDn n«l] Read j/. «?»j/r. 1BD, with || Jer. 52. 25. Luc, 
Ka\ top 2a(f)dv, takes the word as a proper name fSp (or 1?^), 
and this is adopted by Klo. But the statement 'ai N3mn, 'who 
mustered the people of the land,' makes it clear that the reference 
is not to the N3¥n *|B> himself, but to an official who had charge 
of the conscription, and so appropriately a "1SD . 

23. ttGWNnV] Read &n^K1, with LXX, Pesh., Targ., as in 
vv. 23 b , 24. So || Jer. 40. 7. 

namn] Cf. 1. 15. 22 note. 

25. 27-30. Kindness shoivn to the captive Jehoiachin by Evil- 
Aferodach, king of Babylon. 

Ch. 25. 27-30 = Jer. 52. 31-34. 

b b 

370 The Second Book of Kings 

27. I^B JWl] B.C. 561. 

nS>3 rV3B] LXX, Luc, Pesh. are probably correct in reading 
K^3 rV3D Sm K3f*l, as in || Jer. 

28. NDi b»] || Jer. KD?b byso is preferable. 

30. inrriN] 'His allowance' (&c. of food). So Jer. 40. 5; cf. 
Prov. 15. 17. In Assyr. iarahtu denotes a portion of corn. 
1DV3 DV nn] Cf. I. 8. 59 note. 


Inscription of Meskd i king of Moab 1 . 

nn , 2K» . i?v . }5mi ♦ p , wo . "ps i 

d^d , i:xr, n^ ♦ j£>ta . 3kd , i>y . ^d ♦ »3n i W 2 

^oaa 1 nrhp3 . k>d3^> . nsr . n»nn , bwki i *3k * nn« . ti 3 

*i»y 1 ww . bn . ^Nin . *ai , pfei . i>3» . ••wn . ">3 , ,yp 4 

nxn . p»3 , 5)3s" . *3 , p-i . jd«» , 35*0 , nx . iajn ♦ 5>*nB» . i^o • "» 5 

1312 , -ibk ♦ ^3 1 3so , nx , 135?n ♦ «n . Da ♦ n wi , ru3 . na!?m 1 rrc 6 

[n«] nx , n»y ♦ trm ♦ oi>y . H3k , *n8 . b&im 1 nm3i , rn , *nto 7 

e»T . ns? , jin-iN . H33 , ^ , ^m . mo* , m , 3^1 1 «3nn» , p 8 

[|]3ni , rwKn , n3 . EW , |yo^3 ♦ nx . pan 1 ^3 , k>d3 , .13 9 

* ote , n5> ♦ pi , d^d . may , pK3 . 3^ , *ra , bw i jnnp . n« 10 
[oy]ni?3 , nx . a-inao 1 mm) . np3 , Dnniw 1 may , nx . hx-\w 1 1 

[d]N! ♦ mil ♦ folK , DK , DK>» , 3BW I 3N»h , E>D3^ , m , iph 1 2 

bw . nxi . pp ♦ pk , n« ♦ m . 3bw i mp3 , £>&3 ♦ ^i? . n3n 13 

ni I bxiw , 5>y » ma , n« ♦ thn ♦ •£ , t?E3 . ^ . , ^DX ,,, ^ 1 mno 14 

n«i i D-inxn . nv , rnntrn . yp3D ♦ n3 . nnrbw . n^3 , i^n 15 

[n:]i . nnsai 1 pai . p3a , jb^n ♦ ny3^ , ni>3 ♦ ann«i , ni 16 

[3 , n]« . d^d , npsi i nnonnn , ^03 , nn^ ♦ ^ i ri^mi ♦ n 17 

fiS ♦ H33 . bx-W . ^D1 I ^D3 , ^a^ , dh , 3not<i ♦ nw . ^ 18 

1 *aso . t^D3 . n^ia^ 1 u , -nDnni?n3 , m . 3^1 . pT 1 19 

♦ nrntf) , p^3 ♦ hn^^ i n^i . i?3 ♦ b>k . |dnd ♦ 3ndd , npx 20 

1 The readings adopted in doubtful places are those of Lidzbarski, Ephemeris 
fiir Semit. Epigr. I. i. Upon the language of the inscription cf. Dri. Notes on 
the Hebrew Text of Samuel ', pp. lxxxv^*.; Encyc. Bibl. iii. s.v, Mesha. 

B b 2 

37 2 Appendix 

n»m ♦ py*n , nron , nnnp , Tin , n,3K i pn , by . hdd^ 21 

ni 1 nnH:» ♦ "rm , "PN1 # mm? ♦ Tin , now i 5>ayn 22 

anpa , p[»!> , n]N?Nn ♦ *^a . wy . -pw , ■£» . na , *iua , ^ 23 

£ , i^y , cyn . W ♦ mow . nnnpa , npn ♦ anpa ♦ jx # nai 1 npn 24 

nD«a ♦ nmpi> . nnnacn ♦ Tina . "pao 1 nnna , na ,-b>k ♦ na 25 

[)] # pnaa .'ni>D»n , s n^y , npw , nyny . Tin . *pk i S>*ne» , * 26 

♦ py , *a . nva ♦ Tin , *px 1 K.n , Din , *a ♦ noa , na , Tun . "px 27 

5b» ♦ ijni 1 nyro^D , pn . bi , "-a ♦ jccn . pn . ^ 28 

nn . npsi 1 pan , by . tsd' 1 , new , ppa , hno [/]n 29 

ipj , na . tw . kcw , ;j>»i>jn . nai 1 jni?an , nai . aann5 [. n«] ♦ * 30 

&x ♦ pi na ♦ na ♦ a^ . pmm 1 p«n , jx* 31 

rial I pmna , onnbn , nn , p»a ♦ •£ . ioxn 32 

vy . d^?d . nn by) , *»*a , troa . na[^i] 33 

:ni ! P*w ♦ n^ 34 

1. I am Mesha', 9on of Chemosh[kan ?], king of Moab, the 


2. My father reigned over Moab for thirty years, and I reigned 

3. after my father, and I made this high-place to Chemosh in 

qr[h]h, . . . 

4. . . . because he had saved me from all the . . . , and 

because he had caused me to see my desire upon all my 
haters. Omri 

5. king of Israel afflicted Moab many days, because Chemosh was 

angry with his 

6. land ; and his son succeeded him, and he also said, I will afflict 

Moab. In my days said he [thus ?] ; 

7. but I saw (my desire) upon him and upon his house, and 

Israel perished with an everlasting destruction. And Omri 
had taken possession of the [land ?] 

8. of Mehedeba, and one (i. e. Israel) dwelt therein during his 

days and half his son's days, even forty years ; but 

9. Chemosh restored it in my days. And I built Ba'al-Me'on, and 

I made therein the reservoir' (?), and I built 

Inscription of Mesha* 373 

10. Qiryathen. And the men of Gad had dwelt in the land of 

'Ataroth from of old ; and the king of Israel had built for 

11. 'Ataroth. And I fought against the city and took it, and I slew 

the whole of it, [the people of??] 

12. the city, a gazingstock (?) to Chemosh, and to Moab. And 

I took captive thence the altar-hearth of Dawdoh (?), and I 

13. it before Chemosh in Qeriyyoth. And I settled therein the 

men of srn and the men of 

14. mhrt. And Chemosh said to me, Go, take Nebo against 

Israel, and I 

15. went by night and fought against it from break of dawn until 

noon, and I took 

16. it, and I slew the whole of it, 7,000 men, and male strangers, 

and [female strangers], 

17. and female slaves; for to e Ashtor-Chemosh had I devoted it, 

and I took thence the 

18. vessels of Yahwe, and I dragged them before Chemosh. Now 

the king of Israel had built 

19. Yahas, and he abode therein when he fought with me. But 

Chemosh drove him out from before me ; and 

20. I took from Moab 200 men, even all its chiefs, and I took 

them up against Yahas, and took it, 

21. to add (it) unto Daibon. I built qrhh, the wall of Ye'arin, and 

the wall of 

22. the keep. And I built its gates, and I built its towers, and 

23. I built the king's house, and I made the sluices of the reservoir 

for water in the midst of 

24. the city. Now there was no cistern in the midst of the city in 

qrhh. And I said to all the people, Make 

25. yourselves every man a cistern in his house; and I cut out the 

cutting for qrhh by means of the 

26. prisoners of Israel. I built 'Aro'er, and I made the highway by 

the Arnon. 

374 Appendix 

27. I built Beth-Bamoth ; for it was pulled down. I built Beser, 

for ruins 
28 of Daibon (were) fifty, for all Daibon was obedient. 

And I ruled 

29. over ... 100 in the cities which I had added to the land. 

And I built 

30. Mehedeba, and Beth-Diblathen, and Beth-Ba'al-Me'on, and 

I took thither the Tza^^-keepers, 
31 sheep of the land. And as for Horonen, there 

dwelt therein 

32 and Chemosh said to me, Go down, fight against 

Horonen. So I went down . . . 
33 and Chemosh restored it in my days, and . . . 

thence . . . 
34 And I 


The Siloam Inscription 1 . 

niya ♦ mpm , im . n»n . nn ♦ napjn , , , 1 

p*m*bp* y[B^J n]5ni> , hex , uhv , mym , ijn , bx . e>n , jnan 2 

n , &y\ }d*o ♦ nsa , mr , rwi . *a ♦ wn . bx . ki 3 

, tt^i , jn[a .] by . jr-n . ijn , mpi> . pk . oavriri ♦ lan , napa 4 

S01 . n»K , v\bw ♦ DTiNion . nanan . bit , nvidh , p , o^n 5 

♦ Dasnn , pan ♦ 5>y . n*n , nan . rwi , hdn , n 6 

1. [Behold] the piercing through! And this was the manner of 

the piercing through. Whilst yet [the miners were lifting 

2. the pick each towards his fellow, and whilst yet there were 

three cubits to be [cut through, there was heard] the voice 
of each call- 

1 Text as in Lidzbarski, Nordsemit. Epigr. p. 439. Translation, with con- 
jectural supplement, from Dri. Notes on the Hebrew Text of Samuel, p. xvi. 

Monolith of Shalmaneser II 375 

3. ing to his fellow, for there was a fissure (?) in the rock on the 

right-hand And on the day of the 

4. piercing through, the miners (lit. hewers) smote each so as to 

meet his fellow, pick against pick ; and there flowed 

5. the water from the source to the pool, 1,200 cubits; and one 


6. dred cubits was the height of the rock over the head of the 



Inscription of the Monolith of Shalmaneser II, 11. 78-102 1 , 

78 In the Eponym-year of Daian-Asshur (b. c. 854), in the month 
Airu, on the 14th day, I left Nineveh, crossed the Tigris, advanced 
against the cities 79 of Giammu on the Balih. Before the terror of 
my lordship, the panic of my mighty weapons, they were afraid, and 
with their own weapons Giammu their lord 80 they slew. Into 
Kidala and Til-sa-apli-ahi I advanced, my gods in his palaces I set 
up, revelling in his palaces I instituted. 81 His treasure-house 
I opened, his treasure I found, of his goods (and) possessions I 
made spoil, to my city Asshur I brought (them). From Kitlala 
I departed ; to Kar-Sulman-asarid 82 1 drew nigh ; on boats of 
sheep-skin for the second time the Euphrates at high water I 
crossed. The tribute of the kings on that side of the Euphrates, 
(namely) of Sangar of ^Gargamis (Carchemish), of Kundaspi of 
Qummuh, of Arami son of Gusi, of Lalli of Milida, of Haiani son 
of Gabar, 84 of Kalparuda of Patin, of Kalparuda of Gurgum, silver, 
gold, lead, copper, copper vessels, — 85 at Asshur-utir-asbat on that 
side of the Euphrates, which is above (the river) Sagur, (and) 
which the Hittites Pitru (Pethor ?) 86 name, (even) there I received. 
From the Euphrates I departed ; to Halman (Aleppo) I drew nigh. 
Battle with me they dreaded ; my feet they embraced. 87 Silver 

1 Nos. 3, 4, and 5 are based upon the text and translation of KB., and 
Winckler, Keilschrift. Textbuch, and upon Delitzsch, Assyrisches Hand- 

376 Appendix 

(and) gold as their tribute I received ; offerings before Ramman of 
Hal man I brought. 

From Halman I departed ; to the two cities 88 of Irhulini of 
Hamath I drew nigh. Adinnu, Masga, Argana, the city of his 
kingship, I conquered. His spoil, his goods, 89 the possessions of 
his palaces I brought forth ; to his palaces I set fire. From Argana 
I departed ; to Qarqar I drew nigh ; 90 Qarqar, the city of his king- 
ship, I laid waste, I destroyed, with fire I burned. 1,200 chariots, 
1,200 horsemen, 20,000 men of Hadadezer 91 of Damascus; 700 
chariots, 700 horsemen, 10,000 men of Irhulini of Hamath ; 2,000 
chariots, 10,000 men of Ahab 92 of Israel ; 500 men of Guai (Coa); 
1,000 men of (the land) Musri; 10 chariots, 10,000 men of (the 
land) Irqanat; 93 200 men of Matinu-ba'li (Mattan-ba'al) of 
Armada (Arvad) ; 200 men of (the land) Usanata ; 30 chariots, 
10,000 men 94 of Adunu-ba'li (Adoni-ba'al) of Siana ; 1,000 

camels of Gindibu' of Arba 1,000 men e5 of Ba'sa, son 

of Ruhubi (Rehob), of Ammon ; — these twelve kings to his 
assistance he took; for w battle and combat against me they 
advanced. With the exalted succour which Asshur, the lord, 
rendered, with the mighty power which Nergal, who marched 
before me, 97 bestowed, with them I fought; from Qarqar unto 
Gilzan their defeat I accomplished ; 14,000 98 of their troops with 
weapons I laid low; like Ramman upon them a flood I rained 
down ; I scattered their corpses ; " the surface of the wilderness (?) 
I filled with their numerous troops ; with weapons I caused their 

blood to flow . . . 10 ° 101 the river Orontes ... I dammed (?). 

In the midst of that battle their chariots, their horsemen, 102 their 
horses, their teams I captured. 


Fragment of the Annals of Shalmaneser II. 

1 In the eighteenth year of my reign for the sixteenth time the 
Euphrates 2 1 crossed. Hazael of Damascus 3 in the multitude of 
his troops 4 placed confidence, and his troops 5 without number 
assembled. 6 Senir, a mountain-peak 7 in the neighbourhood of 

Sennacherib's Third Campaign 377 

Lebanon, his stronghold 8 he made. With him I fought, 9 his siege 
I conducted. 6,000 10 of his men of war with weapons u I laid low ; 
1,121 of his chariots, 12 47o of his war-horses, together with his 
baggage, 18 1 took from him. For the saving 14 of his life he betook 
himself off. 15 In Damascus, the city of his kingship, I besieged 
him ; 16 his plantations I cut down. To the mountains 17 of Hauran 
I went ; cities 18 without number I destroyed, I laid waste, 19 with 
fire I burned ; their prisoners 20 without number I carried off. 
21 Unto the mountains of the range Ba'li-ra'si, 22 a promontory, 
I went; the image of my kingship 23 there did I set up. At that 
time 24 the tribute of the Tyrians, 25 of the Zidonians, of Ja-u-a (Jehu) 
26 the son of Omri I received. 

Descriptive Inscription from the Obelisk of Shalmaneser. 

Tribute of Ja-u-a (Jehu) son of Omri ; silver, gold, a bowl 
(? saplu l ) of gold, goblets (? zuquf) of gold, a ladle (? qabudti 2 ) of 
gold, pitchers (? daldnP) of gold, bars of lead, a staff (? hutartu A ) for 
the hand of the king, spear-shafts (? budilhdti) I received of him. 


Narrative of Sennacherib's Third Campaign (B.C. 701), from 
the Taylor Cylinder ■, Col. II. 1. 34-Col. III. 1. 41. 

34 In my third campaign to the land Hatti (Hittite land) I went. 
35 Luli (Elulaeus), king of Zidon — the dread of the majesty 36 of my 
lordship overwhelmed him, and to a far-off spot 3r in the midst of 
the sea he fled, and his land I reduced to subjection. 3S Great 
Zidon, Little Zidon, 39 Beth-Zitti, Zarepta, Mahalliba, 40 Usfi, Akzib, 
Akko, 41 his strong cities, the fortresses, the spots for pasture (?) 
42 and for watering, his intrenchments (?), were overwhelmed by the 
might of the arms 43 of Asshur, my lord, and submitted themselves 
44 under my feet. Tuba'lu (Ittoba'al) upon the royal throne 45 over 
them I seated, and the payment of the tribute of my lordship, 
yearly without intermission, I laid upon him. 47 Minhimmu 

1 Heb. teD. 2 Heb. njap. 3 Heb. >*r. 4 Heb. im. 


378 Appendix 

(Menahem) of Samsimuruna, 48 Tuba'lu of Zidon, 49 Abdili'ti of 
Arvad (Arados), 50 Urumilki of Gebal (Byblos), 51 Mitinti of Ashdod, 
52 Buduilu of Beth-Ammon, 53 Kammusunadbi (Chemosh-nadab) of 
Moab, 54 Malikrammu (Malkiram) of Edom, 55 all the kings of the 
West country (Martu), 56 rich presents, weighty tribute,, moveable (?) 
possessions 57 before me brought, and kissed my feet. 58 But Zidqa, 
king of Ashqelon, 59 who had not bowed himself under my yoke — 
the gods of his father's house, himself, 60 his wife, his sons, his 
daughters, his brothers, the seed of his father's house 61 1 dragged 
forth, and to Assyria I conveyed them. 

62 Sarruludari, son of Rukibti, their former king, 63 over the people 
of Ashqelon I placed, and the tribute-offering 64 of subjection to my 
lordship I imposed upon him, and he became subject (?) to me. 
65 In the course of my campaign Beth-Dagon, 66 Joppa, Bene-baraq, 
Azuru, 67 the cities of Zidqa, which under my feet ^ had not speedily 
submitted, I besieged, conquered, carried off their spoil. 69 The 
leaders, nobles, and people of Amqarruna (Eqron), 70 who had 
cast Padi (their king by virtue of a sworn covenant 71 with 
Assyria) into fetters of iron, and to Hazaqiyau (Hezekiah) 72 of 
Judah had delivered him with hostile intent, (he shut him up in 
darkness ;) — 73 their heart trembled. The kings of Egypt — 74 the 
archers, the chariots, the horses of the king of Miluhhi, 75 forces 
innumerable they summoned together, and came 76 to their aid. 
Before Altaqu (Elteqeh) 77 the battle-array was set against me ; 
they lifted up (?) 78 their weapons. In reliance upon Asshur, my 
lord, 1 fought 79 with them, and effected their defeat; 80 the 
commander of the chariots and the sons of the king of Egypt, 
81 together with the commander of the chariots of the king of 
Miluhhi, alive 82 in the midst of the battle my hand took prisoners. 
Altaqu 83 (and) Tamna (Timnath) I attacked, conquered, and 
carried forth their booty. 

Col. III. * Against Amqarruna (Eqron) I advanced, and the chief 
officers, 2 the magnates who had offended, I slew ; s and on stakes 
around the city I impaled their corpses. 4 The inhabitants of the 
town, who had practised wickedness and mischief, 5 as prisoners 

Sennacherib 's Third Campaign 379 

I counted ; the rest of them, 6 who had not practised wickedness 
and misdeed, who in their transgression "had not shared, their 
amnesty I proclaimed. Padi, 8 their king, from Jerusalem 9 1 brought, 
and on the throne of lordship over them 10 1 installed him, and the 
tribute of my lordship n I imposed upon him. But Hezekiah 12 of 
Judah, who had not bowed himself under my yoke, 13 46 of his 
fortified towns, fortresses, and small cities 14 in their neighbourhood 
innumerable, ]5 with casting down of battering-rams and assault of 

siege-engines, 16 with attack of infantry, of mines, , 17 1 

besieged, I captured. 200,150 souls, young, old, male, and female, 
18 horses, mules, asses, camels, oxen, 19 and sheep, without number, 
from the midst of them I brought forth, and 20 as spoil I counted 
them. Himself, like a bird in a cage, in the midst of Jerusalem, 
21 the city of his kingship, I shut up. Fortifications against him 
22 1 erected, and those coming forth from the gates of his city 23 1 
turned back. His cities, which I had plundered, from his territory 
24 1 severed, and to Mitinti king of Ashdod, 25 Padi king of 
Amqarruna (Eqron), and Zilbel 26 king of Haziti (Gaza) I gave them, 
and diminished his territory. 27 To the former payment — their 
yearly tribute — 28 the tribute of subjection to my lordship I added, 
and 29 I laid it upon them. Himself, Hezekiah, 30 terror of the 
glory of my lordship overwhelmed him ; and 31 the Urbi and his 
trusty soldiers, 82 which for the defence of Jerusalem, the city of his 
kingship, 33 he had introduced, laid down their arms (?). 34 Together 
with 30 talents of gold (and) 800 talents of silver, precious stones (?), 
35 sparkling . . . -stones, great lapislazuli-stones (?), 36 couches of 
ivory, thrones of state of elephant-skins (and) 87 ivory, . . . -wood, 
. . . -wood, everything available, an enormous treasure, 38 and his 
daughters, the women of his palace, his male 39 and female ser- 
vants (?), to Nineveh, the city of my lordship, 40 after me I caused to 
be brought ; and for the payment of tribute 41 and the rendering of 
homage he despatched his envoy. 


1. 1. 9. b:n Jty] In favour of the view as to the site taken in the 
note ad loc, and against the rival identification with Bir Eyilb, 
cf. J. F. Stenning, art. En-Rogel in Hastings, BD. i. 711. 

2. 10. in Ty] For further authorities for finding the site upon 
the south-east hill, cf. G. A. Smith, art. Jerusalem in E?icyc. Bill. 
ii. 2417/ 

10. 28. 'y\ NTfl&V] Further arguments for the view that Solomon's 
supply of horses was drawn, not from Egypt, but from the North- 
Syrian Musri are given by T. K. Cheyne, Encyc. Bibl. iii. 3162. 

11. 3. 20. DHN THD] Luc. e£ 68ov r?js ipfaov 2ovd i£ 'E&fy*. So 
Vet. Lat. with Sur ("W Ex. 15. 22) for 2ouS. 

13. 17. Dnxn ny^n j^ni] Luc. Kal (BeXos <xa>TT]pias h 'io-pa^X, Vet. 
Lat. et sagitta salutis in israel — superior to M.T. 

p£K2] Vet. Lat. in aseroth quae est contra faciem samariae. At 
the end of the verse Vet. Lat. continues et aperuit fenestram 
secundam. Et dixit sagittare et sagi/tavii sagittam salutis dmi et 
sagiltam salutis israel. Et dixit helisseus percuties syrid to tarn. 
This looks like a doublet, introduced into the text with the gloss 
et aperuit fenestram secunda?n. That this is the case cannot, how- 
ever, be affirmed with certainty, in view of the repetition of the 
second symbolic action which is desiderated by Elisha in v. 19. 
If the addition be genuine, we must suppose [yWN] HOW) to 
have fallen out after ivi. 


Abstract subs, for adj., page 18, 

Accusative of limitation, 48, 56, 

199, 230, 253, 264, 268. 
Adverbial use of subs., 250. 
Agreement of subj. and adj., 231. 

— ofsubj.andpredicate,53,i56, 

219, 220, 258, 274. 
Apposition, 2, 45, 56, 6& 97, 

200, 256. 

Article, idiomatic use of, 1, 81, 
181, 241, 255. 

— as relative, 156. 

— omitted with demonstr. pro- 

noun, 262. 

— omitted with subs, when used 

with adj., 81. 

Casus pendens, 69. 
Circumscription of genitive, 5, 

8, 26. 
Circumstantial clause, 6, 11, 12, 

70, 102, 126, 182, 189, 

199, 295. 
Construct state, suspended, 302. 
Co-ordination in time, 6. 

Dialect of North Palestine, 208. 
Diminutives, 246. 

Geographical sites: — 
Abel-beth-ma'achah, 198. 

Amana, 280. 
Anathoth, 22. 
Aphek, 238. 
Argob, 45. 
Aro'er, 307. 
Arpad, 342. 
Avva, 334. 

Ba'alath, 138. 
Baal-shalishah, 277. 
Bethel, 177. 
Beth-Hanan, 41. 
Beth-Horon, 137. 
Beth-Shan, 44. 
Beth-Shemesh, 41. 

Cabul, 135. 
Cinnereth, 198. 
Coa, 151. 
Cuthah, 334. 

David, city of, 17, 380. 
Dothan, 286. 

Eden, 344. 
En-Rogel, 5. 

Gath-Hepher, 319. 
Geba, 199. 
Gezer, 137. 
Gihon, 8. 
Gilgal, 264. 
Gozan, 330. 

Habor, 330. 



Halah, 330. 
Haran, 343. 
Hazor, 136. 

Ible'am, 300. 
Ijjon, 198. 

Januah, 324. 
Jarmuth, 42. 
Jokmeam, 44. 
Jordan, circuit of, 102. 

Kir-hareseth, 272. 

Lachish, 319. 
Libnah, 296. 

Megiddo, 43. 
Millo, the, 136. 
Mizpah, 199. 
Musri, 151, 291. 

Pharpar, 280. 

Ramah, 197. 
Ramoth-Gilead, 251. 
Reshef, 344. 

Sela, 318. 
Sepharvaim, 334. 
Shechem, 173. 
Shephelah, the, 151. 
Shiloh, 188. 
Shunem, 3. 
Socoh, 42. 
Succoth, 102. 

Tappuah, 322. 
Telasshur, 344. 
Tishbeh, 217. 

Zarephath, 218. 
Zarethan, 44. 
Zeredah, 169. 
Zion, 17. 

Hatef-shewa with a sibilant, 1 80, 
231, 264, 344. 

Hebrew words and phrases : — 

k*, 11. 

ate, 354. 

-niS for "ft**, 237. 

1*. 35. 

^n^ as indefinite article, 209. 

7K used absolutely, 289. 

7N, peculiar use of, 72, 182, 


7§ for 7y, 72, 184, 201, 228, 

DK in single direct questions, 7. 
DJDK, 116. 
"VCK = assign, 161. 

) "H?*, 54. 
»3-51«, 117. 

"> nna prig, 31. 

i™k, 190. 

!>T$5, 5, 8. 

AN, sign of accusative, before 

indef. obj., 178. 
— sign of accusative, marking 

new subj., 284. 
ns = with, 142. 

3 pretii, 22, 207, 240. 

ffj^ja, 50. 

■w, 327- 

7]12 = r«r^, 247. 
7K2, 201. 



"??!, 161. 

T ^ 5 275. 

D^a jot, 10. 

1 consecutive epexegetical, 15. 

— consecutive introducing 
predicate, 169. 

??!, no. 

fit enclitic, 189. 

I *T, 354. 
jn§ rnna, 280. 

*3 introducing direct narration, 
6, 244. 

— introducing oath, 21. 
s 3 ♦ » ♦ *?, resumptive, 8. 
n-j3, 287. 

7 formative, 246. 

7 = a/, 142. 

7 of norm, 257. 

*0 used absolutely, 162. 

— with jussive, 16. 
"ib&V, subject of, 201. 

D preformative in substantives, 
signification of, 143. 

rri?}D, 358. 

"19, idiomatic uses of, 3, 12, 
i77. ™9, 8,52. ?y», 13, 
15, 24. BJD, 24. njfgD, 

HH3D, 48, 225, 327. 

rinso, 1 9 2. 

I5'D, 2. 

?y for 7K ; 10, 131, 220, 22r, 

7JJ = incumbent upon, 40. 
Dy, idiomatic uses of, 5, 33, 35, 

115, 157- 
7B$>, 282. 

ai?. 3. 

3WOT, 186. 

t : t" 

n'^y used absolutely, 118. 

•T?, 147, 237. 
ttTJTfi, 360. 

D 9i?> 332. 

E> relative, 2 d8. 
n T ^, 275. 

•Ti / V 

*j*>, 139. 
d^Bfjpi, 362. 

'Idem per idem' idiom, 293. 
Imperative with 1 in place of 

cohortative, 6. 
Imperfect, with frequentative 

force, 1, 32, 194, 268, 338, 


— pictorial, 239. 

Impersonal construction, 4, 20, 

48, 180, 187. 
Infinitive absol., use of, 241, 256, 


— in m-, 271. 

Infinitive constr., use of, 317. 

— Hiph'il with Hireq under pre- 

formative H, 272. 



Negative duplicated, 148. 
Nomen unitatis, 12. 

Oath, 12, 21, 281. 

Omission of pronom. subject of 

participle, 262. 
Order of sentence, 4, 18, 55, 120, 


Participle, agreement of, with 
suffix of antecedent sub- 
ject, 189. 

— force of, 3, 47, 218, 257. 
Perfect with article prefixed, 156. 

— with 1 consecutive as impera- 

tive, 13. 

Perfect with weak 1, 77, 124, 157, 
236, 238, 293, 318, 345, 
353.357- Cf. 194, 247, 269. 

Personal pronoun reinforcing 
suffix pronoun, 7, 249. 

Pluperfect, 188, 270. 

Question indicated by tone of 
voice, 7. 

Relative omitted, 33. 
Resumption, 8, 14, 118, 239. 

Termination H__ in proper 
names, 42. 

Vocative continued by third 
person, 300. 

Burney, C. BS 

Notes on the Hebrew Text .B8 
of the books of Kings 

pontifical institute: 
of mediaeval studies 

5 9 queen's park 
Toronto 5, Canada